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Encyclopedia > Industrial ecology

Industrial ecology is the shifting of industrial process from open loop systems, in which resource and capital investments move through the system to become waste, to a closed loop system where wastes become inputs for new processes.


Industrial ecology was proposed in 1989 in Scientific American by Robert Frosch and Nicholas E. Gallopoulous. Frosch and Gallopoulos vision was "why would not our industrial system behave like an ecosystem, where the wastes of a species may be resource to another species? Why would not the outputs of an industry be the inputs of another, thus reducing use of raw materials, pollution, and saving on waste treatment?". Robert Alan Frosch (born 1928) is a U.S. administrator and physicist. ... In ecology, the word ecosystem is an abbreviation of the term, ecological system. ... Natural resources are naturally occuring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... WASTE is a peer-to-peer and friend-to-friend protocol and piece of software developed by Justin Frankel at Nullsoft in 2003. ...


However, Frosch's and Gallopoulos' thinking was in certain ways simply an extension of earlier ideas, such as the efficiency and waste-reduction thinking annunciated by Buckminster Fuller and his students (e.g., J. Baldwin), and parallel ideas about energy cogeneration, such as those of Amory Lovins and the Rocky Mountain Institute. In the U.S. postage stamp commemorating Buckminster Fuller and his contributions to architecture and science, some of his inventions are visible. ... James Tennant Baldwin (whose books and articles have been published under the names J. Baldwin, Jay Baldwin, and James T. Baldwin) is an American industrial designer and writer born in 1934. ... Cogeneration (also combined heat and power or CHP) is the use of a power station to simultaneously generate both heat and electricity. ... Amory Bloch Lovins (born November 13, 1947 in Washington, DC) was trained in physics and has worked professionally as an environmentalist. ...


However, the term Industrial Ecology was first introduced by Harry Zvi Evan at a seminar of the Economic Commission of Europe in Warsaw (Poland) in 1973 and an article was subsequently published by Evan in the Journal for International Labour Review in 1974 (vol. 110 (3), pp. 219-233). Evan defined industrial ecology a systematic analysis of industrial operations by including factors like: Technology, environment, natural resources, bio-medical aspects, institutional and legal matters as well as the socio-economic aspects.


Industrial ecology proposes not to see industrial systems (for example a plant, an ecoregion, or national or global economy) as being separate from the biosphere, but to consider it as a particular case of an ecosystem - but based on infrastructural capital rather than on natural capital. It is the idea that if natural systems do not have waste in them, we should model our systems after natural ones if we want them to be sustainable. An ecoregion is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... The biosphere is that part of a planets outer shell—including air, land, surface rocks and water—within which life occurs, and which biotic processes in turn alter or transform. ... In ecology, the word ecosystem is an abbreviation of the term, ecological system. ... Infrastructural capital refers to any physical means of production or means of protection beyond that which can be gathered or found directly in nature, i. ... Natural capital is a metaphor for the mineral, plant, and animal formations of the Earths biosphere when viewed as a means of production of oxygen, water filter, erosion preventer, or provider of other natural services. ... Sustainable - the ability to maintain into perpetuity. ...


Along with more general energy conservation and material conservation goals, and redefining commodity markets and product stewardship relations strictly as a service economy, industrial ecology is one of the four objectives of Natural Capitalism. This strategy discourages forms of amoral purchasing arising from ignorance of what goes on at a distance and implies a political economy that values natural capital highly and relies on more instructional capital to design and maintain each unique industrial ecology. Natural gas stoves are more energy-efficient than electric models. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Product stewardship is the inclusion of waste disposal measures in the distribution chain of an industrial product. ... Service economy can refer to one or both of two recent economic developments. ... Natural capitalism is a set of trends and economic reforms to reward energy and material efficiency - and remove professional standards and accounting conventions that prevent such efficiencies. ... Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... Natural capital is a metaphor for the mineral, plant, and animal formations of the Earths biosphere when viewed as a means of production of oxygen, water filter, erosion preventer, or provider of other natural services. ... Instructional capital is a term used in educational administration, to reflect capital resulting from investment in producing learning materials. ...


The scientific field Industrial Ecology has grown fast in recent years. The Journal of Industrial Ecology (since 1997), the International Society for Industrial Ecology(since 2001), and the journal Progress in Industrial Ecology (since 2004) give Industrial Ecology a strong and dynamic position in the international scientific community.


See also

Sustainable development is a process of developing (land, cities, business, communities, etc) that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs according to the Brundtland Report, a 1987 report from the United Nations. ... Sustainable use is the use of resources at a rate which will meet the needs of the present without impairing the ability of future generations to meet their needs. ... Conservation may refer to the following: Conservation ethic in relation to preserving ecosystems Conservationist Conservation movement Conservation ecology Conservation biology Energy conservation in reducing non-renewable energy consumption Conservation law of physics Conservation of energy Conservation of mass Conservation (genetics) in genetics Conservation (botany) in botanical nomenclature Conservation (psychology) in...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Industrial ecology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (506 words)
Industrial ecology is the shifting of industrial process from open loop systems, in which resource and capital investments move through the system to become waste, to a closed loop system where wastes become inputs for new processes.
Industrial ecology was proposed in 1989 in Scientific American by Robert Frosch.
Industrial ecology proposes not to see industrial systems (for example a plant, an ecoregion, or national or global economy) as being separate from the biosphere, but to consider it as a particular case of an ecosystem - but based on infrastructural capital rather than on natural capital.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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