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Encyclopedia > Inertial confinement fusion
Inertial confinement fusion using lasers rapidly progressed in the late 1970s and early 1980s from being able to deliver only a few joules of laser energy (per pulse) to a fusion target to being able to deliver tens of kilojoules to a target. At this point, incredibly large scientific devices were needed to continue to advance findings in experimentation. Here, a view of the space frame for the 10 beam LLNL Nova laser, shown shortly after the laser's completion in 1984. Laser fusion around the time of the construction of its predecessor, the Shiva laser, thus entered the realm of "big science".

Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a process where nuclear fusion reactions are initiated by heating and compressing a fuel target, typically in the form of a pellet that most often contains a mixture of deuterium and tritium. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4305x2735, 2201 KB)The NOVA laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4305x2735, 2201 KB)The NOVA laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. ... For alternative meanings see laser (disambiguation). ... The joule (IPA pronunciation: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area. ... The Shiva laser was an extremely powerful 20 beam infrared neodymium glass (silica glass) laser built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1977 for the study of inertial confinement fusion and long-scale-length laser-plasma interactions. ... In 1977 the completion of the Shiva laser at LLNL ushered in a new field of big science; laser fusion. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ...


To compress and heat the fuel, energy is delivered to the outer layer of the target using high-energy beams of laser light, electrons or ions, although for a variety of reasons, almost all ICF devices to date have used lasers. The heated outer layer explodes outward, producing a reaction force against the remainder of the target, accelerating it inwards, and sending shock waves into the center. A sufficiently powerful set of shock waves can compress and heat the fuel at the center so much that fusion reactions occur. The energy released by these reactions will then heat the surrounding fuel, which may also begin to undergo fusion. The aim of ICF is to produce a condition known as "ignition", where this heating process causes a chain reaction that burns a significant portion of the fuel. Typical fuel pellets are about the size of a pinhead and contain around 10 milligrams of fuel: in practice, only a small proportion of this fuel will undergo fusion, but if all this fuel was consumed it would release the energy equivalent to burning a barrel of oil. Experiment with a laser (US Military) In physics, a laser is a device that emits light through a specific mechanism for which the term laser is an acronym: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. ... e- redirects here. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas colored yellow An ion is an atom or group of atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, making them negatively or positively charged. ... A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions. ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ...


ICF is one of two major branches of fusion energy research, the other being magnetic confinement fusion. To date most of the work in ICF has been carried out in the United States, and generally has seen less development effort than magnetic approaches. When it was first proposed, ICF appeared to be a practical approach to fusion power production, but experiments during the 1970's and 80's demonstrated that the efficiency of these devices was much lower than expected. For much of the 1980s and 90s ICF experiments focused primarily on nuclear weapons research. More recent advances suggest that major gains in performance are possible, once again making ICF attractive for commercial power generation. A number of new experiments are underway or being planned to test this new "fast ignition" approach. The Sun is a natural fusion reactor. ... Magnetic confinement fusion is an approach to fusion energy that uses magnetic fields to confine the fusion fuel in the form of a plasma. ... Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ...

Contents

Basic fusion

Main article: nuclear fusion
Indirect drive laser ICF uses a "hohlraum" which is irradiated with laser beam cones from either side on it its inner surface to bathe a fusion microcapsule inside with smooth high intensity X-rays. The highest energy X-rays can be seen leaking through the hohlraum, represented here in orange/red.
Indirect drive laser ICF uses a "hohlraum" which is irradiated with laser beam cones from either side on it its inner surface to bathe a fusion microcapsule inside with smooth high intensity X-rays. The highest energy X-rays can be seen leaking through the hohlraum, represented here in orange/red.

Fusion reactions combine lighter atoms, such as hydrogen, together to form larger ones. Generally the reactions take place at such high temperatures that the atoms have been ionized, their electrons stripped off by the heat; thus, fusion is typically described in terms of "nuclei" instead of "atoms". The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (882x622, 116 KB)[edit] Summary Composite image of a hohlraum irradiation shot on the NOVA laser. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (882x622, 116 KB)[edit] Summary Composite image of a hohlraum irradiation shot on the NOVA laser. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas colored yellow An ion is an atom or group of atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, making them negatively or positively charged. ... e- redirects here. ...


Nuclei are positively charged, and thus repel each other due to the electrostatic force. Counteracting this is the strong force which pulls nucleons together, but only at very short ranges. Thus a fluid of nuclei will generally not undergo fusion, the nuclei must be forced together before the strong force can pull them together into stable collections. Fusion reactions on a scale useful for energy production require a very large amount of energy to initiate in order to overcome the so-called Coulomb barrier or fusion barrier energy. Generally less energy will be needed to cause lighter nuclei to fuse, as they have less charge and thus a lower barrier energy, and when they do fuse, more energy will be released. As the mass of the nuclei increase, there is a point where the reaction no longer gives off net energy — the energy needed to overcome the energy barrier is greater than the energy released in the resulting fusion reaction. In physics, the electrostatic force is the force arising between static (that is, non-moving) electric charges. ... The strong nuclear force or strong interaction (also called color force or colour force) is a fundamental force of nature which affects only quarks and antiquarks, and is mediated by gluons in a similar fashion to how the electromagnetic force is mediated by photons. ... The Coulomb barrier, named after physicist Charles-Augustin de Coulomb (1736—1806), is the energy barrier due to electrostatic interaction that two nuclei need to overcome so they can get close enough to undergo nuclear fusion. ...


The key to practical fusion power is to select a fuel that requires the minimum amount of energy to start, that is, the lowest barrier energy. The best fuel from this standpoint is a one to one mix of deuterium and tritium; both are heavy isotopes of hydrogen. The D-T (deuterium & tritium) mix has a low barrier because of its high ratio of neutrons to protons. The presence of neutral neutrons in the nuclei helps pull them together via the strong force; while the presence of positively charged protons pushes the nuclei apart via Coloumbic forces (the electromagnetic force). Tritium has one of the highest ratios of neutrons to protons of any stable or moderately unstable nuclide -- two neutrons and one proton. Adding protons or removing neutrons increases the energy barrier. Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass (mass number). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The strong nuclear force or strong interaction (also called color force or colour force) is a fundamental force of nature which affects only quarks and antiquarks, and is mediated by gluons in a similar fashion to how the electromagnetic force is mediated by photons. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ...


In order to create the required conditions, the fuel must be heated to tens of millions of degrees, and/or compressed to immense pressures. The temperature and pressure required for any particular fuel to fuse is known as the Lawson criterion. These conditions have been known since the 1950s when the first H-bombs were built. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


ICF mechanism of action

The use of a nuclear bomb to ignite a fusion reaction makes the concept less than useful as a power source. Not only would the bombs be prohibitively expensive to produce, but there is a minimum size that a bomb can be built, defined roughly by the critical mass of the plutonium fuel used. Generally it seems difficult to build nuclear devices smaller than about 1 kiloton in size, which would make it a difficult engineering problem to extract power from the resulting explosions. Also the smaller a thermonuclear bomb is, the "dirtier" it is, that is to say, the percentage of energy produced in the explosion by fusion is decreased while the percent produced by fission reactions tends toward unity (100%). This did not stop efforts to design such a system however, leading to the PACER concept. A sphere of plutonium surrounded by neutron-reflecting blocks of tungsten carbide. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... The PACER project, carried out at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the mid-1970s, explored the possibility of a fusion power system that would involve exploding small hydrogen bombs (fusion bombs)—or, as stated in a later proposal, fission bombs—inside an underground cavity. ...


If some source of compression could be found, other than a nuclear bomb, then the size of the reaction could be scaled down. This idea has been of intense interest to both the bomb-making and fusion energy communities. It was not until the 1970s that a potential solution appeared in the form of very large, very high power, high energy lasers, which were then being built for weapons and other research. The D-T mix in such a system is known as a target, containing much less fuel than in a bomb design (often only micro or milligrams), and leading to a much smaller explosive force.[1][2]


Generally ICF systems use a single laser, the driver, whose beam is split up into a number of beams which are subsequently individually amplified by a trillion times or more. These are sent into the reaction chamber (called a target chamber) by a number of mirrors, positioned in order to illuminate the target evenly over its whole surface. The heat applied by the driver causes the outer layer of the target to explode, just as the outer layers of an H-bomb's fuel cylinder does when illuminated by the X-rays of the nuclear device.


The material exploding off the surface causes the remaining material on the inside to be driven inwards with great force, eventually collapsing into a tiny near-spherical ball. In modern ICF devices the density of the resulting fuel mixture is as much as one-hundred times the density of lead, around 1000 g/cm³. This density is not high enough to create any useful rate of fusion on its own. However, during the collapse of the fuel, shock waves also form and travel into the center of the fuel at high speed. When the meet their counterparts moving in from the other sides of the fuel in the center, the density of that spot is raised much further. Introduction The shock wave is one of several different ways in which a gas in a supersonic flow can be compressed. ...


Given the correct conditions, the fusion rate in the region highly compressed by the shock wave can give off significant amounts of highly energetic alpha particles. Due to the high density of the surrounding fuel, they move only a short distance before being "thermalized", losing their energy to the fuel as heat. This additional energy will cause additional fusion reactions in the heated fuel, giving off more high-energy particles. This process spreads outward from the center, leading to a kind of self sustaining burn known as ignition. An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha particles or alpha rays are a form of particle radiation which are highly ionizing and have low penetration. ...

Schematic of the stages of inertial confinement fusion using lasers. The blue arrows represent radiation; orange is blowoff; purple is inwardly transported thermal energy. 1. Laser beams or laser-produced X-rays rapidly heat the surface of the fusion target, forming a surrounding plasma envelope. 2. Fuel is compressed by the rocket-like blowoff of the hot surface material. 3. During the final part of the capsule implosion, the fuel core reaches 20 times the density of lead and ignites at 100,000,000 ˚C. 4. Thermonuclear burn spreads rapidly through the compressed fuel, yielding many times the input energy.
Schematic of the stages of inertial confinement fusion using lasers. The blue arrows represent radiation; orange is blowoff; purple is inwardly transported thermal energy.
1. Laser beams or laser-produced X-rays rapidly heat the surface of the fusion target, forming a surrounding plasma envelope.
2. Fuel is compressed by the rocket-like blowoff of the hot surface material.
3. During the final part of the capsule implosion, the fuel core reaches 20 times the density of lead and ignites at 100,000,000 ˚C.
4. Thermonuclear burn spreads rapidly through the compressed fuel, yielding many times the input energy.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Issues with the successful achievement of ICF

The primary problems with increasing ICF performance since the early experiments in the 1970s have been of energy delivery to the target, controlling symmetry of the imploding fuel, preventing premature heating of the fuel (before maximum density is achieved), preventing premature mixing of hot and cool fuel by hydrodynamic instabilities and the formation of a 'tight' shockwave convergence at the compressed fuel center. Hydrodynamics is fluid dynamics applied to liquids, such as water, alcohol, oil, and blood. ... Introduction The shock wave is one of several different ways in which a gas in a supersonic flow can be compressed. ...


In order to focus the shock wave on the center of the target, the target must be made with extremely high precision and sphericity with aberrations of no more than a few micrometres over its surface (inner and outer). Likewise the aiming of the laser beams must be extremely precise and the beams must arrive at the same time at all points on the target. Beam timing is a relatively simple issue though and is solved by using delay lines in the beams' optical path to achieve picosecond levels of timing accuracy. The other major problem plaguing the achievement of high symmetry and high temperatures/densities of the imploding target are so called "beam-beam" imbalance and beam anisotropy. These problems are, respectively, where the energy delivered by one beam may be higher or lower than other beams impinging on the target and of "hot spots" within a beam diameter hitting a target which induces uneven compression on the target surface, thereby forming Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in the fuel, prematurely mixing it and reducing heating efficacy at the time of maximum compression. Sphericity is a measure of how spherical an object is. ... The term delay line has multiple meanings: In electronics and derivative fields such as telecommunications, a delay line is rigorously defined as a single-input-channel device, in which the output channel state at a given instant, t, is the same as the input channel state at the instant t... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 10−12 seconds and 10−11 seconds (1 picosecond and 10 picoseconds) See also times of other orders of magnitude. ... RT fingers evident in the Crab Nebula Hydrodynamics simulation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability [1] The Rayleigh-Taylor instability, or RT instability, occurs any time a dense, heavy fluid is being accelerated by light fluid. ...


All of these problems have been substantially mitigated to varying degrees in the past two decades of research by using various beam smoothing techniques and beam energy diagnostics to balance beam to beam energy though RT instability remains a major issue. Target design has also improved tremendously over the years. Modern cryogenic hydrogen ice targets tend to freeze a thin layer of deuterium just on the inside of a plastic sphere while irradiating it with a low power IR laser to smooth its inner surface while monitoring it with a microscope equipped camera, thereby allowing the layer to be closely monitored ensuring its "smoothness".[3]. Cryogenic targets filled with a deuterium tritium (D-T) mixture are "self-smoothing" due to the small amount of heat created by the decay of the radioactive tritium isotope. This is often referred to as "beta-layering".[4] Cryogenics is a branch of physics (or engineering) that studies the production of very low temperatures (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... Look up ir in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ... Large format camera lens. ... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... Beta particles are high-energy electrons emitted by certain types of radioactive nuclei such as potassium-40. ...

A gold plated NIF hohlraum.
An inertial confinement fusion fuel microcapsule (sometimes called a "microballon") of the size to be used on the NIF which can be filled with either deuterium and tritium gas or DT ice. The capsule can be either inserted in a hohlraum (as above) and imploded in the indirect drive mode or irradiated directly with laser energy in the direct drive configuration. Microcapsules used on previous laser systems were significantly smaller owing to the less powerful irradiation earlier lasers were capable of delivering to the target.

Certain targets are surrounded by a small metal cylinder which is irradiated by the laser beams instead of the target itself, an approach known as "indirect drive".[5] In this approach the lasers are focused on the inner side of the cylinder, heating it to a superhot plasma which radiates mostly in X-rays. The X-rays from this plasma are then absorbed by the target surface, imploding it in the same way as if it had been hit with the lasers directly. The absorption of thermal x-rays by the target is more efficient than the direct absorption of laser light, however these hohlraums or "burning chambers" also take up considerable energy to heat on their own thus significantly reducing the overall efficiency of laser-to-target energy transfer, they are thus a debated feature even today; the equally numerous "direct-drive" design does not use them. Most often, indirect drive hohlraum targets are used to simulate thermonuclear weapons tests due to the fact that the fusion fuel in them is also imploded mainly by X-ray radiation. Download high resolution version (1400x1750, 309 KB)A hohlraum mock up to be used on the NIF laser File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1400x1750, 309 KB)A hohlraum mock up to be used on the NIF laser File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A construction worker inside NIFs 10 meter target chamber. ... Image File history File links Fusion_microcapsule. ... Image File history File links Fusion_microcapsule. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... A construction worker inside NIFs 10 meter target chamber. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... In radiation thermodynamics, a hohlraum (in literal German, a hollow area or cavity, a term of art synonymous with radiation case) is a cavity whose walls are in radiative equilibrium with the radiant energy within the cavity. ... Experiment with a laser (US Military) In physics, a laser is a device that emits light through a specific mechanism for which the term laser is an acronym: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. ... A plasma lamp, illustrating some of the more complex phenomena of a plasma, including filamentation. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... In radiation thermodynamics, a hohlraum (in literal German, a hollow area or cavity, a term of art synonymous with radiation case) is a cavity whose walls are in radiative equilibrium with the radiant energy within the cavity. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ...


A variety of ICF drivers are being explored. Lasers have improved dramatically since the 1970s, scaling up in energy and power from a few joules and kilowatts to megajoules (see NIF laser) and hundreds of terawatts, using mostly frequency doubled or tripled light from neodymium glass amplifiers. The joule (IPA pronunciation: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... A construction worker inside NIFs 10 meter target chamber. ... Nonlinear optics is the branch of optics that describes the behaviour of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ...


Heavy ion beams are particularly interesting for commercial generation, as they are easy to create, control, and focus. On the downside, it is very difficult to achieve the very high energy densities required to implode a target efficiently, and most ion-beam systems require the use of a hohlraum surrounding the target to smooth out the irradiation, reducing the overall efficiency of the coupling of the ion beam's energy to that of the imploding target further. An ion beam is a stream of charged particles, which has many uses in electronics manufacturing (principally ion implantation) and other industries. ...


Brief history of ICF

See also: timeline of nuclear fusion

The first laser-driven "ICF" experiments (though strictly speaking, these were only high intensity laser-hydrogen plasma interaction experiments) were carried out using ruby lasers soon after these were invented in the 1960s. It was realized that the power available from these devices was far too low to be truly useful in achieving significant fusion reactions, but were useful in establishing preliminary theories describing high intensity light and plasma interactions. The primary problems in making a practical ICF device would be building a laser of the required energy and making its beams uniform enough to collapse a fuel target evenly. Timeline of significant events in the study and use of nuclear fusion: 1929 - Atkinson and Houtermans used the measured masses of light elements and applied Einsteins discovery that E=mc² to predict that large amounts of energy could be released by fusing small nuclei together. ... Diagram of the first ruby laser. ...


At first it was not obvious that the energy issue could ever be addressed, but a new generation of laser devices first invented in the late 1960s pointed to ways to build devices of the required power. Starting in the early-1970s several labs started experiments with such devices, including krypton fluoride excimer lasers at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and the solid-state lasers (Nd:glass lasers) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). What followed was a series of advances followed by seemingly intractable problems that characterized fusion research in general. A krypton fluoride laser (KrF laser) utilizes the chemical property of krypton gas and the strong oxidizing power of fluorine gas to produce laser between the two with the stimulation of a strong electron energy input. ... An excimer laser is a form of ultraviolet chemical laser which is commonly used in eye surgery and semiconductor manufacturing. ... -1... A solid-state laser is a laser that uses a gain medium that is a solid, rather than a liquid such as dye lasers or a gas such as gas lasers. ... An immense slab of continuous melt processed neodymium doped laser glass for use on the National Ignition Facility. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area. ...


High energy ICF experiments (multi hundred joules per shot and greater experiments) began in earnest in the early-1970s, when lasers of the required energy and power were first designed. This was some time after the successful design of magnetic confinement fusion systems, and around the time of the particularly successful tokamak design that was introduced in the early '70s. Nevertheless, high funding for fusion research stimulated by the multiple energy crises during the mid to late 1970's produced rapid gains in performance, and inertial designs were soon reaching the same sort of "below breakeven" conditions of the best magnetic systems. Magnetic confinement fusion is an approach to fusion energy that uses magnetic fields to confine the fusion fuel in the form of a plasma. ... A split image of the largest tokamak in the world, the JET, showing hot plasma in the right image during a shot. ... This article is about energy crises in general. ...


LLNL was, in particular, very well funded and started a major laser fusion development program. Their Janus laser started operation in 1974, and validated the approach of using Nd:glass lasers to generate very high power devices. Focusing problems were explored in the Long path laser and Cyclops laser, which led to the larger Argus laser. None of these were intended to be practical ICF devices, but each one advanced the state of the art to the point where there was some confidence the basic approach was valid. At the time it was believed that making a much larger device of the Cyclops type could both compress and heat the ICF targets, leading to ignition in the "short term". This was a misconception based on extrapolation of the fusion yields seen from experiments utilizing the so called "exploding pusher" type of fuel capsules. During the period spanning the years of the late 70's and early 80's the estimates for laser energy on target needed to achieve ignition doubled almost yearly as the various plasma instabilities and laser-plasma energy coupling loss modes were gradually understood. The realization that the simple exploding pusher target designs and mere few kilojoule (kJ) laser irradiation intensities would never scale to high gain fusion yields led to the effort to increase laser energies to the hundred kJ level in the UV and to the production of advanced ablator and cryogenic DT ice target designs. The Janus laser as it appeared in 1975. ... The Long Path laser was an early high energy infrared laser at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory used to study inertial confinement fusion. ... The single beam Cyclops laser at LLNL around the time of its completion in 1975. ... Argus laser overhead view. ...


One of the earliest serious and large scale attempts at an ICF driver design was the Shiva laser, a 20-beam neodymium doped glass laser system built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that started operation in 1978. Shiva was a "proof of concept" design intended to demonstrate compression of fusion fuel capsules to many times the liquid density of hydrogen. In this, Shiva succeeded and compressed its pellets to 100 times the liquid density of deuterium. However, due to the laser's strong coupling with hot electrons, premature heating of the dense plasma (ions) was problematic and fusion yields were low. This failure by Shiva to efficiently heat the compressed plasma pointed to the use of optical frequency multipliers as a solution which would frequency triple the infrared light from the laser into the ultraviolet at 351 nm. Newly discovered schemes to efficiently frequency triple high intensity laser light discovered at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics in 1980 enabled this method of target irradiation to be experimented with in the 24 beam OMEGA laser and the NOVETTE laser, which was followed by the Nova laser design with 10 times the energy of Shiva, the first design with the specific goal of reaching ignition conditions. The Shiva laser was an extremely powerful 20 beam infrared neodymium glass (silica glass) laser built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1977 for the study of inertial confinement fusion and long-scale-length laser-plasma interactions. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area. ... An optical frequency multiplier is a nonlinear optical device, in which photons interacting with a nonlinear material are effectively combined to form new photons with greater energy, and thus higher frequency (and shorter wavelength). ... The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) is a scientific research facility which is part of the University of Rochesters south campus, located in Rochester, New York. ... The Novette target chamber with two laser chains visible in background. ... The Nova laser was a laser built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1984 and which conducted advanced inertial confinement fusion experiments until its dismantling in 1999. ...


Nova also failed in its goal of achieving ignition, this time due to severe variation in laser intensity in its beams (and differences in intensity between beams) caused by filamentation which resulted in large non-uniformity in irradiation smoothness at the target and asymmetric implosion. The techniques pioneered earlier could not address these new issues. But again this failure led to a much greater understanding of the process of implosion, and the way forward again seemed clear, namely the increase in uniformity of irradiation, the reduction of hot-spots in the laser beams through beam smoothing techniques to reduce Rayleigh-Taylor instability imprinting on the target and increased laser energy on target by at least an order of magnitude. Funding for fusion research was severely constrained in the 80's, but Nova nevertheless successfully gathered enough information for a next generation machine. RT fingers evident in the Crab Nebula Hydrodynamics simulation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability [1] The Rayleigh-Taylor instability, or RT instability, occurs any time a dense, heavy fluid is being accelerated by light fluid. ...

A graph showing the development of ICF lasers since the 1970s, with most of the historically important devices clustered on the left. The effect on overall laser power from the use of a frequency multiplier can clearly be seen, with later devices seeing less of a "drop" as the devices improved. Newer devices capable of creating the conditions needed for ignition are boxed near the center, although KONGOH and EPOC have been canceled, leaving NIF and LMJ along the blue line. The orange and yellow lines show the theoretical development of high-repetition devices, culminating with commercial reactors in the red box. To date only the first two devices along the orange line have been built. If successful, fast ignition would produce a commercial facility with beam powers around 250 kJ, about where the yellow label appears, which suggests a fairly dramatic reduction in the timeline.

The resulting design, now known as the National Ignition Facility, started construction at LLNL in 1997. NIF's main objective will be to operate as the flagship experimental device of the so called nuclear stewardship program, supporting LLNLs traditional bombmaking role. Originally intended to start construction in the early 1990s, NIF is now scheduled for fusion experiments starting in 2009 when the remaining lasers in the 192-beam array are installed. As of May 2006, sixteen lasers have been installed. The first credible attempts at ignition are scheduled for 2010. Image File history File links ICF_laser_power. ... Image File history File links ICF_laser_power. ... A construction worker inside NIFs 10 meter target chamber. ... A Peacekeeper missile warhead is subjected to a wall of fire to determine how its aging components would react if used today. ...


A more recent development is the concept of "fast ignition", which may offer a way to directly heat the high density fuel after compression, thus decoupling the heating and compression phases of the implosion. In this approach the target is first compressed "normally" using a driver laser system, and then when the implosion reaches maximum density (at the stagnation point or "bang time"), a second ultra-short pulse ultra-high power petawatt (PW) laser delivers a single pulse focussed on one side of the core, dramatically heating it and hopefully starting fusion ignition. The two types of fast ignition are the "plasma bore-through" method and the "cone-in-shell" method. In the first method the petawatt laser is simply expected to bore straight through the outer plasma of an imploding capsule and to impinge on and heat the dense core, whereas in the cone-in-shell method, the capsule is mounted on the end of a small high-z cone such that the tip of the cone projects into the core of the capsule. In this second method, when the capsule is imploded, the petawatt has a clear view straight to the high density core and does not have to waste energy boring through a 'corona' plasma; however, the presence of the cone affects the implosion process in significant ways that are not fully understood. Several projects are currently underway to explore the fast ignition approach, including upgrades to the OMEGA laser at the University of Rochester, the GEKKO XII device in Japan, and an entirely new £500m facility, known as HiPER, proposed for construction in the European Union. If successful, the fast ignition approach could dramatically lower the total amount of energy needed to be delivered to the target; whereas NIF uses UV beams of 2 MJ, HiPER's driver is 200 kJ and heater 70 kJ, yet the predicted fusion gains are nevertheless even higher than on NIF. This page lists examples of the power in watts produced by various different sources of energy. ... The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) is a scientific research facility which is part of the University of Rochesters south campus, located in Rochester, New York. ... The University of Rochester (UR) is a private, coeducational and nonsectarian research university located in Rochester, New York. ... GEKKO XII is a high-power 12-beam neodymium doped glass laser at the Osaka Universitys Institute for Laser Engineering completed in 1983, which is used for high energy density physics and inertial confinement fusion research. ... HiPER is an experimental laser-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) device currently undergoing preliminary design for possible construction in the European Union starting around 2010. ...


Finally, using a different approach entirely is the z-pinch device. Z-pinch uses massive amounts of electrical current which is switched into a small number of extremely fine wires. The wires heat and vaporize so quickly they fill the target with x-rays, which implode the fuel pellet. In order to direct the x-rays onto the pellet the target consists of a cylindrical metal capsule with the wiring and fuel within. Challenges to this approach include relatively low drive temperatures, resulting in slow implosion velocities and potentially large instability growth, and preheat caused by high-energy x-rays.[6][7] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pinch (plasma physics). ...


Inertial confinement fusion as an energy source

Practical power plants built using ICF have been studied since the late 1970s when ICF experiments were beginning to ramp up to higher powers; they are known as inertial fusion energy, or IFE plants. These devices would deliver a successive stream of targets to the reaction chamber, several a second typically, and capture the resulting heat and neutron radiation from their implosion and fusion to drive a conventional steam turbine. A rotor of a modern steam turbine, used in a power plant A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into useful mechanical work. ...


Laser driven systems were initially believed to be able to generate commercially useful amounts of energy. However, as estimates of the energy required to reach ignition grew dramatically during the 1970s and '80s, these hopes were abandoned. Given the low efficiency of the laser amplification process (about 1 to 1.5%), and the losses in generation (steam-driven turbine systems are typically about 35% efficient), fusion gains would have to be on the order of 350 just to break even. These sorts of gains appeared to be impossible to generate, and ICF work turned primarily to weapons research. With the recent introduction of fast ignition, things have changed dramatically. In this approach gains of 100 are predicted in the first experimental device, HiPER. Given a gain of about 100 and a laser efficiency of about 1%, HiPER produces about the same amount of fusion energy as electrical energy was needed to create it. HiPER is an experimental laser-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) device currently undergoing preliminary design for possible construction in the European Union starting around 2010. ...


Additionally newer laser devices appear to be able to greatly improve driver efficiency. Current designs use xenon flash lamps to produce an intense flash of white light, some of which is absorbed by the Nd:glass that produces the laser power. In total about 1 to 1.5% of the electrical power fed into the flash tubes is turned into useful laser light. Newer designs replace the flash lamps with laser diodes that are tuned to produce most of their energy in a frequency range that is strongly absorbed. Initial experimental devices offer efficiencies of about 10%, and it is suggested that 20% is a real possibility with some additional development. Xenon flash lamp being fired. ... A packaged laser diode with penny for scale. ...


With "classical" devices like NIF about 330 MJ of electrical power are used to produce the driver beams, producing an expected yield of about 20 MJ, with the maximum credible yield of 45 MJ. Using the same sorts of numbers in a reactor combining fast ignition with newer lasers would offer dramatically improved performance. HiPER requires about 270 kJ of laser energy, so assuming a first-generation diode laser driver at 10% the reactor would require about 3 MJ of electrical power. This is expected to produce about 30 MJ of fusion power. Even a very poor conversion to electrical energy appears to offer real-world power output, and incremental improvements in yield and laser efficiency appear to able to offer a commercially useful output.


ICF systems face some of the same secondary power extraction problems as magnetic systems in generating useful power from their reactions. One of the primary concerns is how to successfully remove heat from the reaction chamber without interfering with the targets and driver beams. Another serious concern is that the huge number of neutrons released in the fusion reactions react with the plant, causing them to become intensely radioactive themselves, as well as mechanically weakening metals. Fusion plants built of conventional metals like steel would have a fairly short lifetime and the core containment vessels will have to be replaced frequently. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The steel cable of a colliery winding tower. ...


One current concept in dealing with both of these problems, as shown in the HYLIFE-II baseline design, is to use a "waterfall" of flibe, a molten mix of fluorine, lithium and beryllium salts, which both protect the chamber from neutrons, as well as carrying away heat. The flibe is then passed into a heat exchanger where it heats water for use in the turbines.[8] Another, Sombrero, uses a reaction chamber built of carbon fibre which has a very low neutron cross section. Cooling is provided by a molten ceramic, chosen because of its ability to stop the neutrons from traveling any further, while at the same time being an efficient heat transfer agent.[9] General Name, Symbol, Number fluorine, F, 9 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 2, p Appearance Yellowish brown gas Atomic mass 18. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lithium, Li, 3 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 2, s Appearance silvery white/grey Standard atomic weight 6. ... General Name, Symbol, Number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ... A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient heat transfer from one fluid to another, whether the fluids are separated by a solid wall so that they never mix, or the fluids are directly contacted. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ... In nuclear and particle physics, the concept of a cross section is used to express the likelihood of interaction between particles. ...

An inertial confinement fusion implosion in Nova, creating "microsun" conditions of tremendously high density and temperature rivaling even those found at the core of our Sun.
An inertial confinement fusion implosion in Nova, creating "microsun" conditions of tremendously high density and temperature rivaling even those found at the core of our Sun.

As a power source, even the best IFE reactors would be hard-pressed to deliver the same economics as coal, although they would have advantages in terms of less pollution and global warming. Coal can simply be dug up and burned for little financial cost, one of the main costs being shipping. In terms of the turbomachinery and generators, and IFE plant would likely cost the same as a coal plant of similar power, and one might suggest that the "combustion chamber" in an IFE plant would be similar to those for a coal plant. On the other hand, a coal plant has no equivalent to the driver laser, which would make the IFE plant much more expensive. Additionally, extraction of deuterium and its formation into useful fuel pellets is considerably more expensive than coal processing, although the cost of shipping it is much lower (in terms of energy per unit mass). It is generally estimated that an IFE plant would have long-term operational costs about the same as coal, discounting development. HYLIFE-II claims to be about 40% less expensive than a coal plant of the same size, but considering the problems with NIF, it is simply too early to tell if this is realistic or not. Image File history File links Fusion_target_implosion_on_NOVA_laser. ... Image File history File links Fusion_target_implosion_on_NOVA_laser. ... The Sun (Latin: ) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected...


The various phases of such a project are the following, the sequence of inertial confinement fusion development follows much the same outline:

  • burning demonstration: reproducible achievement of some fusion energy release (not necessarily a Q factor of >1).
  • high gain demonstration: experimental demonstration of the feasibility of a reactor with a sufficient energy gain.
  • industrial demonstration: validation of the various technical options, and of the whole data needed to define a commercial reactor.
  • commercial demonstration: demonstration of the reactor ability to work over a long period, while respecting all the requirements for safety, liability and cost.

At the moment, according to the available data [10], inertial confinement fusion experiments have not gone beyond the first phase, although Nova and others have repeatedly demonstrated operation within this realm.


In the short term a number of new systems are expected to reach the second stage. NIF is expected to be able to quickly reach this sort of operation when it starts, but the date for the start of fusion experiments is currently suggested to be somewhere between 2010 and 2014. Laser Mégajoule would also operate within the second stage, and was initially expected to become operational in 2010. Fast ignition systems work well within this range. Finally, the z-pinch machine, not using lasers, is expected to obtain a high fusion energy gain, as well as capability for repetitive working, starting around 2010. Laser Mégajoule (LMJ) is an experimental inertial confinement fusion (ICF) device being built in France by the French nuclear science directorate, CEA. Laser Mégajoule plans to deliver about 1. ...


For a true industrial demonstration, further work is required. In particular, the laser systems need to be able to run at high operating frequencies, perhaps one to ten times a second. Most of the laser systems mentioned in this article have trouble operating even as much as once a day. Parts of the HiPER budget are dedicated to research in this direction as well. Because they convert electricity into laser light with much higher efficiency, diode lasers also run cooler, which in turn allows them to be operated at much higher frequencies. HiPER is currently studying devices that operate at 1 MJ at 1 Hz, or alternately 100 kJ at 10 Hz.


Inertially confined fusion and the nuclear weapons program

The very hot and dense conditions encountered during an Inertial Confinement Fusion experiment are similar to those created in a thermonuclear weapon, and have applications to the nuclear weapons program. ICF experiments might be used, for example, to help determine how warhead performance will degrade as it ages, or as part of a program of designing new weapons. Retaining knowledge and corporate expertise in the nuclear weapons program is another motivation for pursuing ICF.[11][12]. Funding for the NIF facility in the United States is sourced from the 'Nuclear Weapons Stewardship' program, and the goals of the program are oriented accordingly.[13] It has been argued that some aspects of ICF research may violate the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty or the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.[14]. In the long term, despite the formidable technical hurdles, ICF research might potentially lead to the creation of a "pure fusion weapon".[15] Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Opened for signature September 10, 1996[1] in New York Entered into force Not yet in force Conditions for entry into force The treaty will enter into force 180 days after it is ratified by all of the following 44 (Annex 2) countries: Algeria, Argentina... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... A pure fusion weapon is a hypothetical hydrogen bomb design that does not need a fission primary explosive to ignite the fusion of deuterium and tritium, two heavy isotopes of hydrogen (see Teller-Ulam design for more information about fission-fusion weapons). ...


Inertial confinement fusion as a neutron source

Inertial confinement fusion has the potential to produce orders of magnitude more neutrons than spallation. Neutrons are capable of locating hydrogen atoms in molecules, resolving atomic thermal motion and studying collective excitations of photons more effectively than X-rays. Neutron scattering studies of molecular structures could resolve problems associated with protein folding, diffusion through membanes, proton transfer mechanisms, dynamics of molecular motors, etc. by modulating thermal neutrons into beams of slow neutrons [16]. In general, spallation is a process in which fragments of material are ejected from a body due to impact or stress. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... The term Neutron Scattering encompasses all scientific techniques whereby neutrons are used as a scientific probe. ... Protein folding is the process by which a protein assumes its characteristic functional shape or tertiary structure, also known as the native state. ... facilitated difussion in cell membrane, showing ion channels and carrier proteins Facilitated diffusion (or facilitated transport) is a process of diffusion, a form of passive transport, where molecules diffuse across membranes, with the assistance of transport proteins. ... proton gradient: Pink represents the matrix while the red dots represent protons. ... Molecular motors are biological nanomachines and are the essential agents of movement in living organisms. ... A chart displaying the speed probability density functions of the speeds of a few noble gases at a temperature of 298. ...


See also

Antimatter catalysed nuclear pulse propulsion is a variation of nuclear pulse propulsion based upon the injection of antimatter into a mass of nuclear fuel which normally would not be useful in propulsion. ... The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) is a scientific research facility which is part of the University of Rochesters south campus, located in Rochester, New York. ... Bubble fusion or sonofusion is the common name for a nuclear fusion reaction hypothesized to occur during sonoluminescence, an extreme form of acoustic cavitation; officially, this reaction is termed acoustic inertial confinement fusion (AICF) since the inertia of the collapsing bubble wall confines the energy causing a rise in temperature. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Inertial Fusion Energy
  2. ^ Inertial Fusion Energy: A Tutorial on the Technology and Economics
  3. ^ Inertial Confinement Fusion Program Activities, April 2002
  4. ^ Inertial Confinement Fusion Program Activities, March 2006
  5. ^ Recent Advances in Indirect Drive ICF Target Physics
  6. ^ Z-Pinch Power Plant a Pulsed Power Driven System for Fusion Energy
  7. ^ Fast Z-Pinch Study in Russia and Related Problems
  8. ^ Snowmass Fusion Summer Study, Inertial Fusion Concepts Working Group Subgroup 3: Inertial Fusion Power Plant Concepts
  9. ^ SOMBRERO - A Solid Breeder Moving Bed KrF Laser Driven IFE Power Reactor
  10. ^ This chapter is based on data available in June 2006, when Laser Megajoule and NIF lasers are not yet into complete service.
  11. ^ Richard Garwin, Arms Control Today, 1997
  12. ^ NIF: Stockpile Stewardship
  13. ^ National Ignition Facility Project: MIssions
  14. ^ Nuclear Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Issues Related to Explosive Confinement Fusion
  15. ^ Jones and von Hippel, Science and Global security, 1998, Volume 7 p129-150
  16. ^ Taylor, Andrew (February 2007). "A Route to the Brightest Possible Neutron Source?". Science 315: 1092-1095. PMID 17322053. 


Laser Mégajoule (LMJ) is an experimental inertial confinement fusion (ICF) device being built in France by the French nuclear science directorate, CEA. Laser Mégajoule plans to deliver about 1. ... Richard L. Garwin (born 1928), is an American physicist. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ...

Fusion power
v  d  e
Atomic nucleus | Nuclear fusion | Nuclear power | Nuclear reactor | Timeline of nuclear fusion
Plasma physics | Magnetohydrodynamics | Neutron flux | Fusion energy gain factor | Lawson criterion
Methods of fusing nuclei

Magnetic confinement: - Tokamak - Spheromak - Stellarator - Reversed field pinch - Field-Reversed Configuration - Levitated Dipole
Inertial confinement: - Laser driven - Z-pinch - Bubble fusion (acoustic confinement) - Fusor (electrostatic confinement)
Other forms of fusion: - Muon-catalyzed fusion - Pyroelectric fusion - Migma - Polywell Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... For fusion power, see Fusion power. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Timeline of significant events in the study and use of nuclear fusion: 1929 - Atkinson and Houtermans used the measured masses of light elements and applied Einsteins discovery that E=mc² to predict that large amounts of energy could be released by fusing small nuclei together. ... A Plasma lamp In physics and chemistry, a plasma is an ionized gas, and is usually considered to be a distinct phase of matter. ... Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) (magnetofluiddynamics or hydromagnetics) is the academic discipline which studies the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids. ... neutron flux n : the rate of flow of neutrons; the number of neutrons passing through a unit area in unit time via dictionary. ... The fusion energy gain factor, usually expressed with the symbol Q, is the ratio of fusion power produced in a nuclear fusion reactor to the power required to maintain the plasma in steady state. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) is a sustained nuclear fusion reaction in a plasma that is contained by magnetic fields. ... A split image of the largest tokamak in the world, the JET, showing hot plasma in the right image during a shot. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Stellarator magnetic field and magnets A stellarator is a device used to confine a hot plasma with magnetic fields in order to sustain a controlled nuclear fusion reaction. ... Reversed-Field Pinch is a toroidal magnetic confinement scheme. ... A Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) is a device developed for magnetic fusion energy research that confines a plasma on closed magnetic field lines without a central penetration. ... A Levitated Dipole is a unique form of fusion reactor technology using a solid superconducting torus, magnetically levitated in the reactor chamber. ... In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), nuclear fusion reactions are initiated by heating and compressing a target – a pellet that most often contains deuterium and tritium – by the use of intense laser or ion beams. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pinch (plasma physics). ... Bubble fusion or sonofusion is the common name for a nuclear fusion reaction hypothesized to occur during sonoluminescence, an extreme form of acoustic cavitation; officially, this reaction is termed acoustic inertial confinement fusion (AICF) since the inertia of the collapsing bubble wall confines the energy causing a rise in temperature. ... U.S. Patent 3,386,883 - fusor — June 4, 1968 The Farnsworth–Hirsch Fusor, or simply fusor, is an apparatus designed by Philo T. Farnsworth to create nuclear fusion. ... Inertial electrostatic confinement (often abbreviated as IEC) is a concept for retaining a plasma using an electrostatic field. ... Muon-catalyzed fusion is a process allowing nuclear fusion to take place at room temperature. ... Pyroelectric fusion is a technique for achieving nuclear fusion by using an electric field generated by pyroelectric crystals to accelerate ions of deuterium (tritium might also be used someday) into a metal hydride target also containing detuerium (or tritium) with sufficient kinetic energy to cause these ions to fuse together. ... Migma was a proposed inertial electrostatic confinement fusion reactor designed by Bogdan Maglich around 1973. ... WB-6, the latest experiment, assembled The Polywell is a gridless inertial electrostatic confinement fusion concept utilizing multiple magnetic mirrors. ...

List of fusion experiments

Magnetic confinement devices
ITER (International) | JET (European) | JT-60 (Japan) | Large Helical Device (Japan) | KSTAR (Korea) | EAST (China) | T-15 (Russia) | DIII-D (USA) | Tore Supra (France) | TFTR (USA) | NSTX (USA) | NCSX (USA) | UCLA ET (USA) | Alcator C-Mod (USA) | LDX (USA) | H-1NF (Australia) | MAST (UK) | START (UK) | ASDEX Upgrade (Germany) | Wendelstein 7-X (Germany) | TCV (Switzerland) | DEMO (Commercial) Experiments directed toward developing fusion power are invariably done with dedicated machines which can be classified according to the principles they use to confine the plasma fuel and keep it hot. ... ITER is an international tokamak (magnetic confinement fusion) research/engineering project designed to prove the scientific and technological feasibility of a full-scale fusion power reactor. ... Split image of JET with right side showing hot plasma during a shot. ... JT-60 (JT stands for Japan Torus) is the flagship of Japans magnetic fusion program, previously run by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and currently run by the Japan Atomic Energy Agencys (JAEA) Naka Fusion Institute[1] in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. ... Categories: Stub | Nuclear technology ... The KSTAR, or Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Reactor is a magnetic fusion device being built at the Korea Basic Science Institute in Daejon, South Korea. ... The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST, internally called HT-7U) is a project being undertaken to construct an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, in eastern China. ... The T-15 is a Russian nuclear fusion research reactor, based on the (Russian-invented) tokamak design. ... DIII-D or D3-D is the name of a tokamak machine developed in the 1980s by General Atomics in San Diego, USA, as part of the ongoing effort to achieve magnetically confined fusion. ... Tore Supra is a tokamak français en activité après larrêt du TFR (Tokamak de Fontenay-aux-Roses) et de Petula (à Grenoble). ... The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was an experimental fusion test reactor built at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (in Princeton, New Jersey) circa 1980. ... The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is an innovative magnetic fusion device that was constructed by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in collaboration with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Columbia University, and the University of Washington at Seattle. ... The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is a plasma confinement experiment being conducted at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. ... The UCLA Electric Tokamak is a low field (0. ... Alcator C-Mod is a tokamak, a magnetically confined nuclear fusion device, at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center. ... The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) is a project devoted to researching a type of nuclear fusion which utilizes a floating superconducting torus to provide an axisymmetric magnetic field which is used to contain plasma. ... The H-1 flexible Heliac is a three field-period helical axis stellarator located in the Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering at the Australian National University. ... The Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak, or MAST experiment is a nuclear fusion experiment in operation at Culham since December 1999. ... The Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak, or START was a nuclear fusion experiment that used magnetic confinement to hold plasma. ... The ASDEX Upgrade divertor tokamak (Axially Symmetric Divertor EXperiment) went into operation at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching in 1991. ... Magnetic coils and plasma of the Wendelstin 7-X stellarator Plasma vessel of Wendelstein 7-X Wendelstein 7-X is an experimental stellarator (nuclear fusion reactor) currently being built in Greifswald, Germany by the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), which will be completed by 2012. ... Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV): inner view, with the graphite-claded torus. ... Look up demo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Inertial confinement devices
Laser driven: - NIF (USA) | OMEGA laser (USA) | Nova laser (USA) | Novette laser (USA) | Nike laser (USA) | Shiva laser (USA) | Argus laser (USA) | Cyclops laser (USA) | Janus laser (USA) | Long path laser (USA) | 4 pi laser (USA) | LMJ (France) | Luli2000 (France) | GEKKO XII (Japan) | ISKRA lasers (Russia) | Vulcan laser (UK) | Asterix IV laser (Czech Republic) | HiPER laser (European)
Non-laser driven: - Z machine (USA) | PACER (USA)
A construction worker inside NIFs 10 meter target chamber. ... The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) is a scientific research facility which is part of the University of Rochesters south campus, located in Rochester, New York. ... The Nova laser was a laser built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1984 and which conducted advanced inertial confinement fusion experiments until its dismantling in 1999. ... The Novette target chamber with two laser chains visible in background. ... Final amplifier of the Nike laser where laser beam energy is increased from 150 J to ~5 Kj by passing through a krypton/fluorine/argon gas mixture excited by irradiation with two opposing 670,000 volt electron beams. ... The Shiva laser was an extremely powerful 20 beam infrared neodymium glass (silica glass) laser built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1977 for the study of inertial confinement fusion and long-scale-length laser-plasma interactions. ... Argus laser overhead view. ... The single beam Cyclops laser at LLNL around the time of its completion in 1975. ... The Janus laser as it appeared in 1975. ... The Long Path laser was an early high energy infrared laser at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory used to study inertial confinement fusion. ... Physicist Frank Rainer (inset), who was involved in laser research and development at LLNL since 1966, holds the target chamber seen at the center of the larger picture. ... Laser Mégajoule (LMJ) is an experimental inertial confinement fusion (ICF) device being built in France by the French nuclear science directorate, CEA. Laser Mégajoule plans to deliver about 1. ... LULI2000 is a high-power laser system dedicated to scientific research. ... GEKKO XII is a high-power 12-beam neodymium doped glass laser at the Osaka Universitys Institute for Laser Engineering completed in 1983, which is used for high energy density physics and inertial confinement fusion research. ... The ISKRA-4 and ISKRA-5 lasers are lasers which were built by the Russian federation at RFNC-VNIIEF in Arzamas-16() with the ~2Kj output ISKRA-4 laser being completed in 1979 and the ~30Kj output ISKRA-5 laser which was completed in 1989. ... The Vulcan laser is an 8 beam 2. ... The Asterix IV laser in Prague (commonly reffered to by the acronym PALS for Prague Asterix Laser System) is a high power photolytically pumped iodine gas laser which is capable of producing ~300 to 500 picosecond long pulses of light at the fundamental line of 1. ... HiPER is an experimental laser-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) device currently undergoing preliminary design for possible construction in the European Union starting around 2010. ... Zork universe Zork games Zork Anthology Zork trilogy Zork I   Zork II   Zork III Beyond Zork   Zork Zero   Planetfall Enchanter trilogy Enchanter   Sorcerer   Spellbreaker Other games Wishbringer   Return to Zork Zork: Nemesis   Zork Grand Inquisitor Zork: The Undiscovered Underground Topics in Zork Encyclopedia Frobozzica Characters   Kings   Creatures Timeline   Magic   Calendar... The PACER project, carried out at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the mid-1970s, explored the possibility of a fusion power system that would involve exploding small hydrogen bombs (fusion bombs)—or, as stated in a later proposal, fission bombs—inside an underground cavity. ...


See also: International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility The International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, also known as IFMIF, is an international scientific research program designed to test materials for suitability for use in a fusion reactor. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Inertial confinement fusion (3981 words)
Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a process where nuclear fusion reactions are initiated by heating and compressing a fuel target, typically in the form of a pellet that most often contains deuterium and tritium.
The aim of ICF is to produce a condition known as "ignition", where this heating process causes a chain reaction that burns a significant portion of the fuel.
ICF is one of two major branches of fusion energy research, the other being magnetic confinement fusion.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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