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Encyclopedia > Industrialization of Japan

History of Japan ImageMetadata File history File links Satsuma-samurai-during-boshin-war-period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article Japan#History. ...

Glossary The Japanese Paleolithic ) covers a period from around 100,000 [citation needed] to 30,000 BCE, when the earliest stone tool implements have been found, to around 12,000 BCE, at the end of the last Ice-age, which corresponds to the beginning of the Mesolithic Jomon Period. ... Characters for Jōmon (Cord marks). The Jomon period (Japanese: 縄文時代 Jōmon-jidai) is the time in Japanese pre-history from about 10,000 BCE to 300 BCE. Most scholars agree that by around 40,000 BCE glaciation had connected the Japanese islands with the Asian mainland. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei Yayoi (弥生時代) is an era in Japan from 300... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 794. ... The Heian period (Japanese: 平安時代, Heian-jidai) is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. ... The Kamakura period (Japanese: 鎌倉時代, Kamakura-jidai; 1185–1333) is a period of Japanese history that marks the governance of the Kamakura Shogunate; officially established in 1192 by the first Kamakura shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo. ... The Kemmu Restoration (建武の新政; Kemmu no shinsei) was a period of Japanese history that occurred from 1333 to 1336 AD. It marks the three year period between the fall of the Kamakura shogunate and the rise of the Ashikaga shogunate, when Emperor Go-Daigo attempted to re-established Imperial control (but... The Muromachi period (Japanese: 室町時代, Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era, the Ashikaga period, or the Ashikaga bakufu) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. ... The Nanboku-cho period (Japanese: 南北朝時代, nanbokuchō-jidai, South and North courts period), also known as the Northern and Southern Courts period, spanning from 1336 to 1392, was a period that occurred during the early years of the Muromachi period of Japans history. ... The Sengoku period (Japanese: 戦国時代, Sengoku-jidai) or Warring States period, was a period of civil war in the history of Japan that spans from the middle 15th to the early 17th centuries. ... The Azuchi-Momoyama period (Japanese: 安土桃山時代, Azuchi-Momoyama-jidai) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1568 to 1600. ... The Nanban Trade Period (Jp:南蛮貿易時代, Lit. ... The Edo period (Japanese: 江戸時代, Edo-jidai), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1867. ... The Late Tokugawa Shogunate (Japanese: Bakumatsu) is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. ... The Meiji period ) denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running from 8 September 1868 (in the Gregorian calendar, 23 October 1868) to 30 July 1912. ... The Taishō period (Japanese: 大正時代, Taishō-jidai, period of great righteousness) is a period in the history of Japan dating from 30 July 1912 to 25 December 1926. ... Japan entered World War I in 1914, seizing the opportunity of Germanys distraction with the European War and wanting to expand its sphere of influence in China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied by the Allied Powers. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei Following the end of the Allied occupation in 1952... It has been suggested that Updated Japan News be merged into this article or section. ... The Economic history of Japan is one of the most studied for its spectacular growth, first in the period from the late nineteenth century that saw Japan become a world power and then again after the devastation of the Second World War when the island nation rose to become the... The history of education in Japan dates back at least to the sixth century, when Chinese learning was introduced at the Yamato court. ... The military history of Japan is characterized by a long period of feudal wars, followed by domestic stability, and then foreign conquest. ... The naval history of Japan traces back to early interactions with states on the Asian continent at the beginning of the medieval period, and reached a peak of activity during the 16th and 17th century at a time of cultural exchange with European powers during the Nanban trade period. ... This is the glossary of Japanese history including historical figures, events, places, policies and others. ...

The Meiji Restoration (明治維新 Meiji-ishin?), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to a change in Japan's political and social structure. It occurred from 1866 to 1869, a period of three years that traverses both the late Edo period (often called Late Tokugawa shogunate) and beginning of the Meiji Era. Probably the most important foreign account of the events of 1862-69 is contained in A Diplomat in Japan by Sir Ernest Satow. The restoration was a direct response to the opening of Japan by the arrival of the Black Ships of Commodore Matthew Perry. The Edo period (Japanese: 江戸時代, Edo-jidai), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1867. ... The Late Tokugawa Shogunate (Japanese: Bakumatsu) is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Meiji period (Japanese: Meiji Jidai 明治時代 ) (1868–1912... Sir Ernest Mason Satow, G.C.M.G., P.C. (1843-1929), a British scholar-diplomat born to an ethnically German father (Hans David Christoph Satow, born in Swedish-occupied Wismar, naturalised British in 1846) and an English mother (Margaret, nee Mason) in Clapton, North London, and educated at Mill... This article is in need of attention. ... 19th century Commodore stripes 20th century Commodore insignia Commodore is a rank of the United States Navy with a somewhat complicated history. ... Matthew Calbraith Perry (1794-1858). ...


The formation in 1866 of the Sat-cho Alliance between Saigo Takamori, the leader of the Satsuma domain, and Kido Takayoshi, the leader of the Choshu domain, marks the beginning of the Meiji restoration. These two leaders supported the emperor and were brought together by Sakamoto Ryoma for the purpose of challenging the ruling Tokugawa Shogunate (bakufu) and restoring the emperor to power. Saigō Takamoris statue in Ueno park Saigō Takamori (西郷 隆盛 Saigō Takamori, 23 January 1827/28 - 24 September 1877), one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, lived during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. ... Satsuma (薩摩国; -no Kuni) was an old province of Japan that is now the western half of Kagoshima prefecture on the island of Kyushu. ... Kido Takayoshi (Tokugawa shogunate years) Kido Takayoshi (木戸孝允, August 11, 1833 - May 26, 1877), also referred as Kido Koin was a Japanese politician during the Late Tokugawa shogunate and the Meiji Restoration. ... Nagato (Ja. ... His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Akihito. ... Sakamoto Ryōma (坂本 龍馬 Sakamoto Ryōma January 3, 1836 - December 10, 1867) was born in Kochi, of Tosa han. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ...


The Tokugawa Shogunate came to an official end on November 9, 1867, when the 15th Tokugawa Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu "put his prerogatives at the emperor's disposal" and then resigned his position 10 days later. This was effectively the "restoration" (Taisei Hōkan) of imperial rule, although Yoshinobu retained considerable power. The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Tokugawa Yoshinobu in French military uniform, c. ...


Shortly thereafter in January 1868, the Boshin War (War of the Year of the Dragon) started with the Battle of Toba Fushimi in which an army led by forces from Choshu and Satsuma defeated the ex-shogun's army and forced the Emperor to strip Yoshinobu of all power. Some shogunate forces escaped to Hokkaido, where they attempted to set up the breakaway Republic of Ezo, but this came to an early end in May 1869 with the siege of Hakodate, Hokkaido. The defeat of the armies of the former shogun (led by Hijikata Toshizo) marked the end of the Meiji Restoration; all defiance to the emperor and his rule ended. The Boshin War (戊辰戦争 Boshin Sensō, literally War of the Year of the Dragon) was fought in 1868-1869 between the Tokugawa Shogunate and the pro-Imperial forces in Japan. ... Nagato (Ja. ... Satsuma (薩摩国; -no Kuni) was an old province of Japan that is now the western half of Kagoshima prefecture on the island of Kyushu. ... For the dog breed, see Hokkaido (dog). ... Enomoto Takeaki (front, right) and the leaders of his loyalist troops in Hokkaido, 1869. ... View of Hakodate from Mountain Hakodate (函館市; -shi) is a city and port located in Oshima, Hokkaido, Japan. ... For the dog breed, see Hokkaido (dog). ... Hijikata Toshizō Statue at Takahata Fudo, Hino, Tokyo Hijikata Toshizō (土方歳三)(May 31, 1835—June 20, 1869) was the deputy leader of Shinsengumi, a small-built and talented Japanese military leader who resisted the Meiji Restoration. ...


The leaders of the Meiji Restoration, as this revolution came to be known, acted in the name of restoring imperial rule. However, political power simply moved from the Tokugawa Shogun to an oligarchy consisting of themselves, mostly from the Satsuma Province (Okubo Toshimichi and Saigo Takamori), and the Choshu province (Ito Hirobumi, Yamagata Aritomo, and Kido Koin.) This was mostly because their idea of imperial rule was the ancient one where the emperor performs his high priestly duties, while his ministers govern the nation in his name. Oligarchy is a form of government where most or all political power effectively rests with a small segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, family, military strength, ruthlessness, or political influence). ... Satsuma (薩摩国; -no Kuni) was an old province of Japan that is now the western half of Kagoshima prefecture on the island of Kyushu. ... Ōkubo Toshimichi (大久保 利通 Ōkubo Toshimichi, 10 August 1830 - 14 May 1878), Japanese statesman, a samurai of Satsuma, is one of the five great nobles who led the revolution in 1868 against the shogunate. ... Saigō Takamoris statue in Ueno park Saigō Takamori (西郷 隆盛 Saigō Takamori, 23 January 1827/28 - 24 September 1877), one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, lived during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. ... Nagato (Ja. ... Born in Hagi, Yamaguchi, Prince Itō Hirobumi (伊藤 博文 Itō Hirobumi 16 October 1841–26 October 1909, also called Hirofumi/Hakubun and Shunsuke in his youth) was a Japanese politician and the countrys first Prime Minister (and the 5th, 7th and 10th). ... Yamagata Aritomo (山県 有朋; April 22, 1838–February 1, 1922) was a Japanese military leader and politician, and the fourth (December 24, 1889–May 6, 1891) and 11th (1898–1900) Prime Minister of Japan. ... Kido Takayoshi (木戸孝允), also referred as Kido Koin (1833-77) was a Japanese politician during the Late Tokugawa shogunate and the Meiji Restoration. ...

Contents


Leaders

These were leading figures in the Meiji Restoration when the Japanese emperors retook power from the Tokugawa shoguns. Some of them went on to become Prime Minister of Japan. The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... The Prime Minister of Japan (内閣総理大臣 Naikaku sōri daijin) is the English political nomenclature of the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ...

Ōkubo Toshimichi (大久保 利通 Ōkubo Toshimichi, 10 August 1830 - 14 May 1878), Japanese statesman, a samurai of Satsuma, is one of the five great nobles who led the revolution in 1868 against the shogunate. ... Kido Takayoshi (Tokugawa shogunate years) Kido Takayoshi (木戸孝允, August 11, 1833 - May 26, 1877), also referred as Kido Koin was a Japanese politician during the Late Tokugawa shogunate and the Meiji Restoration. ... Saigō Takamoris statue in Ueno park Saigō Takamori (西郷 隆盛 Saigō Takamori, 23 January 1827/28 - 24 September 1877), one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, lived during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. ... Iwakura Tomomi (岩倉 具視 October 26, 1825-July 20, 1883) was a statesman who played an important role in the Meiji restoration, influencing opinions of the Imperial Court. ... Born in Hagi, Yamaguchi, Prince Itō Hirobumi (伊藤 博文 Itō Hirobumi 16 October 1841–26 October 1909, also called Hirofumi/Hakubun and Shunsuke in his youth) was a Japanese politician and the countrys first Prime Minister (and the 5th, 7th and 10th). ... Kuroda Kiyotaka (黒田 清隆; October 16, 1840–August 25, 1900), also known as Ryōsuke, was a Japanese politician of the Meiji era, and the second Prime Minister of Japan from April 30, 1888 to October 25, 1889. ... Matsukata Masayoshi (松方 正義; February 25, 1835–July 2, 1924) was a Japanese politician and the 4th (May 6, 1891 - August 8, 1892) and 6th (September 18, 1896 - January 12, 1898) Prime Minister of Japan. ... Iwao Oyama (During the Russo-Japanese War) Oyama Iwao (大山 å·Œ Ooyama Iwao) (born 10 October 1842 - 10 December 1916) was a Japanese field marshal, and one of the leaders of the Meiji Restoration. ... Tsugumichi Saigo (西郷 従道 Saigou Tsugumichi/Juudou) (1 June 1843 - 18 June 1902) was a Japanese politician and general who lived from the Edo to Meiji Era of Japanese history. ... Yamagata Aritomo (山県 有朋; April 22, 1838–February 1, 1922) was a Japanese military leader and politician, and the fourth (December 24, 1889–May 6, 1891) and 11th (1898–1900) Prime Minister of Japan. ... 1880 (Meiji 13) Inoue Kaoru (井上 馨 Inoue Kaoru, January 16, 1836 - September 1, 1915;) was a Japanese statesman. ... Kinmochi Saionji Saionji Kinmochi (西園寺 公望 Saionji Kinmochi October 23, 1849–November 24, 1940) was a Japanese politician and the 12th (January 7, 1906–July 14, 1908) and 14th (August 30, 1911–December 21, 1912) Prime Minister of Japan. ...

Effects

The Meiji Restoration was the catalyst towards industrialization in Japan that led to the rise of the island nation as a military power by 1905, under the slogan of "National Wealth and Military Strength" (fukoku kyohei, 富国強兵). Fukoku kyohei (富国強兵), enrich the country, strengthen the military, was Japans national slogan during the Meiji Era, replacing sonno joi. ...


The Meiji oligarchy that formed the government under the rule of the Emperor first introduced measures to consolidate their power against the remnants of the Edo period government, the shogunate, daimyo and the samurai class. In 1868, the Emperor took all land from the Tokugawa and put it under his own control. In 1869, the daimyos of the Tosa han, Hizen han, Satsuma han and Choshu han domains, who were pushing most fiercely against the shogunate, were persuaded to return their domains to the Emperor. Other daimyos were subsequently persuaded to do so. Finally, in 1871, the daimyos, past and present, were summoned before the Emperor, where it was declared that all domains were now to be returned to the Emperor. The roughly 300 domains (han) were turned into prefectures, each under the control of a state-appointed governor. Until 1888, several prefectures were merged in several steps to reduce their number to 75. The daimiyo were promised 1/10 of their fiefs income as private income. Furthermore, their debts and payments of samurai stipends were to be taken over by the state. The Meiji oligarchy, as the new ruling class of Meiji period Japan is known to historians, was a privileged clique that exercised imperial power, sometimes despotically. ... Shogun ) is a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... Japanese samurai in armour, 1860s. ... The Satsuma domain (Satsuma Han è–©æ‘©è—©) of Kagoshima, led by the daimyo of the Shimazu family was a major factor in the Meiji Restoration and in the Meiji period government. ... Occurring in 1871, the abolition of the han system and establishment of the prefecture system (廃藩置県, haihan-chiken; hai abolish + han + chi set down + ken prefecture) was an act to replace the traditional han system and introduce new local government. ...


The oligarchs also endeavoured to abolish the four divisions of society. The four divisions of society refers to the model of Japanese society during the Edo period. ...


Throughout Japan at the time, the samurai numbered 1.9 million, (which, for comparison, was more than 10 times the size of the French privileged class before the 1789 French Revolution; although the samurai in Japan were not merely the lords, but also their higher retainers, people who actually worked). With each samurai being paid fixed stipends, their upkeep presented a tremendous financial burden, which may have prompted the oligarchs to action. Whatever their true intentions, the oligarchs embarked on another slow and deliberate process to abolish the samurai class. First, in 1873, it was announced that the samurai stipends were to be taxed on a rolling basis. Later, in 1874, the samurai were given the option to convert their stipends into government bonds. Finally, in 1876, this commutation was made compulsory. The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a pivotal period in the history of French, European and Western civilization. ...


To reform the military, the government instituted nation-wide conscription in 1873, mandating that every male serve in the armed forces for 3 years upon turning twenty-one. One of the primary differences between the samurai and peasant class was the right to bear arms; this ancient privilege was suddenly extended to every male in the nation.


Not surprisingly, this led to a series of riots from disgruntled samurai. One of the major riots was the one led by Saigo Takamori, the Satsuma rebellion, which eventually turned into a civil war. This rebellion was however put down swiftly by the newly formed imperial army, trained in Western tactics and weapons, even though the core of the new army was the Tokyo Police force, which was formed in great parts of former samurai. This sent a strong message to the dissenting samurai that their time was indeed up. There were fewer subsequent samurai uprisings and the distinction became all but a name as the samurai joined the new society. The ideal of samurai military spirit lived on in romanticized form and was often used as propaganda during the Imperial Japan's early 20th century wars. Saigō Takamoris statue in Ueno park Saigō Takamori (西郷 隆盛 Saigō Takamori, 23 January 1827/28 - 24 September 1877), one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, lived during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. ... The Satsuma Rebellion (Seinan Sensō 西南戦争, Southwestern War) was a revolt of the Satsuma clan samurai against the Imperial Japanese Army. ...


However, it is equally true that the majority of samurai were content despite having their status abolished. Many found employment in the government bureaucracy, which resembled an elite class in its own right. The samurai, being better educated than most of the population, became teachers, government officials or military officers. While the formal title of samurai was abolished, the elitist spirit which characterised the samurai class lived on even beyond the 1870s.


The oligarchs also embarked on a series of land reforms. In particular, they legimitised the tenancy system which had been going on during the Tokugawa period. Despite the bakufu's best efforts to freeze the four classes of society in place, during their rule villagers had begun to lease land out to other farmers, becoming rich in the process. This greatly disrupted the clearly defined class system which the bakufu had envisaged, partly leading to their eventual downfall. For the James Clavell novel, see Shogun or for the TV Miniseries. ...


Related links

The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article Japan#History. ... These are lists of incumbents, i. ... Emperor Meiji (Mutsuhito) Emperor Meiji (明治天皇, Meiji Tennō, literally Emperor of Enlightened Rule) (3 November 1852–30 July 1912), also known as Mutsuhito (睦仁), was the 122nd Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... The 明治 were leading figures in the Meiji Restoration, when the Emperor of Japan retook power from the Tokugawa shoguns. ... The modernization of the Japanese army and navy during the Meiji period (1868-1912) and until the Mukden Incident (1931) was carried out by the newly founded national government, a military leadership that was only responsible to the Emperor and the help of French, English and Prussian military advisors. ... 上諭 - The Emperors words 上諭 - The Emperors words 御名御璽 - Imperial Signature and Seal 本文 - text The Constitution of the Empire of Japan(大日本帝國憲法), more commonly known as the Imperial or Meiji Constitution, was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan from 1889 until 1947. ... Rurouni Kenshin ) is a set of manga and anime series created by mangaka Nobuhiro Watsuki, set during the early years of the early Meiji period in Japan. ... The late Tokugawa shogunate or last shogun (幕末; Bakumatsu) is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. ...

Reference and further reading

Beasley, W. G. The Rise of Modern Japan: Political, Economic and Social Change Since 1850. St. Martin's Press, New York 1995.


Murphey, Rhoads. East Asia: A New History. Addison Wesley Longman, New York 1997. The names of the Meiji Oligarchists were drawn this work.


Further reading: A Diplomat in Japan by Sir Ernest Satow ISBN 4-925080-28-8 The Right Honourable Sir Ernest Mason Satow GCMG, (June 30, 1843 - August 26, 1929) was a British scholar-diplomat born to an ethnically German father (Hans David Christoph Satow, born in Wismar, then under Swedish rule, naturalised British in 1846) and an English mother (Margaret, nee Mason) in Clapton, North...


Akamatsu, Paul. Meiji 1868: Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Japan. Trans. Miriam Kochan. New York: Harper & Row, 1972.


Beasley, W. G. The Meiji Restoration. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1972.


Craig, Albert M. Chōshū in the Meiji Restoration. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961.


Jansen, Marius B. and Gilbert Rozman, eds. Japan in Transition: From Tokugawa to Meiji. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.


Jansen, Marius B. The Making of Modern Japan. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000.


Wall, Rachel F. Japan's Century: An Interpretation of Japanese History since the Eighteen-fifties. London: The Historical Association, 1971.


External links

  • Tokugawa Period's Influence on Meiji Restoration

 
 

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