FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Infant" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Infant
A human infant
A human infant

In basic English usage, an infant is defined as a human child at the youngest stage of life, specifically before they can walk and generally before the age of one[1] (see also child and adolescent). The terms baby or babies usually refers to an infant. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Child (disambiguation). ... A separate article is about the punk band called The Adolescents. ...


The term "infant" derives from the Latin word in-fans, meaning "unable to speak." There is no exact definition for infancy. "Infant" is also a legal term with the meaning of minor[2]; that is, any child under the age of legal adulthood. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... In many countries such as India, the UK, Australia, Canada and New Zealand a minor is presently defined as a person under the age of 18. ...


A human infant less than a month old is a newborn infant or a neonate.[3] The term "newborn" includes premature infants, postmature infants and full term newborns. In most systems of human pregnancy, the condition, premature birth (also known as a preterm birth), occurs when the baby is born within sooner than 36 weeks of completed gestation. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...


Upon reaching the age of one or beginning to walk, infants are subsequently referred to as "toddlers" (generally 12-36 months). Daycares with an "infant room" often call all children in it "infants" even if they are older than a year and/or walking; they sometimes use the term "walking infant". Boy toddler Toddler is a common term for a a young child who is learning to walk or toddle,[1] generally considered to be the second stage of development after infancy and occurring predominantly during the ages of 12 to 36 months old. ... Day care is the care of a child during the day by a person other than the childs parents or legal guardians, often someone outside the childs immediate family. ...

Contents

The newborn

Appearance

Newborn infant, just seconds after delivery.
Newborn infant, just seconds after delivery.

A newborn's shoulders and hips are narrow, the abdomen protrudes slightly, and the arms and legs are relatively short. The average birth weight of a full-term newborn is approximately 7 ½ pounds (3.2 kg), but is typically in the range of 5.5–10 pounds (2.7–4.6 kg). The average total body length is 14–20 inches (35.6–50.8 cm), although premature newborns may be much smaller. The Apgar score is a measure of a newborn's transition from the womb during the first minutes of life. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 545 pixelsFull resolution (1485 × 1011 pixel, file size: 516 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 545 pixelsFull resolution (1485 × 1011 pixel, file size: 516 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Baby weighed as AGA Birth weight is the weight of a baby at its birth. ... The Apgar score was devised in 1952 by Virginia Apgar as a simple and repeatable method to quickly and summarily assess the health of newborn children immediately after childbirth. ... The womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ...


A newborn's head is very large in proportion to the rest of the body, and the cranium is enormous relative to his or her face. While the adult human skull is about 1/8 of the total body length, the newborn's is about 1/4. At birth, many regions of the newborn's skull have not yet been converted to bone, leaving "soft spots" known as fontanels. The two largest are the diamond-shaped anterior fontanel, located at the top front portion of the head, and the smaller triangular-shaped posterior fontanel, which lies at the back of the head. Later in the child's life, these bones will fuse together in a natural process. A protein called noggin is responsible for the delay in an infant's skull fusion.[4] Cranium can mean: The brain and surrounding skull, a part of the body. ... In human anatomy, a fontanelle (or fontanel) is one of two soft spots on a newborn humans skull. ...


During labour and birth, the infant's skull changes shape to fit through the birth canal, sometimes causing the child to be born with a misshapen or elongated head. It will usually return to normal on its own within a few days or weeks. Special exercises sometimes advised by physicians may assist the process. Parturition redirects here. ... Human female internal reproductive anatomy The vagina (from the Latin for sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female mammals, or to the cloaca in female birds and some reptiles. ... The Doctor by Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ...


Some newborns have a fine, downy body hair called lanugo. It may be particularly noticeable on the back, shoulders, forehead, ears and face of premature infants. Lanugo disappears within a few weeks. Likewise, not all infants are born with lush heads of hair. Some may be nearly bald while others may have very fine, almost invisible hair. Some babies are even born with a full head of hair. Amongst fair-skinned parents, this fine hair may be blond, even if the parents are not. The scalp may also be temporarily bruised or swollen, especially in hairless newborns, and the area around the eyes may be puffy. Lanugo are hairs that grow on the body to attempt to insulate it because of lack of fat. ... The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the face anteriorly and the neck to the sides and posteriorly. ... A bruise or contusion or ecchymosis is a kind of injury, usually caused by blunt impact, in which the capillaries are damaged, allowing blood to seep into the surrounding tissue. ...


Immediately after birth, a newborn's skin is often grayish to dusky blue in color. As soon as the newborn begins to breathe, usually within a minute or two, the skin's color returns to its normal tone. Newborns are wet, covered in streaks of blood, and coated with a white substance known as vernix caseosa, which is hypothesised to act as an antibacterial barrier. The newborn may also have Mongolian spots, various other birthmarks, or peeling skin, particularly on the wrists, hands, ankles, and feet. Large amounts of vernix on babies feet, baby not yet rubbed down, baby approximately 60 seconds out of womb. ... An antiseptic is a substance that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria on the external surfaces of the body. ... The term Mongolian Spot(s) or Mongolian Blue Spot are flat birthmarks with wavy borders and irregular shapes, common among people of East Asian, East Indian, African and Latino heritage. ... A birthmark, also known as a Naevus, is a blemish on the skin formed before birth. ...


A newborn's genitals are enlarged and reddened, with male infants having an unusually large scrotum. The breasts may also be enlarged, even in male infants. This is caused by naturally-occurring maternal hormones and is a temporary condition. Females (and even males) may actually discharge milk from their nipples (sometimes called witch's milk), and/or a bloody or milky-like substance from the vagina. In either case, this is considered normal and will disappear in time. A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... Witchs milk or neonatal milk is milk secreted from the breasts of some newborn infants. ...


The umbilical cord of a newborn is bluish-white in color. After birth, the umbilical cord is normally cut, leaving a 1–2 inch stub. The umbilical stub will dry out, shrivel, darken, and spontaneously fall off within about 3 weeks. Occasionally, hospitals may apply triple dye to the umbilical stub to prevent infection, which may temporarily color the stub and surrounding skin purple. In placental mammals, the umbilical cord is a tube that connects a developing embryo or fetus to the placenta. ... For the record label, see Hospital Records. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ...


Newborns lose many of the above physical characteristics quickly. Thus prototypical older babies look very different. While older babies are considered "cute", newborns can be "unattractive" by the same criteria and first time parents may need to be educated in this regard.


The newborn's senses

As an infant's vision develops, he or she may seem preoccupied with watching surrounding objects and people.
As an infant's vision develops, he or she may seem preoccupied with watching surrounding objects and people.

Newborns can feel all different sensations, but respond most enthusiastically to soft stroking, cuddling and caressing. Gentle rocking back and forth often calms a crying infant, as do massages and warm baths. Newborns may comfort themselves by sucking their thumb, or a pacifier. The need to suckle is instinctive (see suction in biology) and allows newborns to feed. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 578 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Infant User:Arad Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 578 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Infant User:Arad Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... A pacifier A pacifier (North American English), dummy (British, New Zealand, and Australian English) or soother (Canadian and Irish English), is a rubber, plastic, or silicone nipple given to an infant or other young child to suck upon. ... Suction is the creation of a partial vacuum, or region of low pressure. ...


Newborn infants have unremarkable vision, being able to focus on objects only about 18 inches (45 cm) directly in front of their face. While this may not be much, it is all that is needed for the infant to look at the mother’s eyes or areola when breastfeeding. Generally, a newborn cries when wanting to feed. When a newborn is not sleeping, or feeding, or crying, he or she may spend a lot of time staring at random objects. Usually anything that is shiny, has sharp contrasting colors, or has complex patterns will catch an infant's eye. However, the newborn has a preference for looking at other human faces above all else. (see also: infant metaphysics and infant vision) Cross section of the breast of a human female. ... An infant breastfeeding International Breastfeeding Symbol (Matt Daigle, Mothering magazine contest winner 2006) Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a womans breasts. ... Common-sense metaphysics is a metaphysical system which makes an appeal to common sense understanding of reality. ... The science of infant vision gives a verifiable basis for some practices of pediatric ophthalmology and gathers measurements intended to describe, monitor and predict: development of retinal receptors infant sensitivity to detail, color, contrast, and movement binocularity eye movements refraction cognitive processing By establishing a timeline of visual perception development...


While still inside the mother, the infant could hear many internal noises, such as the mother's heartbeat, as well as many external noises including human voices, music and most other sounds. Therefore, although a newborn's ears may have some catarrh and fluid, he or she can hear sound from before birth. Newborns usually respond to a female voice over a male voice. This may explain why people will unknowingly raise the pitch of their voice when talking to newborns. The sound of other human voices, especially the mother's, can have a calming or soothing effect on the newborn. Conversely, loud or sudden noises will startle and scare a newborn. For the television programme, see Heartbeat (TV series) For the book by Sharon Creech, see Heartbeat (book) For the single by King Crimson, see Heartbeat (single) For the album by King Crimson, see Heartbeat: The Abbreviated King Crimson For the record label, see Heartbeat Records See also heart rate This... Catarrh is a discharge or mucus blockage caused by the swelling of the mucous membranes. ...


Newborns can respond to different tastes, including sweet, sour, bitter, and salty substances, with a preference toward sweets.


A newborn has a developed sense of smell at birth, and within the first week of life can already distinguish the differences between the mother's own breast milk and the breast milk of another female. It has been suggested that the section Benefits for the infant from the article Breastfeeding be merged into this article or section. ...


Infant mortality

Main article: Infant mortality

Infant mortality is the death of an infant in the first year of life. Infant mortality can be subdivided into neonatal death, referring to deaths in the first 27 days of life, and post-neonatal death, referring to deaths after 28 days of life. Major causes of infant mortality include dehydration, infection, congenital malformation, and SIDS. is the death of infants in the first year of life. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is any sudden and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant aged one month to one year. ...


This epidemiological indicator is recognized as a very important measure of the level of health care in a country because it is directly linked with the health status of infants, children, and pregnant women as well as access to medical care, socioeconomic conditions, and public health practices. Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ...


Care and feeding

Main article: Childcare
A newborn breastfeeding
A newborn breastfeeding
An infant feeding from bottle shortly after birth
An infant feeding from bottle shortly after birth

Infants cry as a form of basic instinctive communication. A crying infant may be trying to express a variety of feelings including hunger, discomfort, overstimulation, boredom or loneliness. Many caregivers employ the use of baby monitors or babycams which enable them to hear or see an infant's cries from another room. Childcare (also written child care[1] and babycare) is the act of caring for and supervising minor children. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A typical baby monitor, sometimes also known as a baby alarm, is a simplex (uni-directional) radio transmitter and receiver system used to remotely listen for noises made by an infant. ... Audio baby monitor A typical baby monitor, also known as a baby alarm, is a simplex (uni-directional) transmitter and receiver system used to remotely listen for noises made by an infant. ...


Feeding is typically done by breastfeeding, which is the recommended method of feeding by all major infant health organizations including the American Academy of Pediatrics.[5] However, if breastfeeding is not possible or desired, bottle feeding may be done with expressed breast-milk or with infant formula. Infants have a sucking instinct allowing them to extract the milk from the nipples of the breasts or the nipple of the baby bottle, as well as an instinctive behavior known as rooting with which they seek out the nipple. Sometimes a wet nurse is hired to feed the infant, although this is rare, especially in developed countries. Feeding is the process by which organisms, typically animals, obtain food. ... An infant breastfeeding International Breastfeeding Symbol (Matt Daigle, Mothering magazine contest winner 2006) Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a womans breasts. ... An infant being fed by bottle. ... Nipple is, generally, the name given to the mammalian nipple, or to things resembling it, such as the tip of an artificial teat or the tip of a grease secreting mechanism in machinery. ... An infant being fed by bottle A baby bottle is a bottle with a teat to drink directly from. ... A wet nurse is a woman who nurses a baby not her own. ...


As infants age, and their appetites grow, many parents choose from a variety of commercial, ready-made baby foods to supplement breast milk or formula for the child, while others adapt their usual meals for the dietary needs of their child. The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... Baby food is any food that is made specifically for infants, roughly between the ages of six months to two years. ...


Infants are incontinent, therefore diapers are generally used in industrialized countries, while methods similar to elimination communication[6] are common in third world countries. Practitioners of these techniques assert that babies can control their bodily functions at the age of six months and that they are aware when they are urinating at an even earlier age. Babies can learn to signal to the parents when it is time to urinate or defecate by turning or making noises. Parents have to pay attention to the baby's actions so they can learn the signals. The word incontinence has several distinct meanings: urinary incontinence is the inability to control urination fecal incontinence is the inability to control defecation the word incontinence can also be used to mean a lack of self-control governing morality. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Training pants. ... Elimination communication (EC) is a form of nurturing in which a caregiver uses timing, signals, cues, and intuition to help an infant address his or her elimination needs, partially or completely avoiding the use of diapers (nappies). ...


Children need a relatively larger amount of sleep to function correctly (up to 18 hours for newborn babies, with a declining rate as the child ages), specially after feeding. For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation). ... A human infant The word Infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. ...

A sleeping infant

Babies cannot walk, although more mature infants may crawl or scoot; baby transport may be by perambulator (stroller or buggy), on the back or in front of an adult in a special carrier, cloth or cradle board, or simply by being carried in the arms. Most industrialized countries have laws requiring infants to be placed in special child safety seats when in motor vehicles. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For transportation of a baby or toddler there are special vehicles, special car seats, and devices for carrying. ... Babywearing is the practice of wearing or carrying a baby or child in a sling or other form of carrier. ... Navajo child in cradleboard, Window Rock, Arizona, 1936 A cradle board is a typical North American baby carrier used to keep babies secure and comfortable and at the same time allowing the mothers freedom to work and travel. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


As is the case with most other young children, infants are usually treated as special persons. Their social presence is different from that of adults, and they may be the focus of attention. Fees for transportation and entrance fees at locations such as amusement parks or museums are often waived. This special attention will wear out as the child grows older.


Common care issues for infants:

Infant colic (also known as baby colic and three month colic) is a condition in which an otherwise healthy baby cries or screams frequently and for extended periods, without any discernible reason. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... Children bathing in a small metal bathtub Bathing is the immersion of the body in fluid, usually water, or an aqueous solution. ... It has been suggested that Steam shower be merged into this article or section. ... Look up Cord on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Cord has several meanings: String or Rope Cord Automobile Vibrating cord A measurement of the volume of firewood A power cord or extension cable In electronics, a cable Cord, a former American car marque founded by Errett Lobban Cord. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Day care is the care of a child during the day by a person other than the childs parents or legal guardians, often someone outside the childs immediate family. ... Diaper rash (U.S.) or nappy rash (UK), is a generic term applied to skin rashes in the diaper area that are caused by a various skin disorders and/or irritants. ... An infant breastfeeding International Breastfeeding Symbol (Matt Daigle, Mothering magazine contest winner 2006) Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a womans breasts. ... An infant being fed by bottle. ... An infant being fed by bottle A baby bottle is a bottle with a teat to drink directly from. ... A child being immunized against polio. ... The paternal bond is typically the relationship between a father and his child. ... A pacifier A pacifier (North American English), dummy (British, New Zealand, and Australian English) or soother (Canadian and Irish English), is a rubber, plastic, or silicone nipple given to an infant or other young child to suck upon. ... For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation). ... Modern reproduction of a medieval cot and rattle, c. ... A baby lying on an elevated mattress in an infant bed An infant bed is a small bed (commonly referred to as a cot in British English and a crib in American English) specifically for infants. ... Teething is the process during which an infants teeth start to sequentially grow in. ...

References

  1. ^ Results for "infant". dictionary.com.
  2. ^ "Infant". Merriam-Webster online dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  3. ^ "Neonate". Merriam-Webster online dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  4. ^ Warren SM; Brunet LJ, Harland RM, Economides AN, Longaker MT (2003-04-10). "The BMP antagonist noggin regulates cranial suture fusion". Nature 422 (6932): 625-9. PMID 12687003. 
  5. ^ Gartner LM; Morton J, Lawrence RA, Naylor AJ, O'Hare D, Schanler RJ, Eidelman AI, etal (Feb 2005). "Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk". Pediatrics: 496-506. DOI:10.1542/peds.2004-2491. 
  6. ^ Elimination Communication. Yahoo! Groups. Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  • Simkin, Penny; et al. (1992 (late 1991)). Pregnancy, Childbirth and the Newborn: The Complete Guide. Meadowbook Press. ISBN 0-88166-177-5. 

Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Yahoo! Groups Yahoo! Groups is a service from Yahoo! that provides electronic mailing lists. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1396x1010, 464 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Infant Neonatal intensive care unit Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1396x1010, 464 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Infant Neonatal intensive care unit Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... A newborn infant sleeping in his incubator. ... Look up Babysitting in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Umbilical cord blood is human blood from the placenta and umbilical cord that is rich in hematopoietic stem cells. ... A cord blood bank is a place that stores umbilical cord blood for future use. ... Elimination communication (EC) is a form of nurturing in which a caregiver uses timing, signals, cues, and intuition to help an infant address his or her elimination needs, partially or completely avoiding the use of diapers (nappies). ... In sociology and biology, infanticide is the practice of intentionally causing the death of an infant of a given species, by members of the same species - often by the mother. ... The science of infant vision gives a verifiable basis for some practices of pediatric ophthalmology and gathers measurements intended to describe, monitor and predict: development of retinal receptors infant sensitivity to detail, color, contrast, and movement binocularity eye movements refraction cognitive processing By establishing a timeline of visual perception development... Jaundice, also known as icterus (attributive adjective: icteric), is a yellowing of the skin, conjunctiva (a clear covering over the sclera, or whites of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in red blooded animals). ... A mother holds up her child. ... Lost, see Maternity Leave (Lost). ... The paternal bond is typically the relationship between a father and his child. ... Clinical Examination Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics) is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents (from newborn to age 16-21, depending on the country). ... A pregnant woman near the end of her term Pregnancy is the carrying of one or more offspring in an embryonal or fetal stage of development by female mammals, including humans, inside their bodies, between the stages of conception and birth. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Look up infant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Preceded by
Fetus
Stages of human development
Infancy
Succeeded by
Toddlerhood

  Results from FactBites:
 
infant: Definition, Synonyms and Much More from Answers.com (2080 words)
During labor and birth, the infant's skull changes shape to fit through the birth canal, sometimes causing the child to be born with a misshapen or elongated head.
Infants have a sucking instinct allowing them to extract the milk from the nipples of the breasts or the nipple of the baby bottle, as well as an instinctive behavior known as rooting with which they seek out the nipple.
Infants are incontinent, therefore diapers are generally used in industrialized countries, while methods similar to elimination communication [3] are common in third world countries.
Infant Botulism (390 words)
Infant botulism is caused by consuming the spores of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which then grow in the intestines and release nerve toxin.
Infant botulism can be treated with botulism immune globulin (BIG), which should be started as early in the illness as possible.
Infants with botulism must be monitored closely in the hospital.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m