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Encyclopedia > Infant formula
An infant being fed by bottle.

Infant formula is an artificial substitute for human breast milk. Formulas are designed for infant consumption, and usually are mostly either cow milk or soy milk. Use of infant formula has been decreasing in industrial countries for over forty years as a result of antenatal education, increased understanding of the risks of infant formula, and social activism. A 2001 report of the World Health Organization strongly advocates breastfeeding over the use of infant formula except in certain unusual circumstances.[1] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... This was taken from openphoto. ... This was taken from openphoto. ... “Baby” redirects here. ... An infant being fed by bottle A baby bottle is a bottle with a teat to drink directly from. ... It has been suggested that the section Benefits for the infant from the article Breastfeeding be merged into this article or section. ... “Baby” redirects here. ... A glass of cows milk Milk is the nutrient fluid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals (including monotremes). ... A can of Yeos soy milk, poured into a glass Greek Café Frappé prepared with soy milk, topped with additional cinnamon 1 l (2. ... WHO redirects here. ...


Infant formula is necessarily an imperfect approximation since:

  • The exact chemical properties of breast milk are still unknown.
  • A mother's breast milk changes in response to the feeding habits of her baby and over time, thus adjusting to the infant's individual growth and development.
  • Breast milk includes a mother's white blood cells that help the baby avoid or fight off infections and give his immature immune system the benefit of his mother's immune system that has many years of experience with the germs common in their environment.

Contents

A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ...

History of formula

Early infant foods

Throughout history, mothers who could not (or chose not to) breastfeed their babies either employed the use of a wet nurse[2] or, less frequently, prepared food for their babies, a process known as "dry nursing."[3][2] Baby food composition varied according to region and economic status.[3]. In Europe and America during the early 19th century, the prevalence of wet nursing began to decrease, while the practice of feeding babies mixtures based on animal milk rose in popularity.[4][5] A wet nurse is a woman who nurses a baby not her own. ...

Poster advertisement for Nestle's Milk by Théophile Alexandre Steinlen, 1895
Poster advertisement for Nestle's Milk by Théophile Alexandre Steinlen, 1895

This trend was driven both by cultural changes as well as increased sanitation measures,[6] and it continued throughout the 19th and much of the 20th century, with a notable increase after Elijah Pratt invented and patented the India-rubber nipple in 1845.[7][2] As early as 1846, scientists and nutritionists noted an increase in medical problems and infant mortality was associated with dry nursing.[8][4] In an attempt to improve the quality of manufactured baby foods, in 1867, Justus von Liebig developed the world's first commercial infant formula, Liebig's Soluble Food for Babies.[9] The success of this product quickly gave rise to competitors such as Mellin's Infant Food, Ridge's Food for Infants and Nestle's Milk.[10] Image File history File links Nestle-milk-poster. ... Image File history File links Nestle-milk-poster. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Freiherr Justus von Liebig (May 12, 1803 in Darmstadt, Germany – April 18, 1873 in Munich, Germany) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and worked on the organization of organic chemistry. ... Nestlé S.A. or Société des Produits Nestlé S.A. (SWX:NESN), headquartered in Vevey, Switzerland, is the worlds biggest food and beverage company. ...

Raw milk formulas

As physicians became increasingly concerned about the quality of such foods, medical recommendations such as Thomas Morgan Rotch's "percentage method" (published in 1890) began to be distributed, and gained widespread popularity by 1907.[2] These complex formulas recommended that parents mix cow's milk, water, cream, and sugar or honey in specific ratios to achieve the nutritional balance believed to approximate human milk reformulated in such a way as to accommodate the believed digestive capability of the infant.[11] Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


At the dawn of the 20th century in the United States, most infants were breastfed, although many received some formula feeding as well. Home-made "percentage method" formulas were more commonly used than commercial formulas in both Europe and the United States.[12] They were less expensive and were widely believed to be healthier. However, formula-fed babies exhibited more diet-associated medical problems, such as scurvy, rickets and bacterial infections than breastfed babies. By 1920, the incidence of scurvy and rickets in formula-fed babies had greatly decreased through the addition of orange juice and cod liver oil to home-made formulas. Bacterial infections associated with formula remained a problem more prevalent in the United States than in Europe, where milk was usually boiled prior to use in formulas.[12]


Evaporated milk formulas

In the 1920s and 1930s, evaporated milk began to be widely commercially available at low prices, and several clinical studies suggested that babies fed evaporated milk formula thrive as well as breastfed babies[2][13] (these findings are not supported by modern research.) These studies, accompanied by the affordable price of evaporated milk and the availability of the home icebox initiated a tremendous rise in the use of evaporated milk formulas.[11] By the late 1930s, the use of evaporated milk formulas in the United States surpassed all commercial formulas, and by 1950 over half of all babies in the United States were reared on such formulas.[2] Evaporated milk is a shelf-stable canned milk product with about 60% of the water removed from fresh milk. ...


Commercial formulas

In parallel with the enormous shift (in industrialized nations) away from breastfeeding to home-made formulas, nutrition scientists continued to analyze human milk and attempt to make infant formulas that more closely matched its composition.[11] Maltose and dextrins were believed nutrionally important, and in 1912, the Mead Johnson Company released a milk additive called Dextri-Maltose. This formula was made available to mothers only by physicians. In 1919, milkfats were replaced with a blend of animal and vegetable fats as part of the continued drive to closer simulate human milk. This formula was called SMA for "simulated milk adapted."[2] 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


In the late 1920s, Alfred Bosworth released Similac (for "similar to lactation"), and Mead Johnson released Sobee.[2] Several other formulas were released over the next few decades, but commercial formulas did not begin to seriously compete with evaporated milk formulas until the 1950s. The reformulation and concentration of Similac in 1951, and the introduction (by Mead Johnson) of Enfamil in 1959 were accompanied by marketing campaigns that provided inexpensive formula to hospitals and pediatricians.[2] By the early 1960s, commercial formulas were more commonly used than evaporated milk formulas, which all but vanished in the 1970s. By the early 1970s, over 75% of babies in the United States were fed on formulas, almost entirely commercially produced.[11]


When birth rates in industrial nations tapered off during the 1960s, infant formula companies heightened marketing campaigns in non-industrialized countries. Unfortunately, poor sanitation led to steeply increased mortality rates among infants fed formula prepared with contaminated (drinking) water.[citation needed] Organized protests, the most famous of which was the Nestlé boycott of 1977, called for an end to unethical marketing. This boycott is ongoing, as the current coordinators maintain that Nestlé engages in marketing practices which violate the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. Image used since the 1990s for the boycott The Nestlé boycott is a boycott launched on July 4, 1977 in the United States against the Swiss based Nestlé corporation. ... The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitues was established in 1981 by a general assembly of the World Health Organisation (WHO) defining limits on marketing of breastfeeding substitutes for babies. ...


Store Brand (Generic) Infant formulas

Store brand infant formula was first introduced in the United States in 1997 by PBM Products. All infant formula brands adhere to [Food and Drug Administration] (FDA) guidelines.


The Mayo Clinic stated in a November 2007 publication: “As with most consumer products, brand-name infant formulas cost more than generic brands. But that doesn't mean that brand-name [Similac, Nestle, Enfamil] formulas are better. Although manufacturers may vary somewhat in their formula recipes, the FDA requires that all formulas contain the same nutrient density.” Main campus in downtown Rochester, Minnesota. ...


Private label infant formulas have allowed the leading food and drug retailers to provide formula to customers that is labeled under the store brands of companies such as Wal-Mart, Target, Kroger, Loblaws, and Walgreens. Swedish grocery store where private label products (under the brands Hemköp and Eldorado, Axfood) are placed along with other brands such as Knorr (Unilever) and Blå band (Campbell Soup). ... Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... TARGET (Trans-European Automated Real-time Gross Settlement Express Transfer System) is an interbank payment system for the real-time processing of cross-border transfers throughout the European Union. ... Kroger headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio. ... Loblaws, Toronto, 2007 Loblaws is a supermarket chain of 68 stores, headquartered in Brampton, with stores across Ontario and Quebec. ... Walgreen Co. ...


Resurgence of breastfeeding

In the 1960s and 70s, a dramatic increase in breastfeeding began to occur in industrialized countries worldwide. Unlike the shift to home-made formula in the early 20th century, or the shift to commercial formula in the 1950s, this movement seems to have arisen from the general public rather than from the health profession.[11] Various sources have cited the woman's liberation movement,[14] negative publicity against the formula industry,[11] and better antenatal education of mothers.[15] Continued research has shown that breast milk provides unique benefits to both babies and mothers, including reduced incidence of food allergies, stronger immune response, and reduced infant hospitalization.[16]


Initiatives have begun to encourage a resurgence of breastfeeding mothers. As a result of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, infant formula companies are now required to preface their product information with statements that breastfeeding is the best way of feeding babies and that a substitute should only be used after consultation with health professionals. However, the vast majority of infant formula manufacturers ignore other parts of the code, including the bans on advertising, offering free samples, and issuing coupons. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitues was established in 1981 by a general assembly of the World Health Organisation (WHO) defining limits on marketing of breastfeeding substitutes for babies. ...


Reasons for using infant formula include:

  • The mother is infected with HIV.[17]
  • The mother has untreated, active tuberculosis,[17].
  • The mother is malnourished.
  • The mother is taking prescribed, over-the-counter, or street drugs that could harm the baby if passed on in breast milk.
  • The child is adopted, which might make breastfeeding more difficult, although some adoptive mothers do lactate instead of bottle-feed.
  • The child has a birth defect which makes breastfeeding difficult or impossible, although mothers may express breast milk to feed such infants.
  • The mother cannot breastfeed due to double mastectomy.
  • The mother's milk glands have been damaged by breast implants or breast reduction.
  • The mother wants to breastfeed at home but maternity leave is unpaid, insufficient, or lacking, especially in poor countries and the United States.
  • Breastfeeding is difficult or forbidden at the mother's job, school, and/or place of worship, and while commuting.
  • The mother is forced apart from her child by being in prison, a mental hospital, or by being denied child custody.
  • Family members and/or government officials are pressuring the mother not to breast feed or to supplement with bottle-feeding.
  • The mother's husband or boyfriend is not supportive of breastfeeding.
  • Family members believe that they can bond better with the baby by bottle-feeding when the mother is not breastfeeding.
  • The mother believes (often incorrectly) that her milk is of low quality or in low supply, or that breastfeeding will decrease her energy, health, or attractiveness.
  • The mother is not trained sufficiently to breastfeed without pain and to produce enough milk.
  • Nursing by a relative or paid wet-nurse is out of fashion or too expensive. (Relatives nursing is still common in the Third World.)
  • The mother is influenced against breastfeeding by advertising, popular culture, religion, and associates.
  • The mother feels that breasts are too sexual for a child.
  • The mother feels shy or modest about breastfeeding in the presence of others, even if she completely hides her breasts from their sight.
  • The mother does not desire to breastfeed.
  • The mother believes that she should both breastfeed and bottle-feed.

Some studies have shown that not breastfeeding one's infant can increase the risk of infection and disease, both immediately and later in life, for infants and for their mothers.[16] Infant formulas cannot reproduce the immune protection of human breast milk.[18] Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Many drugs are provided in tablet form. ... Adoption is the legal act of permanently placing a child with a parent or parents other than the birth parents. ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... In medicine, mastectomy is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely. ... Breast implant diagram A breast implant is a prosthesis used in cosmetic surgery to enhance the size and shape of ones breasts or to reconstruct the breast (for example, after a mastectomy). ... Breast reduction, or reduction mammoplasty, is a surgical procedure which involves the reduction in the size of breasts by excising fat, skin, and glandular tissue; it may also involve a procedure to counterract drooping of the breasts. ... Parental leave is the right to take time off work, paid or unpaid, to care for your child or make arrangements for your childs welfare. ... A psychiatric hospital (also called a mental hospital or asylum) is a hospital specializing in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ... Child custody and guardianship are legal terms which are sometimes used to describe the legal and practical relationship between a parent and his or her child, such as the right of the parent to make decisions for the child, and the parents duty to care for the child. ... A wet nurse is a woman who breast feeds a baby that is not her own. ...


Nutritional content

Besides breast milk, infant formula is the only other infant milk which the medical community considers nutritionally acceptable for infants under the age of one year. Cow's milk is not recommended because of its high protein and electrolyte (salt) content which may put a strain on an infant's immature kidneys. Evaporated milk, although perhaps easier to digest due to the processing of the protein, is still nutritionally inadequate. For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ...


Most of the world's supply of infant formula is produced in the United States. The nutrient content is regulated by the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) based on recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. The following must be included in all formulas produced in the U.S.: “FDA” redirects here. ... The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an organization of pediatricians, physicians trained to deal with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. ...

In addition, formulas not made with cow's milk must include: A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Linoleic acid (LA) is an unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid. ... Retinol (one vitamer of Vitamin A) A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. ... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life (essential nutrient). ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide composed of potassium and chlorine. ...

Vitamin H redirects here. ... Choline is an organic compound, classified as an essential nutrient and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. ... Inositol, (of which the most prominent naturally-occurring form is myo-inositol, cis-1,2,3,5-trans-4,6-cyclohexanehexol), is a carbocyclic polyol that plays an important role as the structural basis for a number of secondary messengers in eukaryotic cells, including inositol phosphates, phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylinositol...

Variations

Infant formula is available in powder, liquid concentrate and ready-to-feed forms, which are prepared by the caregiver or parent in small batches and fed to the infant, usually with either a baby bottle or cup. It is very important to measure powders or concentrates accurately to achieve the intended final product. It is advisable that all equipment that comes into contact with the infant formula be cleaned and sterilized before each use. Proper refrigeration is essential for any infant formula which is prepared in advance. An infant being fed by bottle A baby bottle is a bottle with a teat to drink directly from. ... Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, and rejecting it elsewhere for the primary purpose of lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then maintaining that lower temperature. ...


Hypoallergenic formulas

Baby formula can be synthesized from raw amino acids. This kind of formula is sometimes referred to as elemental infant formula or as medical food because of its specialized nature. While quite expensive, such formula is hypoallergenic and is sometimes used for babies with severe allergies to cow's milk and soy. Some commercial brands are Neocate and Peptamen. Being purely synthetic monomeric amino acids, it is also quite foul-tasting to adults. Look up hypoallergenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Controversy and science

The use of infant formula itself has come under scrutiny. Some scientists believe that infant formula exposure increases the risk of several conditions including insulin dependent diabetes mellitus,[19] asthma,[citation needed] eczema,[citation needed]] and infections of the [[middle ear, respiratory system, intestines, etc.[20] An association with lower cognitive development has also been shown in several studies.[21] The U.S. government has identified breastfeeding as an important measure of infant and maternal health.[citation needed] However, it is also believed that later-life conditions that are associated with formula-fed babies are the result of a multitude of factors.[citation needed] For instance, while it is often noted that formula-fed babies are at greater risk for obesity, it is also true that formula-fed babies who live in households in which proper nutrition and physical activity are emphasized generally fare well[citation needed]. Not to be confused with inulin. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Otitis media (also known as glue ear) is an inflammation of the middle ear, usually associated with a buildup of fluid. ... Cognitive development procesess and theories Cognitive development refers to ...how a person perceives, thinks, and gains an understanding of his or her world through the interaction and influence of genetic and learned factors (Straughan, 1999) Jean Piaget was a psychologist who believed there are stages of cognitive development that each...


Breastfeeding experts and the American Academy of Pediatrics contend that feeding anything (even breast milk) to a child with a bottle can interfere with successful establishment of breastfeeding in the first two months.[citation needed] Supplementing with formula also decreases breast milk supply in proportion to the amount of substitute offered, however pumping breast milk when a substitute is offered can eliminate this drop in breast milk supply. Bottlefeeding can be less successful than breastfeeding in promoting the natural bonding process of mother and child. (See The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding below).


Infant formulas, like other processed food products, are the subject of occasional recalls, usually due to bacterial or foreign object contamination. Recently, infant formula has been recalled in several countries other than the U.S. for nutrient deficiencies leading to infant illness and death.[citation needed] Though infant formula is available without a prescription, it is generally recommended that its use be under the supervision of a medical professional.[citation needed] The health professionals most knowledgeable about breastfeeding are IBCLCs: International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (see IBLCE, below).[citation needed]


Many newer infant formulas containing DHA, ARA and other fatty acids are being aggressively marketed via direct mail, print advertisements and other channels in the United States, Canada and other developed nations. Human breast milk DHA concentrations range from 0.07% to greater than 1.0% of total fatty acids, with a mean of about 0.34%.[citation needed] These formulas often contain lower amounts however the marketing may suggest that studies show formulas provide cognitive and developmental benefits surpassing those of breast milk[citation needed] Studies by formula companies suggest these results are vague and often lacking in sample size and length.[citation needed] In addition these studies often compare these new formulas to older formulas rather than breast milk alone.[citation needed] This information may be misleading to new mothers receiving samples often only days after the birth of a new child. In the United States formula is regulated by the FDA as a food product only. The FDA does not have the authority to oversee the claims of formula companies.[citation needed] These efforts may result in more mothers terminating breast feeding earlier than recommend due to the perceived benefits of these new formulas.[citation needed]


Risks

In studies, formula-feeding increases a baby's risk of the following conditions:

Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause of death in developing countries (particularly among infants), accounting for 5 to 8 million deaths... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a medical condition primarily seen in premature infants, where portions of the bowel undergo necrosis (tissue death). ... The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV or RS virus) causes a common viral infection of infants and young children. ... Salmonellosis is an infection with Salmonella bacteria. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition, resulting from the immune response to a severe infection. ... A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... Iron deficiency can refer to: Iron deficiency (plant disorder) Iron deficiency (medicine) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Constipation or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to egest; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ... Inguinal hernias are protrusions of abdominal cavity contents through an area of the abdominal wall, commonly referred to as the groin, and known in anatomic language as the inguinal area or the myopectineal orifice. ... In medicine, epidemiology and actuarial science, the term morbidity can refer to the state of being diseased (from Latin morbidus: sick, unhealthy), the degree or severity of a disease, the prevalence of a disease: the total number of cases in a particular population at a particular point in time, the... Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), also known as cot death and crib death, is the term for the sudden and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant aged one month to one year. ... Wheezes are continuous, coarse, whistling sounds produced in the respiratory airways during breathing. ... This article needs cleanup. ... For the beetle, see Exema. ... IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ... Appendicitis (or epityphlitis) is a condition characterized by inflammation of the appendix[1]. While mild cases may resolve without treatment, most require removal of the inflamed appendix, either by laparotomy or laparoscopy. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... Hypercholesterolemia (literally: high blood cholesterol) is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood. ... Coeliac disease (also termed non-tropical sprue, celiac disease and gluten intolerance) is an autoimmune disease characterised by chronic inflammation of the proximal portion of the small intestine caused by exposure to certain dietary gluten proteins. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Ulcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). ... Crohns disease (also known as regional enteritis) is a chronic, episodic, inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by transmural inflammation (affecting the entire wall of the involved bowel) and skip lesions (areas of inflammation with areas of normal lining between). ... Juvenile arthritis is a type of arthritis typically affects children before the age of sixteen. ... Multiple sclerosis (abbreviated MS, also known as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminata) is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). ... Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils in the mouth and will often, but not necessarily, cause a sore throat and fever. ...

Manufacturers

Major infant formula manufacturers include:

  • PBM Products: The first to introduce store brand formula in the U.S.
  • Mead Johnson: owned by Bristol-Myers Squibb, makes Enfamil
  • Nestlé: the largest producer of formula in the world, makes Good Start
  • Abbott Nutrition: a division of Abbott Laboratories, makes Similac
  • Wyeth Nutrition: Market leader in the Philippines

S-26 Gold, Promil Gold, Progress Gold, S-26, Promil, Promil Kid, Bonna, Bonamil, Bonakid 1+, Bonakid 3+, Nursoy This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bristol-Myers Squibb (NYSE: BMY), colloquially referred to as BMS, is a pharmaceutical corporation, formed by a 1989 merger between pharmaceutical companies Bristol-Myers Company, founded in 1887 by William McLaren Bristol and John Ripley Myers in Clinton, NY (both were graduates of Hamilton College), and Squibb Corporation. ... Bristol-Myers Squibb (NYSE: BMY), colloquially referred to as BMS, is a pharmaceutical corporation, formed by a 1989 merger between pharmaceutical companies Bristol-Myers Company, founded in 1887 by William McLaren Bristol and John Ripley Myers in Clinton, NY (both were graduates of Hamilton College), and Squibb Corporation. ... This article is about the company. ... Abbott Laboratories (NYSE: ABT) is a diversified pharmaceuticals and health care company. ... Wyeth, formerly known as American Home Products, is one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world. ...

  • Parent's Choice
  • Bright Beginnings
  • Gerber Products Company
  • Earth's Best owned by Hain Celestial
  • Organic Baby
  • Danone recently acquired Royal Numino, Dumex, Milupa

The Gerber baby, who appears on the packaging of all Gerber products, is a portrait of four-month-old Ann Turner Cook. ...

See also

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Baby food is any food that is made specifically for infants, roughly between the ages of six months to two years. ... An infant breastfeeding International Breastfeeding Symbol (Matt Daigle, Mothering magazine contest winner 2006) Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a womans breasts. ...

References

  1. ^ World Health Oraganization, Executive Board (2001-11-24). "Infant and Young Child Nutrition". ', World Health Organization. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dr. Andrew Schuman, M.D. (2003-02-01). "A concise history of infant formula (twists and turns included)". Contemporary Pediatric. Retrieved on 2006-09-16.
  3. ^ a b Olver, Lynne (2004). Food Timeline -- history notes: baby food. Retrieved on 2006-09-16.
  4. ^ a b Spaulding, Mary; Penny Welch (1994). Nurturing Yesterday's Child: A Portrayal of the Drake Collection of Paediatric History. B C Decker Inc. ISBN 0-920474-91-8. 
  5. ^ [Sarah Josepha] (1852). The Ladies' New Book of Cookery: A Practical System for Private Families in Town and Country.. New York: H. Long & Brother, 437. 
  6. ^ Committee on the Evaluation of the Addition of Ingredients New to Infant Formula (2004). "Infant Formula: Evaluating the Safety of New Ingredients". The National Academies Press. Retrieved on 2006-09-16.
  7. ^ The history of the feeding bottle. Retrieved on 2006-09-16.
  8. ^ Simon, Johann Franz (1846). Animal chemistry : with reference to the physiology and pathology of man. Lea and Blanchard. OCLC 5884760. 
  9. ^ Levenstein, Harvey (1988). Revolution at the Table: The Transformation of the American Diet. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-520-23439-1. 
  10. ^ Levenstein, Harvey (June, 1983). ""Best for Babies" or "Preventable Infanticide"? The Controversy over Artificial Feeding of Infants in America, 1880-1920". Journal of American History 70 (1): 75-94. Retrieved on 2006-09-16.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Fomon, Samuel J. (2001). "Infant Feeding in the 20th Century: Formula and Beikost". {{{booktitle}}}, San Diego, CA: Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Iowa. Retrieved on 2006-09-16. 
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External links

  • http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/596_baby.html U.S. FDA Infant Formula: Second Best but Good Enough
  • http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/inf-faq.html Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition/Food and Drug Administration: Infant Formula Frequently Asked Questions
  • http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/breast-feeding/FL00133 From the Mayo Clinic: "Breast-feeding and Guilt: Interview with a Mayo Clinic Specialist"

  Results from FactBites:
 
Infant Formula Basics (1481 words)
Infant formulas have a special role to play in the diets of infants because they are often the only source of nutrients for infants.
Infants fed infant formulas do not need additional nutrients unless a low-iron formula is fed. If infants are fed a low-iron formula, a health care professional may recommend a supplemental source of iron, particularly after 4 months of age.
Infant formula manufacturers may have their own proprietary formulations but they must contain at least the minimum levels of all nutrients specified in FDA regulations without going over the maximum levels, when maximum levels are specified.
Infant Formula: Second Best (2139 words)
The composition of infant formula is similar to breast milk, but it isn't a perfect match, because the exact chemical makeup of breast milk is still unknown.
However, adverse reactions to the protein in cow's milk formula or symptoms of lactose intolerance (lactose is the carbohydrate in cow's milk) may require switching to another type of formula, he says.
Homemade formulas based on cows' milk don't meet all of an infant's nutritional needs, and cow's milk protein that has not been cooked or processed is difficult for an infant to digest.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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