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Encyclopedia > Infante Carlos of Spain
Infante Carlos of Spain
Infante Carlos of Spain

Don Carlos María Isidro Benito de Borbón, Infante of Spain (1788-1855) was the second surviving son of King Charles IV of Spain and of his wife, Maria Louisa of Parma. He was the first of the Carlist claimants to the throne of Spain. He is often referred to simply as 'Don Carlos', but should not be confused with Carlos, son of Philip II, after whom Verdi's opera is named. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Charles IV (November 11, 1748 - January 20, 1819) was King of Spain from December 14, 1788 until his abdication on March 19, 1808. ... Carlism was a conservative political movement in Spain, purporting to establish an alternative branch of the Bourbons in the Spanish throne. ... Several of the Carlist pretenders to the Spanish throne were also known as Don Carlos. ... Philip II of Spain (Spanish: Felipe II) - (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598), the first King of Spain understood as the whole peninsula of Hispania (r. ... Giuseppe Verdi, by Giovanni Boldini, 1886 (National Gallery of Modern Art, Rome) Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (October 10, 1813 – January 27, 1901) was one of the great composers of Italian opera. ...

Contents


Early life

Carlos was born on March 29, 1788, at the Palacio Real de Aranjuez. In 1808 Napoleon induced Carlos' father Charles IV and his older brother Ferdinand VII to renounce their rights to the throne of Spain. But Carlos who was heir presumptive to his brother refused to renounce his rights to the throne, which he considered to have been given to him by God. From 1808 until 1814 he and his brothers were prisoners of Napoleon at Valençay in France. 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Palacio Real de Aranjuez is a residence of the King of Spain, one of the Spanish royal sites. ... Bonaparte as general, by Antoine-Jean Gros. ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Chateau Valençay Valençay is a small town amd commune in the Indre département in the Loire Valley of France situated on a hillside overlooking the Nahon river. ...


In 1814 Carlos and the rest of the Spanish royal family returned to Madrid. In September 1816 he married his niece Infanta Francisca of Portugal (1800-1834), daughter of King John VI of Portugal and Carlos' sister Carlota Joaquina. Francisca was also sister of the second wife of Carlos' brother Ferdinand VII. The couple had three sons: 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Coat of arms Plaza de España (Spain square) Madrid, the capital of Spain, is located in the center of the country at 40°25′ N 3°45′ W. Population of the city of Madrid proper was 3,093,000 (Madrilenes, madrileños) as of 2003 estimates. ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1800 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... John VI (Portuguese João), the Clement (Port. ... framed|Portugal thumb|Carlota Joaquina - Queen of Portugal and Brazil Carlota Joaquina Teresa of Spain (25 April or May 1775 - 6 or 7 January 1830) was the eldest daughter of King Carlos IV of Spain (1748-1819) and his wife Maria Luisa of Parma (1751-1819). ...

Apart from several formal offices, Carlos took no significant part in the government of Spain. Ferdinand VII had found it necessary to cooperate with the moderate liberals and to sign a constitution. Carlos, however, was known for his firm belief in the divine right of kings to govern absolutely, the rigid orthodoxy of his religious opinions, and the piety of his life. 1818 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Juan, Conde de Montizon (May 15, 1822 - November 21, 1887) was the younger son of Infante Carlos of Spain. ... 1822 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1887 is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar). ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


During the revolutionary troubles of 1820-1823 (the "liberal triennium") Carlos was threatened by the extreme radicals, but no attack was made on him. While there were certain conservatives in Spain who wanted to put Carlos on the throne immediately, Carlos himself was a firm believer in the legitimate succession and would never have taken up arms against his brother. 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Pragmatic Sanction of 1830

In May 1830 Ferdinand VII published the Pragmatic Sanction, allowing daughters to succeed to the Spanish throne as well as sons. This decree had originally been approved by the Cortes in 1789, but it had never been officially promulgated. Up until this point Carlos had been heir presumptive to his brother. On October 10, 1830, Ferdinand's wife gave birth to a daughter Isabella, who thereupon displaced her uncle in the line of succession. 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... A pragmatic sanction is a sovereigns solemn decree on a matter of primary importance and has the force of fundamental law. ... The Cortes Generales (English: General Courts) is the Spanish legislature. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... An Heir Presumptive (capitalised) is the person provisionally scheduled to inherit a throne but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an Heir Apparent or of a new Heir Presumptive with a better claim to the throne. ... Isabella II (October 10, 1830–1904), Isabel II in Spanish, was queen of Spain. ...


The clerical party (called in Spanish 'apostólicos') continued to support the rights of Carlos to the throne. They considered the Pragmatic Sanction not only impractical but also illegal. They intrigued in favour of Carlos, but he himself would do no more than assert his rights in words. His wife and her sister, Maria Teresa (1793-1874), the princess of Beira, on the other hand, were actively engaged in intrigues with the apostólicos. 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1874 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Prince of Beira is a title in Portugal, normally given to the heirs to the throne. ...


In March 1833 Ferdinand 'authorised' Carlos to go to Portugal with his wife and sister-in-law. The 'authorisation' was in fact an order to remove Carlos from Spain and his adherents. 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


In April 1833 Ferdinand called upon Carlos to take an oath of allegiance to Isabella as Princess of Asturias, the title traditionally used by the heir to the throne. In respectful but firm terms, Carlos refused. He had no personal desire for the throne, but he was adamant that he could not renounce what he considered to be his God-given rights and responsibilities. 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The title Prince of Asturias is given to the heir apparent to the Spanish throne. ...


Succession

Ferdinand VII died September 29, 1833. In Madrid his wife Cristina declared herself regent for her daughter Isabella. On October 1, Carlos issued a manifesto declaring his own accession to the throne as 'Charles V'. He informed the members of Cristina's government that they were confirmed in their posts, and proceeded to the Portuguese-Spanish border. There he was met by forces loyal to Cristina and Isabella who threatened to arrest him. Carlos remained in Portugal which itself was in a state of civil war between the adherents of Carlos' nephew and brother-in-law Miguel and his great-niece, Miguel's niece Maria II. In Spain there were various risings which developed into the First Carlist War. The Liberal Wars, the War of the Two Brothers or Miguelite War was a war between progressive constitutionalists and authoritarian absolutists confronting one another in a war of royal succession that lasted from 1828 to 1834 in Portugal. ... Miguel of Portugal (English: Michael), the Traditionalist (Port. ... Maria II da Glória, (English: Mary II), the Educator (Port. ... Background Main article: Carlism In the beginning of the 18th century, King Philip V of Spain promulgated the Salic Law, thus declaring illegal the inheritance of the Spanish crown by women. ...


When the Miguelite party was finally beaten in Portugal in 1834, Carlos escaped to England where the government offered to grant him an annual pension of 30,000 pounds if he would renounce his claims and never return to Spain or Portugal. Carlos refused absolutely. In July he passed over to France, where he was actively aided by the legitimist party. He soon joined his adherents at Elizondo in the western Pyrenees of Spain. In October 1834 his sister-in-law Cristina issued a decree depriving him of his rights as an Infante of Spain; this was confirmed by the Cortes in 1837. 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Religion... Legitimists are those Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ... Central Pyrenees The Pyrenees (French: Pyrénées; Spanish: Pirineos; Occitan: Pirenèus or Pirenèas; Catalan Pirineus; Aragonese: Perinés; Basque: Pirinioak) are a range of mountains in southwest Europe that form a natural border between France and Spain. ... In the Spanish and former Portuguese monarchies, Infante (masc. ... The Cortes Generales (English: General Courts) is the Spanish legislature. ... 1837 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Carlos remained in Spain for five years. During these years he accompanied his armies, without displaying any of the qualities of a general or even much personal courage. But he endured a good deal of hardship, and was often compelled to take to hiding in the hills. On these occasions he was often carried over difficult places on the back of a stout guide commonly known as the "royal jackass" (burro real).


The semblance of a court which Carlos maintained was torn by incessant personal intrigues. While some of his adherents supported him because they believed in his hereditary rights to the throne, others were more concerned to promote the special privileges of the Basque provinces. There were ongoing conflicts between Carlos' military staff and the clergy who exercised significant influence over him. This article is about the Basque people. ...


In the first few years of the war, there were several moments when victory was within Carlos' grasp. The last of these was the so-called Royal Expedition of the summer of 1837 when Carlos himself accompanied his army from Navarre to the outskirts of Madrid. Carlos hoped to enter the city without any significant bloodshed, but when it became clear that only a battle would win the city, Carlos vacillated. After several days Carlos himself decided to withdraw; his army melted away and was reduced to a third of its former strenth.


His first wife having died in England, Carlos married her elder sister, his own niece Maria Teresa, in Biscay in October 1837. Vizcaya (Basque Bizkaia) is a province of northern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... 1837 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


In June 1838 Carlos appointed Rafael Maroto as his commander-in-chief. In February 1839 Maroto had four Carlist generals shot and issued a proclamation criticizing Carlos' court. When Carlos removed him from office, Maroto marched to Tolosa where Carlos was living and made him a virtual prisoner. Maroto was re-appointed commander-in-chief, and his opponents in Carlos' court were dismissed. Maroto then began private negotiations with Cristina's commander-in-chief, and in August 1839 abandoned Carlos completely. 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Final Exile

In September 1839 Carlos left Spain for France where he was briefly imprisoned. For almost another year, however, some of his commanders continued to fight on his behalf especially in Catalonia. But by July 1840 almost all resistance was concluded. 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Capital Barcelona Official languages Spanish and Catalan In Val dAran, also Aranese. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In May 1845 Carlos abdicated his rights to the throne of Spain in favor of his eldest son Carlos Luis. Subsequently he used the title 'count of Molina'. On March 10, 1855, he died at Trieste where he is buried in the chapel of Saint Charles Borromeo in the Basilica di San Giusto. 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Location within Italy Trieste ( Latin Tergeste, Slovenian and Croatian Trst, German and Friulian Triest) is a city in northeastern Italy, capital of Friuli-Venezia Giulia region and Trieste province, population 211,184 (2001). ...


Reference

  • Holt, Edgar. The Carlist Wars in Spain. Chester Springs, Pennsylvania: Dufour Editions, 1967.


Preceded by:
Ferdinand VII
Carlist claimants to the throne of Spain
18331845
Succeeded by:
Carlos, Conde de Montemolin


Ferdinand VII (October 14, 1784 - September 29, 1833) was King of Spain from 1813 to 1833. ... Carlism was a conservative political movement in Spain, purporting to establish an alternative branch of the Bourbons in the Spanish throne. ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ...


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