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Encyclopedia > Industrial archaeology

Industrial archaeology, like other branches of archeology, is the study of the past, but with a focus on industry or industrial heritage. Industrial archaeology concerns itself with the physical remains of industry. It is born out of the need to record and preserve the remains of industrialisation before they disappear. The study is a multi-disciplinary one encompassing engineering, architecture, economics and social aspects of manufacturing/extractive industry as well as the transport and utilities sector. However, not all aspects of a particular industry would fall under the definition of industrial archaeology. Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In chemistry, liquid-liquid extraction (or more briefly, solvent extraction) is a useful method to separate components (compounds) of a mixture. ...


The term was coined in the 1950s in Birmingham by Michael Rix (Palmer 1998:1), although its meaning and interpretation has changed with use and time. Palmer and Neaverson (Industrial Archaeology Principles and Practice, 1998) defined industrial archaeology as: “the systematic study of structures and artifacts as a means of enlarging our understanding of the industrial past.” See also Birmingham, USA, and other places called Birmingham. ...


As an interest initially practiced largely by amateurs, it has in the past been looked down upon by professional archaeologists. However, with growing awareness of the usefulness of archaeological study of the recent past, elements of what were formerly 'industrial archaeology' have been welcomed into the broader framework of mainstream archaeology. Since the timeframe of study is relatively recent, industrial archaeology is well placed to develop on the basis of more reliable and absolute recording of its past, present and future than other areas of archaeological interest.


Those interested may make field trips to abandoned or mostly forgotten industrial sites, or may examine annual reports, engineering and building drawings and documentation, government documents and surveys, and other historical materials to try to determine and document what sorts of activities went on, and why, at a particular site, and construct a history or timeline that shows how a site developed and changed (and potentially when and why it was abandoned) over time.


One example of such a site is the Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site, site of the first integrated iron works in North America. Since the site dates to the 1600s, developing a clear understanding of what was done, and how it was carried out, as well as the facility arrangement, was a painstaking and difficult process. Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site is the site of the first integrated ironworks in North America, 1646-1668. ...


One of the first areas in the UK to be the subject of a systematic study of 'industrial archaeology' was the Ironbridge Gorge in Shropshire, UK. This landscape developed from the seventeenth century as one of the first industrial landscapes, and by the 18th century had a range of extractive industries as well as extensive iron making, ceramic manufacturing (including porcelain and decorative tiles) and a series of early railways. The significance of the Ironbridge Gorge was recognised in 1986 with its designation as a World Heritage Site, and work by the Ironbridge Archaeology unit over recent years has revealed a great deal about both technological and social developments during the post-medieval period. The Ironbridge Gorge looking east towards the Iron Bridge that gave the gorge its name View of the Warfage taken from the centre of the bridge Map sources for Ironbridge Gorge at grid reference SJ672033 The Ironbridge Gorge is a deep gorge formed by the river Severn in Shropshire, England. ... Shropshire (abbreviated Salop or Shrops) is a traditional, ceremonial and administrative county in the West Midlands region of England. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικος (keramikos, having to do with pottery). The term covers inorganic non-metallic materials whose formation is due to the action of heat. ... Porcelain is a hard ceramic substance made by heating at high temperature selected and refined materials often including clay in the form of kaolinite. ... Mission, or barrel, roof tiles For the towns named Tile, see Tile, Somalia and Tile, Lebanon. ... The Ironbridge Gorge looking east towards the Iron Bridge that gave the gorge its name View of the Warfage taken from the centre of the bridge Map sources for Ironbridge Gorge at grid reference SJ672033 The Ironbridge Gorge is a deep gorge formed by the river Severn in Shropshire, England. ... Site #86: Memphis and its Necropolis, including the Pyramids of Giza (Egypt). ... Post-medieval archaeology is term used in Europe to describe the study of the material past over the last 500 years. ...


Following the pioneering lead of Ironbridge, other areas have been subject to often innovative studies. Recent work in Manchester, UK, by the university field unit have led to new approaches. Sheffield, UK, is another intently studied locality of industrial archaeology in the world. Over the last decade a concerted effort by ARCUSand the University of Sheffield has led to Sheffield's 18th and 19th century history as a steel producer being revealed. This has been enabled by both a massive series of redevelopments allowing access to the archaeology, and the realisation that such studies can benefit the community and our understanding of the past as a whole. Manchester is a city in the North West of England. ... For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ... The University of Sheffield is a leading university, located in Sheffield, UK. // History The University of Sheffield was originally formed by the merger of three colleges. ... The old steel cable of a colliery winding tower Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon being the primary alloying material. ...

Contents


Topics in industrial archaeology

See List of industrial archaeology topics This is a list of topics typically studied by students of industrial archaeology. ...


Exclusions

Industrial archaeologists generally do not study these topics:

  • Railways: Train, Rolling Stock
  • Electricity: Anything below a power station, unless it has architectural merit. The social aspects of rolling out a transmission network would be included, but recording individuals pylons would not.
  • Canals: Boat, Barge, Narrowboat

For other types of train see train (disambiguation) In rail transport, a train consists of a single or several connected rail vehicles that are capable of being moved together along a guideway to transport freight or passengers from one place to another along a planned route. ... Lobster boat A boat is a watercraft, usually smaller than most ships. ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ... A narrowboat is a boat or small barge used on narrow beam canals in Britain. ...

Academic programs

At least one university (Michigan Technological University) grants a degree in Industrial History and Archaeology. Michigan Technological University (abbr. ...


A typical Masters of Science program in Industrial History and Archaeology may draw on historical archaeology, anthropology of industry, history of technology, and historical preservation fields of study. The doctoral program in Industrial Heritage and Archeology may expand to include work in American or European civilization, architectural history, material culture, and heritage management.


Organizational charters

There are at least two national industrial archaeology societies or organizations known to exist.


An organization such as the Society for Industrial Archaeology (SIA) or Association for Industrial Archaeology (AIA) is an organisation for people who share an interest in the industrial past. It brings together people who are researching, recording, preserving and presenting industrial heritage. Industrial architecture, mineral extraction, heritage-based tourism, power technology, adaptive re-use of industrial buildings and transport history are just some of the themes that could be investigated by society members. The Association for Industrial Archaeology is a body supporting the excavation, reporting and preservation of the physical remains of the Industrial Revolution in the United Kingdom. ...


It may also be involved in advising on historic preservation matters, or advising government units on revision or demolition of significant sites or buildings.


See also

Box Tunnel is a railway tunnel in western England, between Bath and Chippenham, dug through the Box Hill. ... Quarry Bank Mill is an historic factory in Cheshire, England, one of the best preserved of the Industrial Revolution. ... Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site is the site of the first integrated ironworks in North America, 1646-1668. ...

External links

General

Societies and organisations

National Organisations

Local Organisations

Reference materials

Degree Programs

Michigan Technological University (abbr. ... The University of Birmingham is an English university in the city of Birmingham. ...

Further reading

  • Cossons, N. (ed.) (2000) Perspectives on Industrial Archaeology London: Science Museum
  • Daunton, M. J. (1995) Progress and Poverty Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • Deetz, J .(1977) In Small Things Forgotten New York: Doubleday
  • Engles, F. (1845) The Condition of the Working Class in England Engles
  • Gaskell, E. (1848) Mary Barton Elizabeth Gaskell
  • Hamond, F. McMahon, M. (2002) Recording and Conserving Ireland's Industrial Heritage
  • Hills, R. L. (1989) Power from Steam Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  • Kane, R. (1844) Industrial Resources of Ireland Robert Kane (chemist)
  • McCutcheon, W.A. (1984) The Industrial Archaeology of Northern Ireland Belfast
  • Newman, R. (2001) The Historical Archaeology of Britain c.1540-1900 Stroud: Sutton Publishing
  • Orser, C. E. (1996) Images of the Recent Past Walnut Creek: Sage Publications
  • Palmer, M. Neverson, P. (1998) Industrial Archaeology - Principles and Practice London: Routledge
  • Smith, A. (1776) The Wealth of Nations Adam Smith
  • Thomas, J. (ed.) (2000) Interpretive Archaeology - A Reader London: Leicester University Press
  • Watkins, G. The Textile Mill Engine Ashbourne: Landmark Publishing

  Results from FactBites:
 
Industrial archaeology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (940 words)
Industrial archaeology, like other branches of archeology, is the study of the past, but with a focus on industry or industrial heritage.
Industrial archaeology concerns itself with the physical remains of industry.
One of the first areas in the UK to be the subject of a systematic study of 'industrial archaeology' was the Ironbridge Gorge in Shropshire, UK.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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