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Encyclopedia > Infant mortality

is the death of infants in the first year of life. The most common cause of infant mortality worldwide has traditionally been dehydration from diarrhea. Because of the success of spreading information about Oral Rehydration Solution (a mixture of salts, sugar, and water) to mothers around the world, the rate of children dying from dehydration has been decreasing and has become the second most common cause in the late 1990s. Currently the most common cause is pneumonia. Major causes of infant mortality in more developed countries include congenital malformation, infection and SIDS. A human infant In basic English usage, an infant is defined as a child at the youngest stage of life, especially before they can walk or simply a child before the age of one. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition that is present at birth. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is any sudden and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant aged one month to one year. ...


Infanticide, abuse, abandonment, and neglect may also contribute to infant mortality. In sociology and biology, infanticide is the practice of intentionally causing the death of an infant of a given species, by members of the same species - often by the mother. ... Abuser redirects here. ... Child abandonment is the practice of abandoning offspring outside of legal adoption. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...


Related statistical categories:

  • Perinatal mortality only includes deaths between the foetal viability (28 weeks gestation) and the end of the 7th day after delivery.
  • Neonatal mortality only includes deaths in the first 27 days of life.
  • Post-neonatal death only includes deaths after 28 days of life but before one year.
  • Child mortality includes deaths within the first five years after birth.

Infant mortality rate (IMR) is the number of newborns dying under a year of age divided by the number of live births during the year. The infant mortality rate is also called the infant death rate. In past times, infant mortality claimed a considerable percentage of children born, but the rates have significantly declined in the West in modern times, mainly due to improvements in basic health care, though high technology medical advances have also helped. Infant mortality rate is commonly included as a part of standard of living evaluations in economics. Perinatal mortality (PNM), also perinatal death, refers to the death of a fetus or neonate and is the basis to calculate the perinatal mortality rate. ... Perinatal mortality (PNM), also perinatal death, refers to the death of a fetus or neonate and is the basis to calculate the perinatal mortality rate. ... The Standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The infant mortality rate is reported as number of live newborns dying under a year of age per 1,000 live births, so that IMRs from different countries can be compared. A good source for the most recent IMRs as well as under 5 mortality rates (U5MR) is the UNICEF publication 'The State of the World's Children' available at http://www.unicef.org/publications/index_18108.html. For example, the worst U5MR is 284 in Sierra Leone. (That is, 28% of all children born die before they turn 5 years old.) The 29 countries with the highest U5MRs are in Africa. The U5MR of the United States is 8, and there are 31 countries with lower U5MRs, although many of those use a less stringent definition of mortality than the US. Sweden's is among the lowest at 3.

Contents

Comparing infant mortality rates

The infant mortality rate correlates very strongly with and is among the best predictors of state failure.[1] IMR is also a useful indicator of a country's level of health or development, and is a component of the physical quality of life index. But the method of calculating IMR often varies widely between countries based on the way they define a live birth. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines a live birth as any born human being who demonstrates independent signs of life, including breathing, voluntary muscle movement, or heartbeat. Many countries, however, including certain European states and Japan, only count as live births cases where an infant breathes at birth, which makes their reported IMR numbers somewhat lower and raises their rates of perinatal mortality. The exclusion of any high-risk infants from the denominator or numerator in reported IMR's can be problematic for comparisons. --203. ... The physical quality-of-life index (PQLI) is an attempt to measure the quality of life or well-being of a country. ... The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. ...


A well documented example illustrates this problem. Historically, until the 1990s Russia and the Soviet Union did not count as a live birth or as an infant death extremely premature infants (less than 1,000 g, less than 28 weeks gestational age, or less than 35 cm in length) that were born alive (breathed, had a heartbeat, or exhibited voluntary muscle movement) but failed to survive for at least 7 days.[2] Although such extremely premature infants typically accounted for only about 0.005 of all live-born children, their exclusion from both the numerator and the denominator in the reported IMR led to an estimated 22%-25% lower reported IMR.[3] In some cases, too, perhaps because hospitals or regional health departments were held accountable for lowering the IMR in their catchment area, infant deaths that occurred in the 12th month were "transferred" statistically to the 13th month (i.e., the second year of life), and thus no longer classified as an infant death.[4]


Another challenge to comparability is the practice of counting frail or premature infants who die before the normal due date as miscarriages (spontaneous abortions) or those who die during or immediately after childbirth as stillborn. Therefore, the quality of a country's documentation of perinatal mortality can matter greatly to the accuracy of its infant mortality statistics. This point is reinforced by the demographer Ansley Coale, who finds dubiously high ratios of reported stillbirths to infant deaths in Hong Kong and Japan in the first 24 hours after birth, a pattern that is consistent with the high recorded sex ratios at birth in those countries and suggests not only that many female infants who die in the first 24 hours are misreported as stillbirths rather than infant deaths but also that those countries do not follow WHO recommendations for the reporting of live births and infant deaths. [5] Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or accidental termination of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined at a gestation of prior to 20 weeks. ... Perinatal mortality (PNM), also perinatal death, refers to the death of a fetus or neonate and is the basis to calculate the perinatal mortality rate. ... Ansley Johnson Coale (1917-2002), was one of Americas foremost demographers. ...


Another seemingly paradoxical finding is that when countries with poor medical services introduce new medical centers and services, instead of declining the reported IMRs often increase for a time. The main cause of this is that improvement in access to medical care is often accompanied by improvement in the registration of births and deaths. Deaths that might have occurred in a remote or rural area and not been reported to the government might now be reported by the new medical personnel or facilities. Thus, even if the new health services reduce the actual IMR, the reported IMR may increase.


Global infant mortality trends

For the world, and for both Less Developed Countries (LDCs) and More Developed Countries (MDCs), IMR declined significantly between 1960 and 2001. World infant mortality rate declined from 198 in 1960 to 83 in 2001. 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Infant mortality is inversely related to per capita GDP.
Infant mortality is inversely related to per capita GDP.

However, IMR remained higher in LDCs. In 2001, the Infant Mortality Rate for Less Developed Countries (91) was about 10 times as large as it was for More Developed Countries (8). For Least Developed Countries, the Infant Mortality Rate is 17 times as high as it is for More Developed Countries. Also, while both LDCs and MDCs made dramatic reductions in infant mortality rates, reductions among less developed countries are much less than are reductions among the more developed countries, on average. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1103x649, 139 KB) Summary made by DonaHarr2, 10 April 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1103x649, 139 KB) Summary made by DonaHarr2, 10 April 2005. ...


Infant mortality rate in countries

Nearly two orders of magnitude separate countries with the highest and lowest reported infant mortality rates. The top and bottom five countries by this measure (taken from the The World Factbook's 2007 estimates) are shown below. This is a list of countries by infant mortality rate, based on The World Factbook, 2005 estimates. ... The World Factbook 2007 (government edtion) cover. ...

Rank Country Infant mortality rate
(deaths/1,000 live births)
1 Angola 184.44
2 Sierra Leone 158.27
3 Afghanistan 157.43
4 Liberia 149.73
5 Niger 116.83
217 Iceland 3.27
218 Hong Kong 2.94
219 Japan 2.80
220 Sweden 2.76
221 Singapore 2.30

Notes

  1. ^ Gary King; Langche Zeng (July 2001). "Improving forecasts of state failure" (PDF). World Politics 53 (4): 623–658. Retrieved on 2007-05-26. 
  2. ^ Barbara A. Anderson; Brian D. Silver (December 1986). "Infant Mortality in the Soviet Union: regional differences and measurement issues". Population and Development Review 12 (4): 705–737. 
  3. ^ In 1991, the Baltic states moved to the WHO standard definition; in 1993 Russia also moved to this definition.
  4. ^ Alain Blum; Roland Pressat (Nov.–Dec. 1987). "Une nouvelle table de mortalité pour l'URSS (1984–1985)" (in French). Population 42 (6): 843–862. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.  | N. Yu. Ksenofontova (1994). "Trends in infant mortality in the USSR", in W. Lutz; S. Scherbov; A. Volkov (eds.): Demographic Trends and Patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991. London: Routledge, 359–378. 
  5. ^ Ansley J. Coale; Judith Banister (Dec. 1996). "Five decades of missing females in China". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 140 (4): 421–450. Retrieved on 2007-05-26. 

Gary King is a published political scientist and quantitative methodologist. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ansley Johnson Coale (1917-2002), was one of Americas foremost demographers. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Infant mortality
  • Infant mortality rate - Country comparison
  • The World Health Report 2005 – Make Every Mother and Child Count
  • World Health Statistics - Probability of dying (per 1000) under age five years (under-5 mortality rate)
  • World Health Statistics - Neonatal mortality rate (per 1000 live births)
  • Born in Bradford - a 2006 UK-based research cohort study investigating the causes of infant mortality and low birth rate in Bradford, UK.
  • State of the World's Mothers 2006 Up to date 2006 analysis of infant mortality rates published by Save the Children.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Infant mortality - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (771 words)
Infant mortality is the death of infants in the first year of life.
Infant mortality rate is commonly included as a part of standard of living evaluations in economics.
As illustrated in Figure I, infant mortality is strongly proportional to decreasing per capita GDP.
20th century/Infant mortality - definition of 20th century/Infant mortality in Encyclopedia (137 words)
Infant mortality rates plummeted around the globe in the 20th century.
In India, the child mortality rate (death at or before 5 years of age) fell from 17.3% in 1980 to 8.5% in 1996.
Infant mortality rates were driven down by improved health care and nutrition, and by cleaner, healthier environments world wide.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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