FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Inertial fusion power plant

An Inertial fusion power plant is intended to industrially produce electric power by use of inertial confinement fusion techniques. This type of power plant is still in a research phase. Inertial confinement fusion using lasers rapidly progressed in the late 1970s and early 1980s from being able to deliver only a few joules of laser energy to a fusion target to being able to deliver tens of kilojoules to a target. ...


It is frequently assumed that the only medium-term perspective (within a few decades) for fusion to get to civilian energy production is the tokamak path, through the ITER international project, by use of magnetic confinement techniques. However, as suggested by various proposals in the inertial fusion field, setting up an inertial fusion energy (IFE) path, simultaneously to the tokamak path, is worth considering. A split image of the largest tokamak in the world, the JET, showing hot plasma in the right image during a shot. ... ITER is a proposed international experiment designed to show the scientific and technological feasibility of a fusion power reactor. ... The magnetic fusion energy (MFE) program seeks to establish the conditions to sustain a nuclear fusion reaction in a plasma that is contained by magnetic fields. ...

Contents


Fusion vs fission

Nuclear fission of an uranium nucleus.
Nuclear fission of an uranium nucleus.
Nuclear fusion of deuterium and tritium nuclei.
Enlarge
Nuclear fusion of deuterium and tritium nuclei.

Unlike fission in which a heavy atom nucleus splits into lighter nuclei, fusion occurs when two light atom nuclei merge into a heavier nucleus. Image File history File links Nuclear_fission. ... Image File history File links Nuclear_fission. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ... kuhy File links The following pages link to this file: Nuclear fusion ... kuhy File links The following pages link to this file: Nuclear fusion ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of one atom in 6400 of hydrogen (see VSMOW; the abundance changes slightly from one kind of natural water to another). ... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... An induced nuclear fission event. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ...


In both reactions, the total mass of the resulting nuclei is smaller than the original mass, and thus energy is released, according to the famous Einstein formula E=mc2 (where E is the energy released in the reaction, m the missing mass and c the speed of light in a vacuum). Albert Einstein, photographed in 1947 by Oren J. Turner. ... The speed of light in a vacuum is denoted by the letter c. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Fission uses uranium or plutonium as a fuel, uranium being a naturally available element (although in limited quantities), and plutonium an artificial element produced in nuclear reactors. General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


In present experiments of civilian fusion, hydrogen isotopes are used: deuterium (hydrogen substitute in heavy water), available in nearly unlimited quantities from oceans, and tritium, naturally present in small quantities in the atmosphere[1], but artificially produced for the main part[2]; other elements, like lithium, are used in H-bombs. General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Isotopes are forms of an element, therefore their nuclei have the same atomic number — the number of protons in the nucleus — but different mass numbers because they contain different numbers of neutrons. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of one atom in 6400 of hydrogen (see VSMOW; the abundance changes slightly from one kind of natural water to another). ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lithium, Li, 3 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 2, s Appearance silvery white/gray Atomic mass 6. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


Civilian fusion energy techniques

Two competing techniques are candidates to civilian fusion energy production:

Enlarge
Cutaway of the ITER reactor.
  • magnetic confinement fusion: the technique which will be used in the ITER experiment; a reactor using such a technique is composed of a large toroidal containment vessel, inside of which a plasma made of a fusion fuel (mixture of deuterium and tritium in the present project), confined by intense magnetic fields, is taken to a very high temperature (above 100 million degrees Celsius) in order to allow the fusion reactions to be initiated and sustained; this type of reactor is intended to work in an nearly continuous mode;


The magnetic fusion energy (MFE) program seeks to establish the conditions to sustain a nuclear fusion reaction in a plasma that is contained by magnetic fields. ... ITER is a proposed international experiment designed to show the scientific and technological feasibility of a fusion power reactor. ... A torus. ... Look up plasma in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ...

A microcapsule of fusion fuel used in laser inertial confinement.
Enlarge
A microcapsule of fusion fuel used in laser inertial confinement.
  • inertial confinement fusion: the technique which would be used in the planned IFE reactors; the energy production method, instead of a continuously fusing plasma, would be the cyclically repeated fusion of microcapsules, following the same basic principle as the gasoline engine; fusion would be obtained by taking the microcapsule to a very high density and temperature with a laser beam (laser inertial confinement), a beam of accelerated particles (ion beam inertial confinement) or a magnetic process (Z-pinch inertial confinement).


Inertial confinement fusion using lasers rapidly progressed in the late 1970s and early 1980s from being able to deliver only a few joules of laser energy to a fusion target to being able to deliver tens of kilojoules to a target. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is a heat engine in which the burning of a fuel occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... The Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. ...


History of fusion energy

Explosion of Ivy Mike, the first H-bomb shot.
Explosion of Ivy Mike, the first H-bomb shot.

Fission as well as fusion were firstly used in the military field, in order to build very powerful bombs: A-bombs for fission and H-bombs for fusion. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x637, 55 KB) XX-11 IVY MIKE, was fired on Enewetak by the United States on October 31, 1952. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x637, 55 KB) XX-11 IVY MIKE, was fired on Enewetak by the United States on October 31, 1952. ... The mushroom cloud from the Mike shot. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


Civilian applications, in which explosive energy production must be replaced by a controlled production, were developed later. Although it took less than ten years for going from military applications to civilian fission energy production[3], it was very different in the fusion energy field, more than fifty years having already passed[4] without any energy production plant being started up.


Registration of the first patent related to a fusion reactor[5] by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the inventors being Sir George Paget Thomson and Moses Blackman, dates back to 1946. Some basic principles used in ITER experiment are described in this patent: toroidal vacuum chamber, magnetic confinement, and radio frequency plasma heating. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) was established in 1954 as a statutory corporation to oversee and pioneer the development of nuclear energy within the United Kingdom. ... Joe has no friends what-so-ever Sir George Paget Thomson FRS (May 3, 1892 – September 10, 1975) was a Nobel-Prize-winning, English physicist who discovered the wave properties of the electron by electron diffraction. ... Moses Blackman (December 6, 1908 - June 3, 1983), was a fellow of the Royal Society. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Rough plot of Earths atmospheric transmittance (or opacity) to various wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, including radio waves. ...


In the magnetic confinement field, the theoretical works fulfilled in 1950-1951 by I.E. Tamm and A.D. Sakharov in Soviet Union, laid the foundations of the tokamak, subsequent research and developments inside the Kurchatov Institute of Moscow having materialized these ideas. Research equipments of this type were subsequently developed in numerous countries and, althouth stellarator competed with it for a while, the tokamak principle was selected for the ITER project. 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm (Russian И́горь Евге́ньевич Та́мм, also transcribed sometimes as Igor Evgenevich Tamm) (July 8, 1895 – April 12, 1971) was a Soviet/Russian physicist. ... Andrei Sakharov, 1943 Dr. Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (Russian: , May 21, 1921 – December 14, 1989), was an eminent Soviet nuclear physicist, dissident and human rights activist. ... A split image of the largest tokamak in the world, the JET, showing hot plasma in the right image during a shot. ... The Kurchatov Institute is Russias leading research and development institution in the field of nuclear energy. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Stellarator magnetic field and magnets A stellarator is a device used to confine a hot plasma with magnetic fields in order to sustain a controlled nuclear fusion reaction. ...

 A "wires array" used in Z-pinch confinement, during the building process.
Enlarge
A "wires array" used in Z-pinch confinement, during the building process.

The Z-pinch phenomenon is known since the end of the 18th century[6]. Its use in the fusion field comes from research made on toroidal devices, initially in the Los Alamos National Laboratory right from 1952 (Perhapsatron), and in Great Britain from 1954 (ZETA), but its physical principles remained for a long time poorly understood and controlled. The appearance of the "wires array" concept in the 1980's allowed a more efficient use of this technique. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although laser use in order to initiate fusions has been considered earlier, ICF experiments started in earnest in the mid-1970's, when lasers of the required power were first designed. The technique of "ablative" implosion of a microcapsule irradiated by laser beams, basis of the laser inertial confinement, was suggested in 1972 by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area. ...


Fusion advantages

The advocates of fusion energy advance numerous potential advantages in comparison with the other electric power sources:

 The Earth seen from space (Apollo 17 mission).
Enlarge
The Earth seen from space (Apollo 17 mission).
  • no greenhouse gas, like carbon dioxide, is emitted;
  • the fuel, a mix of deuterium and tritium (hydrogen isotopes) in most of the present projects, is not subject to any risk of depletion: deuterium is present in almost unlimited quantity in the oceans, and tritium is a by-product of nuclear energy production, as well from fission as from fusion;
  • radioactive waste production is reduced[7] in comparison with the nuclear fission reactors presently used; above all, the half-life of radioactive waste is much shorter: tens of years, rather than hundreds of thousands of years, even millions of years, for the fission reactors waste.

Furthermore, inertial fusion should allow a size and cost reduction for the plants in comparison with the tokamak-ITER path, thus permitting a more decentralized power production. Download high resolution version (1024x1045, 246 KB) A bigger version of this image is located at commons: Image:The Earth seen from Apollo 17. ... Download high resolution version (1024x1045, 246 KB) A bigger version of this image is located at commons: Image:The Earth seen from Apollo 17. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas comprised of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of one atom in 6400 of hydrogen (see VSMOW; the abundance changes slightly from one kind of natural water to another). ... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Isotopes are forms of an element, therefore their nuclei have the same atomic number — the number of protons in the nucleus — but different mass numbers because they contain different numbers of neutrons. ... Radioactive waste is waste material containing radioactive chemical elements that does not have a practical purpose. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ...




IFE projects

The competing projects

Several projects of inertial fusion power plants have been proposed, notably power production plans based on the following experimental devices, either in operation or under building:

As may be noted, only one of these projects is based on z-pinch confinement, all others being based on laser confinement techniques. A construction worker inside NIFs 10 meter target chamber. ... Zork universe Zork games Zork Anthology Zork trilogy Zork I   Zork II   Zork III Beyond Zork   Zork Zero   Planetfall Enchanter trilogy Enchanter   Sorcerer   Spellbreaker Other games Wishbringer   Return to Zork Zork: Nemesis   Zork Grand Inquisitor Zork: The Undiscovered Underground Topics in Zork Encyclopedia Frobozzica Characters   Kings   Creatures Timeline   Magic   Calendar... Osaka City Hall Mayor Junichi Seki Address 〒530-8201 Osaka-shi,Kita-ku Nakanoshima 1-3-20 Phone number 06-6208-8181 Official website: Osaka City , Osaka ) is the capital of Osaka Prefecture and the third-largest city in Japan, with a population of 2. ...


The various phases of such a project are the following[8] :

  • burning demonstration: reproducible achievement of energy release.
  • high gain demonstration: experimental demonstration of the feasability of a reactor with a sufficient energy gain.
  • industrial demonstration: validation of the various technical options, and of the whole data needed to define a commercial reactor.
  • commercial demonstration: demonstration of the reactor ability to work over a long period, while respecting all the requirements for safety, liability and cost.

At the moment, according to the available data[9], inertial confinement fusion experiments have not gone beyond the first phase, as well for laser (although it is strongly expected to reach the objectives of the second phase around 2010, when NIF and Megajoule are complete) as for z-pinch (Z machine); these techniques should now demonstrate their ability to obtain a high fusion energy gain, as well as their capability for repetitive working.


Overall principles of an IFE reactor

For an easier understanding, it is worth using the analogy of operation between an IFE reactor and a gasoline engine. By applying such an analogy, the process may be seen as a four strokes cycle: A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is a heat engine in which the burning of a fuel occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ...

  • intake of the fusion fuel (microcapsule) into the reactor chamber;
  • compression of the microcapsule in order to initiate the fusion reactions;
  • explosion of the plasma created during the compression stroke, leading to the release of fusion energy;
  • exhaust of the reaction residue, which will be treated afterwards to extract all the reusable elements, mainly tritium.

To allow such an operation, an inertial fusion reactor is made of several subsets:

 A golden hohlraum used in laser inertial confinement.
A golden hohlraum used in laser inertial confinement.
  • the injection system, which delivers to the reaction chamber the fusion fuel capsules, and at the same time the possible devices necessary to initiate fusion:
    • the container (hohlraum), intended to take the fuel capsule to a uniform very high temperature, mainly for laser and ion beam confinement techniques;
    • the "wires array" and its power transmission line, for z-pinch confinement technique;
  • the "driver" used to compress the fusion fuel capsules; depending on the technique, it can be:
    • lasers;
    • a ion beam accelerator;
    • a z-pinch device;
  • the reaction chamber, build upon:
    • an external wall made of metal;
    • an internal blanket intended to protect the external wall from the fusion shockwave and radiation, to get the emitted energy, and to produce the tritium fuel;
  • the system intended to process reaction products and debris.

Download high resolution version (1400x1750, 309 KB)A hohlraum mock up to be used on the NIF laser File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1400x1750, 309 KB)A hohlraum mock up to be used on the NIF laser File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... In radiation thermodynamics, a hohlraum (in literal German, a hollow area or cavity, a term of art synonymous with radiation case) is a cavity whose walls are in radiative equilibrium with the radiant energy within the cavity. ...

The Sandia Z-IFE project

The Sandia Laboratories Z-IFE project[10] is based upon a repetitive process ensuring the implosion of a fuel capsule every 10 seconds, planned to produce around 3 GJ (3 x 109 joules) of fusion energy; the technique used is a z-pinch inertial confinement. It has been suggested that Sandia Base be merged into this article or section. ... The joule (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy, or work with base units of kg·m²/s² (N·m). ...

Enlarge
Cutaway of a planned Z-IFE reactor.

The figure represents a cutaway of a reactor as devised by Sandia, a production plant being made up of several such reactors (12 in the ZP-3 demonstration plant, from which 10 are working simultaneously). Using the analogy previously introduced, such a design is equivalent to the multiple cylinders of a gasoline engine.


Without going into technical details (readers wishing further informations will find them in the various links showed at the bottom of the article), it is possible to distinguish the following elements:

  • the red triangular device ("cartridge") corresponds to the group formed by the fuel microcapsule, the "wires array" and the power transmission device; cartridges are transported to the top of the reactor chamber by an automatic supplying system, the rail which can be seen in the upper part of the image being a part of it;
  • the thick horizontal blue line, tangent to the reaction chamber, is the power transmission line, intended to take to the "wires array" device the extremely short and powerful pulse[11] necessary to the z-pinch process;
  • the reactor chamber is filled by an inert gas (in order to avoid any undesirable chimical reaction) under low pressure (20 torr, the normal atmospheric pressure being 760 torr);
  • the internal blanket of the reactor chamber is a thick-liquid wall of Flibe (liquid mixture of lithium fluoride and beryllium difluoride) intended to protect the external wall, to absorb the fusion neutron energy, and to produce tritium[12];
  • the system intended to recycle the cartridges debris collected by the Flibe "pool", after their destruction at the time of the fusion.

The torr (symbol: Torr) or millimetre of mercury (mmHg) is a non-SI unit of pressure. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lithium, Li, 3 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 2, s Appearance silvery white/gray Atomic mass 6. ... Fluor Corporation NYSE: FLR,is one of the worlds largest publicly owned engineering, procurement and construction organizations, with maintenance services in addition. ... General Name, Symbol, Number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Atomic mass 9. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Tritium is naturally produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic radiation bombardment of gases, mainly nitrogen.
  2. ^ Tritium may be produced irradiating a lithium target by neutrons; it is also a by-product of nuclear fission plants operation.
  3. ^ The first A-bomb shot dates back to July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo (New Mexico desert), while the first civilian fission plant was connected to the electric power network on June 27, 1954 in Obninsk (Russia).
  4. ^ The first H-bomb, Ivy Mike, was detonated on Eniwetok, an atoll of the Pacific Ocean, on November 1, 1952 (local time).
  5. ^ British Patent 817681, available here.
  6. ^ The effects of z-pinch were firstly experimented in 1790 by Martinus van Marum in Nederlands: see this Wikipedia article.
  7. ^ A zero-waste process should even be possible with fusion reactions producing no neutrons (notably some reactions involving lithium, boron or helium 3), which however request much more high plasma temperatures (from 500 million to several billion degrees Celsius), and are not compatible with tokamak operation. Recent announcements (March 2006) of temperatures above 2 billion degrees Celsius, produced by a z-pinch technique, are a progress in this direction.
  8. ^ In the magnetic confinement field, the 2nd phase corresponds to the objectives of ITER, the 3rd to these of its follower DEMO, in 20 to 30 years, and the 4th to those of a possible PROTO, in 40 to 50 years.
  9. ^ This chapter is based on data available in June 2006, when Megajoule and NIF lasers are not yet into complete service.
  10. ^ An introduction to the Z-IFE project may be found here.
  11. ^ For further details, see Pulsed power article.
  12. ^ Tritium is produced when neutrons created during the fusion irradiates Flibe lithium.

Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Alamogordo is a city located in Otero County, New Mexico, United States of America. ... Official language(s) None Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Obninsk is a city in Kaluga Oblast of Russia, 100 km south-west of Moscow. ... The mushroom cloud from the Mike shot. ... Enewetak (or Eniwetok) is an atoll in the Marshall Islands of the central Pacific Ocean. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1790 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lithium, Li, 3 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 2, s Appearance silvery white/gray Atomic mass 6. ... General Name, Symbol, Number boron, B, 5 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 13, 2, p Appearance black/brown Atomic mass 10. ... General Name, Symbol, Number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 4. ... Pulsed power is the science and technology of accumulating energy over a relatively long period of time and releasing it very quickly. ...

Internal links

The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Inertial confinement fusion using lasers rapidly progressed in the late 1970s and early 1980s from being able to deliver only a few joules of laser energy to a fusion target to being able to deliver tens of kilojoules to a target. ... A construction worker inside NIFs 10 meter target chamber. ... The Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. ... Zork universe Zork games Zork Anthology Zork trilogy Zork I   Zork II   Zork III Beyond Zork   Zork Zero   Planetfall Enchanter trilogy Enchanter   Sorcerer   Spellbreaker Other games Wishbringer   Return to Zork Zork: Nemesis   Zork Grand Inquisitor Zork: The Undiscovered Underground Topics in Zork Encyclopedia Frobozzica Characters   Kings   Creatures Timeline   Magic   Calendar... The magnetic fusion energy (MFE) program seeks to establish the conditions to sustain a nuclear fusion reaction in a plasma that is contained by magnetic fields. ... A split image of the largest tokamak in the world, the JET, showing hot plasma in the right image during a shot. ... ITER is a proposed international experiment designed to show the scientific and technological feasibility of a fusion power reactor. ... The Sun is a natural fusion reactor. ...

External links

History of fusion

  • Une brève histoire de la fusion magnétique (CEA) (French)
  • Controlled fusion and plasma physics studies at the Institute of Nuclear Fusion of RRC "Kurchatov Institute"
  • Magnetic fusion (Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1983)

Generalities about IFE

Inertial fusion experimentation sites

IFE projects

Sustainability and energy development  
Energy production Active solar | Anaerobic digestion | Biomass | Blue energy | Deep lake water cooling | Distributed generation | Electricity generation | Energy tower | Fuel cell | Fusion power | Geothermal power | Hydroelectricity | Mechanical biological treatment | Ocean thermal energy conversion | Passive solar | Seasonal thermal store | Solar cell | Solar chimney | Solar panel | Solar pond | Solar power | Solar power tower | Solar thermal energy | Solar tracker | Solar updraft tower | Tidal power | Trombe wall | Water turbine | Wave power | Wind farm | Wind power | Wind turbine
Energy development and use Energy development | Environmental concerns with electricity generation | Future energy development | Inertial fusion power plant | Hydrogen economy | Hubbert peak | Renewable energy | Hypermodernity | Technological singularity
Energy and
sustainability status
Ecosystem services | Kardashev scale | TPE | UN Human Development Index | Value of Earth | Appropriate technology | Infrastructural capital
Sustainability Autonomous building | Ecoforestry | Ecological economics | Earth sheltering | Development economics | Environmental design | Exploitation of natural resources | Green building | Green chemistry | Green gross domestic product | Natural building | Permaculture | Self-sufficiency | Straw-bale construction | Sustainability | Sustainable agriculture | Sustainable design | Sustainable development | Sustainable industries | Sustainable living | The Natural Step | Windcatcher
Sustainability management Commission on Sustainable Development | Human development theory | Maldevelopment | Rio Declaration on Environment and Development | Rocky Mountain Institute | Sim Van der Ryn | Underdevelopment | World Business Council for Sustainable Development | World Summit on Sustainable Development | Precautionary principle | Intermediate Technology Development Group
Energy and
conservation
Energy conservation | Energy-efficient landscaping | Passive house | Superinsulation | Voluntary simplicity | Ecological footprint | Ecovillage | Waste | Zero energy building
Transportation Battery electric vehicle | Electric vehicle | Hydrogen car
Communication Wireless Mesh
Nuclear Technology
v·d·e
Nuclear engineering Nuclear physics | Nuclear fission | Nuclear fusion | Radiation | Ionizing radiation | Atomic nucleus | Nuclear reactor | Nuclear safety
Nuclear material Nuclear fuel | Fertile material | Thorium | Uranium | Enriched uranium | Depleted uranium | Plutonium
Nuclear power Nuclear power plant | Radioactive waste | Fusion power | Future energy development | Inertial fusion power plant | Pressurized water reactor | Boiling water reactor | Generation IV reactor | Fast breeder reactor | Fast neutron reactor | Magnox reactor | Advanced gas-cooled reactor | Gas cooled fast reactor | Molten salt reactor | Liquid metal cooled reactor | Lead cooled fast reactor | Supercritical water reactor | Very high temperature reactor | Pebble bed reactor | Integral Fast Reactor | Nuclear propulsion | Nuclear thermal rocket | Radioisotope thermoelectric generator
Nuclear medicine PET | Radiation therapy | Tomotherapy | Proton therapy | Brachytherapy
Nuclear weapons History of nuclear weapons | Nuclear warfare | Nuclear arms race | Nuclear weapon design | Effects of nuclear explosions | Nuclear testing | Nuclear delivery | Nuclear proliferation | List of countries with nuclear weapons | List of nuclear tests

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m