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Encyclopedia > Industrial process
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Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical or mechanical steps to aid in the manufacture of an item or items, usually carried out on a very large scale. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Mechanization is the use of machines to replace manual labour or animals and can also refer to the use of powered machinery to help a human operator in some task. ... Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. ...

Industrial processes are the key components of heavy industry.

Most processes make the production of an otherwise rare material vastly cheaper, thus changing it into a commodity; i.e. the process makes it economically feasible for society to use the material on a large scales, in machinery, or a substantial amount of raw materials, in comparison to batch or craft processes. Production of a specific material may involve more than one type of process. Most indsutrial processes result in both a desired product(s) and by-products, many of which are toxic, hazardous, or hard to deal with. Very, very few processes are self-contained. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... craft is a word created bt elliot and dan who are the craft lords many people say craft but dont no what it means craft is a skill. ... A by-product is a secondary or incidental product deriving from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction, and is not the primary product or service being produced. ...


General processes

These may be applied on their own, or as part of a larger process.

Liquefaction of gases includes a number of processes used to convert a gas into a liquid state at a temperature above the normal boiling point of the substance. ... Supercritical drying (red arrow) goes beyond the critical point of the working fluid in order to avoid the direct liquid-gas transition seen in ordinary drying (green arrow). ... Freeze drying (also known as Lyophilization) is a dehydration process typically used to preserve a perishable material, or to make the material more convenient for transport. ... The word scrubber can mean:- The part of a rebreather breathing set which absorbs the carbon dioxide which the individual using the breathing set breathes out. ...

Physical reshaping

There are several processes for reshaping a material by cutting, folding, joining or polishing, developed on a large scale from workshop techniques.

For finery forges (making iron), see finery forge. ... A lathe is a common tool used in machining. ... Progressive (punch and blanking) die with strip and punchings Progressive stamping is a metalworking method that can encompass punching, coining, bending and several other ways of modifying metal raw material, combined with an automatic feeding system. ... Hydroforming (or hydramolding) is a cost-effective way of shaping malleable metals such as aluminum into lightweight, structurally stiff and strong pieces. ... Man sandblasting a stone wall Device used for adding sand to the compressed air (top of which is a sieve for adding the sand) Diesel powered compressor used as an air supply for sandbasting Sandblasting or bead blasting[1] is a generic term for the process of smoothing, shaping and... (De)soldering a contact from a wire. ... Brazing is a joining process whereby a non-ferrous filler metal or alloy is heated to melting temperature above 450°C (842°F), or, by the traditional definition that has been used in the United States, above 800°F (425)°C and distributed between two or more close-fitting parts... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ... Tumble polishing, or tumbling, is a technique for smoothing and polishing a hard substance. ... Precipitation hardening is a heat treatment technique used to strengthen malleable materials, especially non-ferrous alloys including most structural alloys of aluminium and titanium. ... Work hardening, or strain hardening, is an increase in mechanical strength due to plastic deformation. ... A replica Colt 1873 revolver, showing case hardening colors on the frame Case hardening or surface hardening is the process of hardening the surface of a metal, often a low carbon steel, by infusing elements into the materials surface, forming a thin layer of a harder alloy. ... A differential hardening is a method used in forging swords and knives to increase the hardness of the edge. ... Shot peening is a process used to produce a decorative finish and to modify mechanical properties of metals. ... A die is a tool used in the manufacturing industry to create a wide variety of products and components. ...


The shaping of materials by forming their liquid form using a mould.

Casting may be used to create artistic sculptures Casting is a manufacturing process by which a molten material such as metal or plastic is introduced into a mold, allowed to solidify within the mold, and then ejected or broken out to make a fabricated part. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Powder metallurgy is a forming and fabrication technique consisting of three major processing stages. ... Glass bottles for cucumber slices Glass containers are a common part of everyday life - we enjoy beverages such as water, soft drink, juice, beer, wine, spirit from bottles - jams and spreads from jars. ...


Many materials exist in an impure form, purification, refining or separation provides a usable product. Refining is the process of purification of a substance, usually used of a natural resource that is almost in a usable form, but which is more useful in its pure form. ...

Froth Flotation is a selective process for separating minerals from gangue by using surfactants and wetting agents. ... The Flotation process is a method for the separation of mixtures. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In chemistry, liquid-liquid extraction (or more briefly, solvent extraction) is a useful method to separate components (compounds) of a mixture. ... Elemental sulfur deposits are found in volcanic or sedimentary areas of Italy, USA, Russia and the Ukraine. ...


The availability of electricity and its effect on materials gave rise to several processes for plating or separating metals.

A gilded Tibetan Vajrasattva Gilding is the art of applying metal leaf (most commonly gold or silver leaf) to a surface. ... Electroplating is the process of using Davd lloyd current to coat an electrically conductive object with a relatively thin layer of metal. ... Anodising is a process used to protect aluminium from corrosion. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Electropolishing, sometimes called reverse electroplating, is an electrochemical process which polishes a metal surface by removing a microscopic amount of material from the work piece. ... Electrofocusing, or isoelectric focusing, is a technique for separating different molecules by their electric charge differences (if they have any charge). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Electrolysis. ... Electrophoretic deposition (EPD), is a term for a broad range of industrial processes which includes electrocoating, electrophoretic coating, or electrophoretic painting. ... Electrotyping is an application of the art of electroplating to typography, used for making duplicate plates for relief printing (letterpress). ... Metallizing is the general name for the technique of coating metal on the surface of non-metallic objects. ... Plating is the general name surface-covering techniques in which a metal is deposited onto a conductive surface. ... Spin coating is a procedure used to apply uniform thin films to flat substrates. ...

Iron and Steel

Early production of iron was from meteorites, or as a by-product of copper refining. Heating iron ore and carbon in a crucible at 1000 K produces wrought iron. This process gained popularity during the Iron Age. Temperatures of 1300 K were produced around the 8th century by blowing air through the heated mixture in a bloomery or blast furnace (12th century); producing a strong but brittle cast iron. Furnaces were growing bigger, producing greater quantities; a factor contributing to the Industrial Revolution. In 1740 the temperature and carbon content could be controlled sufficiently to consistently produce steel; very strong and very workable. The 19th century saw the development of electric arc furnaces that produced steel in very large quantities, and are more easily controlled. General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Wrought iron furniture be merged into this article or section. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... A bloomery is a type of furnace once widely used for smelting iron from its oxides. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... The Industrial Revolution was a major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions that occurred in the late 18th century and early 19th century in some Western countries. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... An electric arc furnace is a system that heats charged material by means of an electric arc. ...

Electric phosphate smelting furnace in a TVA chemical plant (1942) Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of extractive metallurgy. ... Open hearth furnaces are the furnaces where excess carbon and other impurities are burnt out of Pig iron to produce Steel. ... Open hearth furnaces are one of a number of kinds of furnace where excess carbon and other impurities are burnt out of pig iron to produce steel. ... A bloomery is a type of furnace once widely used for smelting iron from its oxides. ... Sir Carl Wilhelm Siemens invented the Siemens regenerative furnace which was first used about 1865. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Crucible steel describes a number of different techniques for making steel alloy by slowly heating and cooling iron and carbon (typically in the form of charcoal) in a crucible. ... The cementation process is a obsolete technique for making steel. ... Bessemer converter, schematic diagram The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron. ... Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS, Linz-Donawitz-Verfahren, LD-converter) is a method of converting molten iron to steel. ... Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS, Linz-Donawitz-Verfahren, LD-converter) is a method of converting molten iron to steel. ... An electric arc furnace is a system that heats charged material by means of an electric arc. ...

Petroleum and organic compunds

The nature of an organic molecule means it can be transformed at the molecular level to create a range of products.

Factory of Shukhov cracking process, Baku, USSR, 1934 In petroleum geology and chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or heavy hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules (e. ... Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another. ... The Burton process is a thermal cracking process invented by William M. Burton and Robert Humphrey[1]; the oil industry used it to double the production of gasoline in 1913. ... Cumene process is an industrial process of producing phenol (C6H5-OH) and acetone (CH3-CO-CH3) from benzene (C6H6) and propene (C3H6). ... The Friedel-Crafts reactions are a set of reactions developed by Charles Friedel and James Crafts in 1877. ... The Kolbe-Schmitt reaction/Kolbe process (named after Adolph Wilhelm Hermann Kolbe and R. Schmitt) is a carboxylation chemical reaction that proceeds by heating sodium phenolate (the sodium salt of phenol) with carbon dioxide under pressure (100 atm, 125°C), then treating the product with sulfuric acid. ... Olefin metathesis or transalkylidenation (in some literature, a disproportionation) is an organic reaction which involves redistribution of olefinic (alkene) bonds. ... Thermal depolymerization (TDP) is a process for the reduction of complex organic materials (usually waste products of various sorts, often known as biomass) into light crude oil. ... In organic chemistry, transesterification is the process of exchanging the alkoxy group of an ester compound by another alcohol. ... The Raschig process is a commercial process to create phenol. ... The Ketazine process is used commercially to produce hydrazine it is a variation of the Raschig process, in which ammonia is oxidized by chlorine or chloramine in the presence of aliphatic ketones, usually acetone. ... The Peroxide process produces hydrazine, it is a variant of the Raschig process in which hydrogen peroxide is used to oxidize ammonia in the presence of a ketone. ... The formox process produces formaldehyde. ...


Organized by product:

A list by process: General Name, symbol, number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, period, block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 26. ... The Deville process was the first industrial process used to produce alumina from bauxite. ... The Bayer process is the principal industrial means of producing alumina, itself important in the Hall-Héroult process for producing aluminum. ... The Hall-Héroult process is the major industrial process for the production of aluminium. ... Wöhler process was used in the production of aluminium. ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ... The Haber Process (also known as Haber–Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. ... “Bromo” redirects here. ... The Dow process is the electrolytic method of bromine extraction from brine, and was Herbert Henry Dows second revolutionary process for generating bromine commercially. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... The chloralkali process is a redox reaction, an electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride: 2 NaCl(aq) + 2 H2O(l) —→ 2 NaOH(aq) + Cl2(g) + 2 H+ + 2 e- 2 H+ + 2 e- —→ H2(g) The process is primarily used to produce chlorine, but one of its byproducts... The Weldon process is a process for recovering manganese dioxide in chlorine manufacturing. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Rendering is an industrial process that converts waste animal tissue into stable, value-added materials. ... It has been suggested that fertilization (soil) be merged into this article or section. ... The nitrophosphate process (also known as the Odda process) was a method for the industrial production of nitrogen fertilizers invented by Erling Johnson in the city of Odda, Norway around 1927. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Bacterial oxidation is a bio-hydrometallurgical process developed for pre-cyanidation treatment of refractory gold ores or concentrates. ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... The Girdler Sulfide process is an industrial production method for making heavy water (dideuterium oxide), an important component of many nuclear reactors because it acts as a neutron moderator. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Steam reforming, hydrogen reforming or catalytic oxidation, is a method of producing hydrogen from hydrocarbons. ... The water gas shift reaction is an organic reaction in which water and carbon monoxide react to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen (water splitting) CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 The water gas shift reaction is part of steam reforming of hydrocarbons and is involved in the chemistry of catalytic converters While... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous reddish white Atomic mass 208. ... The Betts electrolytic process is an industrial process for separating lead and bismuth. ... The Betterton-Kroll process is an industrial process for removing bismuth from lead. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... The Ostwald process is chemical process for producing nitric acid, which was developed by Wilhelm Ostwald (patented 1902). ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Pulping refers to the system of destroying unsold books (usually but not always mass market paperbacks). ... The Kraft process (also known as Kraft pulping or sulfate process) is used in production of paper pulp and involves the use of caustic sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide to extract the lignin from wood chips in large pressure vessels called digesters. ... ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Vulcanization refers to a specific curing process of rubber involving high heat and the addition of sulfur. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... The Alberger process is a method of producing salt. ... The Grainer evaporation process is a method of producing salt. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... The Bridgeman technique is a method of growing single crystal ingots or boules. ... The Czochralski process is a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors (e. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... The patio process was a process used to refine silver from silver sulfide ores. ... The Parkes process is a pyrometallurgical industrial process for removing silver from lead, during the production of bullion. ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... The Leblanc process was the industrial process for the production of soda ash (sodium carbonate) used throughout the 19th century. ... Chemistry The Solvay process calcium carbonate: CaCO3 → CO2 + CaO The solid sodium bicarbonate is then filtered out and converted to sodium carbonate by heating it, recovering some carbon dioxide in the process: 2 NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2 Meanwhile, ammonia is recovered from the ammonium chloride byproduct by treating the ammonium... The Leblanc-Deacon process is a modification of the Leblanc process. ... Sulfuric acid (British English: sulphuric acid), H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... The Lead Chamber Process was an industrial process used to produce relatively strong concentrations of sulfuric acid in large quantities. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... The Hunter process was the first industrial process to produce pure ductile metallic titanium, and was invented in 1910 by M. A. Hunter, an American chemist. ... The Kroll process is a pyrometallurgical industrial process used to produce metallic titanium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... The Hunter process was the first industrial process to produce pure ductile metallic titanium, and was invented in 1910 by M. A. Hunter, an American chemist. ... The Kroll process is a pyrometallurgical industrial process used to produce metallic titanium. ... The crystal bar process (or Iodide process) was discovered by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hedrik de Boer in 1925. ... The crystal bar process (or Iodide process) was discovered by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hedrik de Boer in 1925. ...

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