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Encyclopedia > Infant Communion
Part of the series on
Communion

also known as
"The Eucharist" or
"The Lord's Supper" The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament, to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ...

Theology
Consecration
Consubstantiation
Memorialism
Real Presence
Transubstantiation
Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1211x1096, 178 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ... Memorialism is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the elements of bread and wine (or juice) in the Eucharist (more often referred to as The Lords Supper by memorialists) are symbolic of the body and blood of Jesus, the feast being primarily a memorial meal. ... Real Presence is a doctrine of many Christian traditions that Jesus the Christ is present in the bread and wine of the Eucharist or Holy Communion. ... Transubstantiation is the belief held by the Roman Catholic Church that the Eucharistic elements of bread and wine are changed into the body and blood of Jesus during Consecration. ...

Theologies contrasted
Ecclesial communities contrasted in relation to Eucharistic theology: // Orthodox Christianity centered in the comprehensive mystical idea of metousiosis, a great change of essence the Eucharistic mystery bears an objective, Real Presence, par excellence. ...

Important theologians
Paul ·Aquinas
Augustine · Calvin
Chrysostom · Cranmer
Luther · Zwingli An early portrait of the Apostle Paul. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... St. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was an important French Christian theologian during the Protestant Reformation and is the namesake of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism. ... Saint John Chrysostom John Chrysostom (347 - 407) was a notable Christian bishop and preacher from the 4th and 5th centuries in Syria and Constantinople. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 - March 21, 1556) was the protestant Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He wrote two prayerbooks and is considered to be the founder of the Church of England. ... Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529) The Luther seal Martin Luther (November 10, 1483–February 18, 1546) was a German theologian, an Augustinian monk, and an ecclesiastical reformer whose teachings inspired the Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines and culture of the Lutheran and Protestant traditions. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ...

Related Articles
Christianity
Catholic Historic Roots
Closed and Open Table
Divine Liturgy
Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic discipline
First Communion
Infant Communion
Mass · Sacrament
Sanctification Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life, teachings, and actions of Jesus of Nazareth, known by Christians as Jesus Christ, as recounted in the New Testament. ... The historical roots of Catholic Eucharistic theology are the basis upon which a number of ecclesial communities, or churches, express their faith in the bread of life as given by Jesus, and are to be found in the Church Fathers, Scripture, the writings of Thomas Aquinas, and other early church... Closed communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of communion (also called Eucharist, The Lords Supper) to those who are members of a particular church, denomination, sect, or congregation. ... Open communion refers to Christian churches that allow individuals other than members of that church to receive communion (also called the Eucharist or the Lords Supper). ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Eucharistic adoration is a practice of the Roman Catholic Church in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed to and adored by the faithful. ... Eucharistic discipline is the term applied to the regulations and practices associated with an individual preparing for the reception of the Eucharist. ... The First Communion (First Holy Communion) is a Roman Catholic ceremony. ... Infant Communion (also Paedocommunion) refers to the practice of giving the Eucharist, often in the form of consecrated wine, to infants and children. ... Mass is the term used of the celebration of the Eucharist in the various liturgical rites of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglo-Catholic tradition of Anglicanism, and in certain Lutheran parishes and provinces, such as the Church of Sweden which are largely High Church. ... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace—a holy mystery. ... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ...

Infant Communion (also Paedocommunion) refers to the practice of giving the Eucharist, often in the form of consecrated wine, to infants and children. This practice is standard in the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches; here, communion is given at the Divine Liturgy to all baptized and chrismated Christians regardless of age. Infant communion is less common in most other Christian denominations, including the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church. The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament, to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ... To consecrate an inaminate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... The Vladimir Icon, one of the most venerated of Orthodox Christian icons of the Virgin Mary. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Baptism is a water purification ritual practiced in certain religions such as Christianity, Mandaeanism, Sikhism, and some historic sects of Judaism. ... Chrismation is the name given in Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern_rite Catholic churches to the sacrament known as confirmation in the Latin Rite Catholic churches. ... A denomination, in the Christian sense of the word, is an identifiable religious body, organization under a common name, structure, and/or doctrine. ... The Roman Catholic Church (commonly known as the Catholic Church) is the Christian Church which is led by the Pope, the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. The Roman Catholic Church teaches that it is the one holy catholic and apostolic Church founded by Jesus Christ. ...

Contents


Theology

Support for infant communion is drawn from several gospel verses, including Matthew 19:14 and Mark 10:14. Among the Church Fathers, Cyprian, Augustine, and Leo the Great explicitly favored infant communion. The Gospel of Matthew (literally: according to Matthew, Greek: Κατα Μαθθαιον ) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Mark is traditionally the second of the New Testament Gospels. ... The (Early) Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... Saint Cyprian (Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus) (died September 14, 258) bishop of Carthage and an important early Christian writer, was born probably at the beginning of the 3rd century in North Africa, perhaps at Carthage, where he received an excellent pagan education; having converted to Christianity, he became a Bishop (249... St. ... Pope Saint Leo I, or Leo the Great, was a Roman aristocrat who was Pope from 440 to 461. ...


History

In the Early Church, everyone who attended the full Mass was expected to receive communion; catechumens and penitents were not present for the Consecration. At that time, both the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church permitted and encouraged parents to present their children to receive communion. The Apostolic Constitutions (fourth century) instruct that children are to receive communion after the various orders of clergy and consecrated laity and before the general congregation. The Early Christians is a term used to refer to the early followers of Jesus of Nazareth, before the emergence of established Christian orthodoxy. ... Mass is the term used of the celebration of the Eucharist in the various liturgical rites of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglo-Catholic tradition of Anglicanism, and in certain Lutheran parishes and provinces, such as the Church of Sweden which are largely High Church. ... The Roman Catholic Church (commonly known as the Catholic Church) is the Christian Church which is led by the Pope, the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. The Roman Catholic Church teaches that it is the one holy catholic and apostolic Church founded by Jesus Christ. ... The Vladimir Icon, one of the most venerated of Orthodox Christian icons of the Virgin Mary. ... A 4th century collection, in 8 books, of independent, though closely related, treatises on Christian discipline, worship, and doctrine, intended to serve as a manual of guidance for the clergy, and to some extent for the laity. ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ...


Over time, concerns grew over danger of spillage from the chalice when it was offered to the entire congregation; there were also practical concerns about consecrating the right amount of wine. It eventually became common in the Western Church for only priests and some monks and nuns to receive communion from the chalice. The teaching of the Church was that Christ was present, whole and entire, under the form of bread or wine. Others maintain that the restriction of the chalice to the clergy and religious was motivated by scrupulosity rather than practical concerns [1]. Ultimately, the elimination of reception under both species made infant communion impractical and it had declined in the West by the time of the Great Schism. This practice has since fallen into disfavor in the Roman Catholic Church, especially with the growing emphasis on not giving the sacraments (other than baptism) to those not yet able to understand them (see age of reason). Russian chalice A chalice (from Latin calix, cup) is a goblet intended to hold drink. ... The term Great Schism refers to either of two splits in the history of Christianity: Most commonly, it refers to the great East-West Schism, the event that separated Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Roman Catholicism in the eleventh century (1054). ... Roman Catholic priest A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ... In general, a nun is a female ascetic who chooses to voluntarily leave the world and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent. ... Russian chalice A chalice (from Latin calix, cup) is a goblet intended to hold drink. ... Derived from the Latin word scrupulus (a sharp stone), implying a stabbing pain on the conscience. ... The term Great Schism refers to either of two splits in the history of Christianity: Most commonly, it refers to the great East-West Schism, the event that separated Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Roman Catholicism in the eleventh century (1054). ... The Age of Reason is either Thomas Paines book The Age of Reason. ...


Meanwhile, in the Eastern Church, the faithful continued to receive communion under both species. With no practical difficulties or theological qualms with giving communion to infants and children, this practice continues in the Eastern Orthodox Church to this day. The term Eastern Church is variously used to refer to: The Eastern Orthodox Church, or Any of the Oriental Orthodox churches, or Any of the Eastern Rite Catholic churches, or The three groups collectively, when speaking of things they share in common with each other but not with Western churches. ...


Catholicism

The practice of allowing infants and children to receive communion has fallen into disfavor in the Roman Catholic Church. Catholics generally refrain from infant communion and instead have a special ceremony when the child receives his or her First Communion, usually around the age of seven or eight years old. This is in accordance with the Code of Canon Law (followed in the Roman Rite), which states: The First Communion (First Holy Communion) is a Roman Catholic ceremony. ... In Western culture, canon law is the law of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. ...

The administration of the Most Holy Eucharist to children requires that they have sufficient knowledge and careful preparation so that they understand the mystery of Christ according to their capacity and are able to receive the body of Christ with faith and devotion. (Canon 913)

However, the Council of Trent held:

That infants and children not yet come to the use of reason may not only validly but even fruitfully receive the Blessed Eucharist is now the universally received opinion; but it is opposed to Catholic teaching to hold that this sacrament is necessary for their salvation. (Council of Trent, Sess. XXI, can. iv)

Formerly, the Eastern-rite Churches in full communion with the Roman Pope were generally required to conform to Western Church practice. However, the Second Vatican Council's decree Orientalium Ecclesiarum, although not specifically addressing infant communion, states that the Council "confirms and approves the ancient discipline of the sacraments existing in the Oriental Churches, as also the ritual practices connected with their celebration and administration and ardently desires that this should be re-established if circumstances warrant it" (Section 12). This has led some of these churches to restore the previous practice of permitting infant communion. The term Eastern Church is variously used to refer to: The Eastern Orthodox Church, or Any of the Oriental Orthodox churches, or Any of the Eastern Rite Catholic churches, or The three groups collectively, when speaking of things they share in common with each other but not with Western churches. ... Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... The coat of arms of the Holy See The term Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes, lit. ... The term Great Schism refers to either of two splits in the history of Christianity: Most commonly, it refers to the great East-West Schism, the event that separated Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Roman Catholicism in the eleventh century (1054). ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ... Orientalium Ecclesiarum is the Decree on the Catholic Churches of the Eastern Rite from the Second Vatican Council. ...


The Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches (followed by the Eastern Catholic Churches) permits infant communion: "With respect to the participation of infants in the Divine Eucharist after baptism and chrismation with holy myron, the prescriptions of the liturgical books of each Church sui iuris are to be observed with the suitable due precautions." (Canon 710)


Eastern Orthodoxy

In the Orthodox Church, any person of any age receives communion as soon as possible after baptism and chrismation, usually at the next Divine Liturgy. Infants and children are not usually required to fast or go to confession before communion until they are old enough to be aware of their sins, usually eight to nine years old. The Vladimir Icon, one of the most venerated of Orthodox Christian icons of the Virgin Mary. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... Chrismation is the name given in Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern_rite Catholic churches to the sacrament known as confirmation in the Latin Rite Catholic churches. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... The abbreviation FAST may have several meanings, depending on context: Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope – The world largest single dish radio antenna in southwest China. ... Confession of sins is an integral part of the Christian faith and practice. ... Sin has been a term most usually used in a religious context, and today describes any lack of conformity to the will of God; especially, any willful disregard for the norms revealed by God is a sin. ...


In the Orthodox practice, the consecrated bread and wine are placed together in the chalice, and the priest administers communion with a small spoon. Infants typically receive a small amount of consecrated wine; older children receive the consecrated bread as well. There is no theological reason for withholding the bread from infants, merely the practical concern of not giving solid food to those not ready for it. To consecrate an inaminate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... Roman Catholic priest LCDR Allen R. Kuss (USN) aboard USS Enterprise A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. ...


Protestant Denominations

Many Mainline Protestants practice open communion, in which the Eucharist is offered to people without discrimination of age or denominational status. In these churches, while the very young often commune, it is unusual for infants to receive the sacrament. Mainline is also rail terminology for the main and often most transited portion of a railroad, which is usually double- or more track. ... Open communion refers to Christian churches that allow individuals other than members of that church to receive communion (also called the Eucharist or the Lords Supper). ...


Denominations which practice closed communion generally deny the sacrament to those not members of their congregation or denomination, regardless of age. Closed communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of communion (also called Eucharist, The Lords Supper) to those who are members of a particular church, denomination, sect, or congregation. ...


In churches where membership is often not permitted until the teenage years (for example, the Amish), infant communion is very rare. Amish couple in a horse-drawn buggy in rural Holmes County, Ohio, the site of one of the largest concentrations of Amish in the United States The Amish are a denomination of Anabaptists, found primarily in the United States and Canada, noted for their restrictions on the use of modern...


In recent years, Eastern Orthodox writers in the west, especially the successive deans of Saint Vladimir’s Orthodox Theological Seminary, have had considerable success in commending Eastern Orthodoxy to a western audience, and in arguing for the legitimacy of its practices from the standpoint of history, scripture, and tradition. Paedocommunion is one Eastern practice that has gained considerable attention in the West, including among some conservative Protestants. Notable conservative Protestants in favor of the practice are Peter Leithart, Doug Wilson, Rousas John Rushdoony, James Jordan and Gary North. The Reformed Episcopal Church, a conservative Anglican denomination, also is tolerant of the practice, and many conservative Presbyterians favor paedocommunion as well. Saint Vladimirs Orthodox Theological Seminary is an Orthodox Christian seminary located in Crestwood, New York. ... Rousas John Rushdoony (1916–2001) was the seminal leader of the Christian Reconstructionist theology in the United States. ... Gary North is one of the major writers and publishers of the Christian Reconstructionist movement. ... The Reformed Episcopal Church is an Anglican church in the United States and Canada. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ...


See also

Regarding Communion and the Developmentally Disabled, there is no consensus on whether Christians who are developmentally disabled or mentally retarded should be allowed to partake of the Eucharist. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

External links

The Church of Scotland (C of S, also known informally as The Kirk; until the 17th century officially the Kirk of Scotland) is the Christian national church of Scotland. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Infant communion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (985 words)
Infant Communion (also Paedocommunion) refers to the practice of giving the Eucharist, often in the form of consecrated wine, to infants and children.
Infant communion is less common in most other Christian denominations, including the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church.
Infants and children are not usually required to fast or go to confession before communion until they are old enough to be aware of their sins, usually eight to nine years old.
Eucharist - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4878 words)
The ordinary ministers of Holy Communion are Bishops, Priests and Deacons, the latter traditionally ministering the chalice.
The historical position of the Anglican Communion is found in the Thirty-Nine Articles of 1571, which state "the Bread which we break is a partaking of the Body of Christ"; and likewise that "the Cup of Blessing is a partaking of the Blood of Christ" (Articles of Religion, Article XXVIII: Of the Lord's Supper).
In this case, the consecrated elements are to be delivered quickly, preserving the connection between the communion experienced by the ill person, and the communion of the rest of the congregation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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