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Encyclopedia > Industrial and organizational psychology
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Transpersonal Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Image File history File links Psi2. ... The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates, in Europe, back to the Late Middle Ages. ... Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. ... In psychology, biological psychology or psychobiology[1] is the application of the principles of biology to the study of mental processes and behavior. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated EP) is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, i. ... Mathematical Psychology is an approach to psychological research that is based on mathematical modeling of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes, and on the establishment of law-like rules that relate quantifiable stimulus characteristics with quantifiable behavior. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... Positive psychology is a relatively young branch of psychology that studies the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive. ... Psychonomics describes an approach to psychology that aims at discovering the laws (Greek: nomos) that govern the workings of the mind (Greek: psyche). The field is directly related to experimental psychology. ... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ... Transpersonal psychology is a school of psychology that studies the transpersonal, the transcendent or spiritual aspects of the human mind. ...

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Industrial and organizational psychology (also known as I/O psychology, work psychology, work and organizational psychology, W-O psychology, occupational psychology, personnel psychology or talent assessment) concerns the application of psychological theories, research methods, and intervention strategies to workplace issues. I/O psychologists are interested in making organizations more productive while ensuring workers are able to lead physically and psychologically healthy lives. Relevant topics include personnel psychology, motivation and leadership, employee selection, training and development, organization development and guided change, organizational behavior, and work and family issues. I/O psychologists who work for an organization are most likely to work in the HR (human resources) department. However, many I/O psychologists pursue careers as independent consultants or applied academic researchers. I/O psychology is one of the many domains that should be assessed when conducting psychological research when answering applied questions. Psychological science redirects here. ... Look up Motivation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Leader redirects here. ... Organizational Studies (also known as Industrial Organizations, Organizational Behavior and I/O) is a distinct field of academic study which takes as its subject organizations, examining them using the methods of economics, sociology, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ... This article is about human resources as it applies to business, labor, and economies. ... A consultant is a professional that provides expert advice in a particular domain or area of expertise such as accountancy, information technology, the law, human resources, marketing, medicine, finance or more esoteric areas of knowledge, for example engineering and scientific specialties such as materials science, instrumentation, avionics, and stress analysis. ...

Contents

Overview

Industrial and Organizational (I/O) Psychology (Division 14 of the American Psychological Association) as a specialty area has a more restricted definition than Psychology as a whole. Guion (1965) defines Industrial and Organizational Psychology as "the scientific study of the relationship between man and the world of work:... in the process of making a living" (p. 817). Blum and Naylor (1968) define it as "simply the application or extension of psychological facts and principles to the problems concerning human beings operating within the context of business and industry" (p 4). Broadly speaking, I/O Psychologists are concerned with human behavior in work contexts. According to Muchinsky, the applied side of I/O Psychology is concerned with utilizing knowledge gathered from scientific inquiry "to solve real problems in the world of work". Example problems include hiring better employees, reducing absenteeism, improving communication, and increasing job satisfaction. The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ...


One of the tools I/O psychologists commonly utilize in the field is called a job analysis. Job analyses identify essential characteristics associated with any particular position through interviews of job incumbents, subject matter experts, supervisors and/or past job descriptions. Job analyses measure both worker facets necessary to perform the job adequately (aka KSAOs - knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics as well as unique facets of the job itself. Once a job analysis is complete, I/O psychologists will typically utilize this information to design and validate systems to select new applicants, restructure employee performance appraisals, uncover training needs, and analyze fairness in employee compensation. Though a thorough job analysis takes time, resources and money, its benefits tend to outweigh the costs. Job Analysis refers to various methodologies for analyzing the requirements of a job. ... This article is about the Atlas Supervisor computer program. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Performance appraisal, also known as employee appraisal, is a method by which the performance of an employee is evaluated (generally in terms of quality, quantity, cost and time). ...

  • I/O Psychologists are professionals seeking to address real-world issues or problems in the workplace.

o As scientists, they derive principles of individual, group, and organizational behavior through research.



o As consultants and staff psychologists, they develop scientific knowledge and apply it to the solution of problems at work.



o As teachers, they train in the research and application of I/O Psychology



I/O psychologists also may employ psychometric tests to measure the abilities and personality traits of prospective and current employees. These tests are commonly used for employee selection and other employment decisions. Employee attitudes such as morale, job satisfaction, or feelings towards management or customers are other commonly measured work-related person variables. Psychological testing or psychological assessment is a field characterized by the use of samples of behavior in order to infer generalizations about a given individual. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Increasingly, people factors are recognized as a major determinant of organizational performance and a key competitive differential. Psychologists therefore may also advise senior managers on the management of organizational climate or culture, on dealing with organizational change, or on group dynamics within an organization. It is probably partly for this reason that management coaching is an increasingly popular part of the psychologist's work. A psychologist is an expert in psychology, the systematic investigation of the human mind, including behavior, cognition, and affect. ...


Industrial and organizational psychology is a diverse field incorporating aspects of disciplines such as social psychology, personality psychology and quantitative psychology (which includes psychometrics) as well as less closely linked social studies such as law. As a diverse, applied field, influences from any branch of psychology, even clinical psychology, are not uncommon. At one point in time, industrial and organizational psychology was not distinguished from vocational (counseling) psychology or the study of human factors. Although the foregoing disciplines still overlap with industrial and organizational psychology, today they are formally taught in separate classes and housed in separate graduate-level psychology programs within a psychology department. Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... Quantitative psychology is the application of statistical and mathematical methods to the study of psychology. ... For the parapsychology phenomenon of distance knowledge, see psychometry. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... Counseling psychology is an application of the basic professional skills in psychology to a population that has been more located in schools rather than hospitals and clinics. ... Human factors is an umbrella term for several areas of research that include human performance, technology, design, and human-computer interaction. ...


Many industrial and organizational psychologists specialize in one of the following aspects: psychometrics; quality; employment law; personnel selection; training; leadership selection, coaching and development; organizational design and change. Many of these activities are referred to as talent management. Some I/O psychologists are academic (working in both business and psychology departments) or non-academic researchers, while many others are engaged in practice, holding positions such as the following:

  • Board of Directors Chairman
  • Governing Board Chairman
  • Board Chairman
  • Personnel Committee Chairman
  • CEO
  • Technical Recruiter
  • Selection Committee Chairman
  • Vendor Services Executive Committee
  • Executive coach
  • Senior Personnel Officer
  • College of Business Associate Dean
  • Psychology Faculty
  • Employment Specialist
  • Staffing Specialist
  • Job Developer
  • Vocational Specialist
  • Co-Producer of Professional Development and Training.
  • Academic Adviser
  • VP of Management Services
  • Vice President
  • Staffing Consultant
  • Recruiter
  • legislative compliance officer
  • labor relations specialist
  • ADA Trainer / Account Manager
  • Human Resources Assistant
  • human resources specialist
  • Process improvement consultant
  • Manager of selection and training
  • Employee Benefits
  • Counselor
  • Diversity Consultant

Job Functions and Duties

Job functions, duties and responsibilities carried out by individuals holding a degree in Industrial and Organizational Psychology and Business Administration with business minor emphasizing Marketing and Employee Relations graduate course work include, but are not limited to, the following.

  • Use of Robert's Rules of Order parliamentarian procedures to facilitate and participate in orderly and effective corporate, organizational, committee and legislative meetings and training others on it.
  • Writing and editing.
  • Interface with the private and public for profit corporations.
  • Interface with private non-profit corporations and organizations.
  • Interface with several United States of America (U.S.A.) governmental agencies and stakeholders including city , county state and federal government agencies.
  • Introduce legislation and motions to various governing bodies.
  • Interpret and explain motions and resolutions to-be-introduced.
  • Review, approval, interpretation and oversight of implementation of organizational constitution, bylaws and articles of incorporation.
  • Sales and marketing strategies design, development and implementation.
  • Gain internal and external stakeholders buy-in on policy, referendums, procedures update.
  • Conduct needs assessment to define project scope, deliverables and implementation plan.
  • Create and drive the implementation of marketing strategies that increase technical recruiting, job placement and career services revenue.
  • Recommending top candidates to final hiring person.
  • Articulate organizational vision, mission and values.
  • Programs image re-positioning.
  • Chairmanship
  • Assist decision-makers and facilitate the decision-making process within several governing bodies.
  • Abide by the Brown Act regulations for posting notices of public meetings.
  • Governing board retreat strategic agenda development and retreat activities planning.
  • Foster a culture of and Improving performance, productivity and results.
  • Decrease micromanagement
  • Starting up new business units and penetrating markets to gain market share.
  • Interlocking board and or personnel matters committee members
  • Executive management
  • Governing Board relations.
  • Supervision of professional executive management and clerical staff
  • Strategic planning and work force restructuring
  • Using the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).
  • Oversee, plan, direct, coordinate and / or participate in corporate operations.
  • Track & report billable hours; accounts payable (A/P) and account receivable (A/R) and expenses
  • Invoicing
  • Budgeting: Resource forecast, management, allocation and monitoring.
  • Starting up organizations, companies.
  • Run the full cycle of candidate recruiting and client company development and management.
  • Technical Recruiting
  • Developing and implementing direct and indirect technical recruiting strategies.
  • Consult with hiring managers, executives and founders about recruiting requirements.
  • Facilitate resolution of volatile political issues.
  • Liaison between employment services organizations, job candidates and client companies.
  • Individual human achievement coaching.
  • Interview, check references, match candidates and personnel needs, Schedule and coordinate interviews, follow-up and follow through to turning candidate down and / or extend job offers, and getting acceptance of job offer / candidate.
  • Personnel Management
  • Interpret and implement personnel policies and procedures.
  • Staff planning, direction, Recruiting, selection, hiring, new employee orientation and evaluation
  • Risk management (damage-control)
  • Interact with constituencies or stake-holders of diverging views.
  • Collect, review, approve and report multiple departments’ employees payroll to human resources accounting unit.
  • Review and recommend steps to bring consistency or congruency of employee handbooks with Human Resources Policies and Procedures.
  • Personnel Policies Administration
  • Personnel Research Design, Statistical Analysis and Interpretation.
  • General Statistical Analysis
  • University Teaching
  • Personnel Statistical Analysis.
  • Research Design and Analysis
  • Individual and group coaching
  • Design, develop and implement position (job openings) tracking systems.
  • General Management
  • Job Placement services
  • Analysis of and advice to management on complex personnel issues.
  • Design and administer weighted personnel selection tools.
  • Research and write labor relations manual
  • Utilize word processing, spreadsheet and statistical analysis software packages to present human resources projects data, statistical analysis and interpretation, conclusions and recommendations.
  • Research, review, summarize and present complex information in an understandable manner to audiences varying in education levels (ranging from Ph.D. to only 7th grade or GED) and fields of expertise.
  • Conduct wage surveys to determine prevailing wage.
  • Analyze and interpret data.
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Ensure validity and reliability of job analysis and

Job performance evaluation system and its tools whether using quantitative, qualitative statistical data and analysis, and / or weighted scoring type of tools; whether one-to-one evaluation, peer-to-peer or the more complex 360 degree job performance evaluation, ensuring the validity and fairness of the data and how its valid statistical analysis, interpretation and recommendations, pointing out the flows of the data in a 360 degree evaluation system such a political witch-hunt, comments or impute filled with personal venderas or other irrelevant matters. This is s huge area where the backing of major corporate officers such as HR Head or the expert backing of a PhD with Statistical research and design analysis can be paramount to adding credibility to the person presenting the outcomes from such an evaluation system to say a board of directors or major committee evaluating a major key player in for example a head of an executive management team.

  • Personnel compensation reviews
  • Review and increase validity and reliability of evaluation surveys to for example comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) U.S.A. Federal Law.
  • Communicate effectively with Exam and Testing Units Heads, Senior Personnel Analysts, Agencies Heads and / or representatives and EEO personnel to discuss and negotiate employment testing reasonable accommodations for job candidates.
  • Price Standardization of office support services.
  • Writing Excel formulas to track data and perform calculations.
  • Facilities safety and security coordination and standards.
  • Design and implementation of pre-employment testing via work sample.
  • Review and recommend vendors policies/procedures.
  • Vendor relations.
  • Review vendors contract performance and compliance.
  • Respond to RFP’s / RFQ’s submittals.
  • Quality assurance.
  • Communicate policies and procedures
  • Respond to employee grievances.
  • Research and interpret personnel laws, solve problems, explain requirements and make decisions often with the aide of legal council.
  • Employee Relations (e.g. Federal and State laws, regulations and or guidelines relevant to 1) Performance Management and Evaluation; 2) I-9 Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986; 3) Americans with Disabilities (ADA); 4) Sections 503 / 504 of the Rehabilitation Act; 5) Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO); 6) Affirmative Action (A.A); 7) Racial, ethnic, multi-lingual, disability, gender, political and nationality diversity issues management.)
  • Design, review and performance of records filling and management to meet and sustain strict confidentiality and documentation standards of certification by accrediting institutions
  • Research and write content of participatory seminars on professional development topics such as time management, implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), conducting effective job performance appraisals, stress management, anger management and conflict resolution.
  • Standardize sales price of Office support services.
  • Enhance R business processes (e.g. employment recruiting and selection, new employee orientation, staff development policies and procedures, catastrophic leave policy EEO and implementation of the ADA), customer service, and staff development.
  • Address staff inquiries about compensation grades
  • Employment and Classification (e.g. job candidate testing design and interview questions development, evaluation standards design, Job restructuring involving job enlargement and job enrichment.)
  • Shift differential policy.
  • Catastrophic leave policy.
  • Retirement benefits policy.
  • COLA's and MSA's requests, reviews and recommendations.
  • Office space management

Equipment and supplies policies.

  • Responding to and requesting position reclassification.
  • Write job descriptions.
  • Coordinate and conduct job analyses.
  • Contact presenters to gain their commitment in principle.
  • Fostering relationships for a department in order to gain internal expertise cooperation and participation.
  • Design, and coordinate job performance appraisal (evaluation) systems.
  • Train professionals and clerical staff on providing reasonable accommodations to implement the ADA and / or sections 503 and 504 of the Rehabilitation Act whichever laws were applicable.
  • Market post-secondary educational institutions and admissions requirements.
  • Manage & prioritize multiple projects.
  • Use Statistical Analysis Software such as Statview.
  • Use Emailing and Scheduling System such as GroupWise
  • Use Client and Program Management System such as Metsys software.
  • Introduce revised elections codes to governing bodies to meet ADA Federal Law requirements of programmatic and physical accessibility.
  • Monitor compliance with Fair Labor Standards Act
  • Monitor compliance with EEO laws and guidelines.

Methodologies in Organizational Psychology

There are also a number of methodologies specifically dedicated to Organizational Psychology such as Peter Senge’s 5th Discipline and Arthur F. Carmazzi’s Directive Communication. These are a variety of psychological approaches that have been developed into a system for specific outcomes such as the 5th Discipline’s “learning organization” or Directive Communication’s “Organizational culture enhancement”. Peter Michael Senge was the Director of the Center for Organizational Learning at the MIT Sloan School of Management, and is presently (2005) on the faculty at MIT. He is the founding chair of the Society for Organizational Learning (SoL). ... Organizational culture, or corporate culture, comprises the attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values of an organization. ...


In an attempt to correct for statistical artifacts (i.e., sampling error, unreliability and range restriction) that compromise the ability of I/O psychologists to draw general conclusions from a single study, I/O researchers have increasingly employed a technique known as meta-analysis. Meta-analysis is a methodology for averaging results across studies. It has been used to address research questions involving various levels of analysis (i.e., individual, group, organizational, and/or vocational). Although the use of meta-analytic methods is not without controversy, its more frequent appearance in the I/O research literature has profoundly impacted the field. The most well-known meta-analytic approaches are those of Hunter & Schmidt (1990, 2004), Rosenthal (1991), and Hedges & Olkin (1985). A meta-analysis is a statistical practice of combining the results of a number of studies. ...


Financial compensation of industrial and organizational psychologists generally is among the highest in the whole field of psychology. While salary and benefits tend to be significantly greater in the private sector, academics who specialize in industrial and organizational psychology may command greater compensation than their faculty peers. Teaching (and sometimes research) opportunities exist in business schools as well as in psychology programs. Business schools typically offer more generous salaries and benefits than do psychology programs. Some academics choose to gain practical experience and access to data, as well as to supplement their incomes, by engaging in consulting work on the side.


History

Frederick W. Taylor’ Contributions to Personnel Management and The United States of America (U.S.A) Government

 The author of Frederick W. Taylor: Father of Scientific Management”, Volume two (2) reveals to us how Frederick W. Taylor, also well-known us the engineer in management, after he advanced personnel management in various private manufacturing companies such as the Bethelhelm company, during the last several decades of the 1800’s, continued his efforts to promote and further give time and effort towards the furtherance of it. 
 Taylor did advance core components, concepts, principles and applications or practices such as the following with the United States of America Federal Government during the first decade of the 1900’s and before 1907 of what we now call HRM, HRD, HR, Human Capital Management, Personnel Management, Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Development or whatever we might call it now and or in the future and have called it in the past: 

• Job Performance Measurement.


• Job Analysis.


• Job Design.


• Job Enrichment.


• Job Enlargement.


• Job Restructuring.


• Benchmarking / Standardizing


• Delegating


• Change Process Management.


• Classifications.


• Cost-Benefit Analysis.


• Applied Motivation at Work.


• Organizational Re-Engineering / Reduction-In-Labor Force / Down-Sizing / Right-Sizing or Laying-Off.

 Taylor also brought into our field very good basic economics concepts, theories, and practices such as: 

• Return-On-Investment (ROI).


• Break-Even Point.


• Feasibility Study and Analysis.

 Although he might have had used different words to refer to the above terms, the meaning, the activity involved in, the information sought, gained and objective of its use were the same as what the henceforth mentioned contributed concepts, principles and practices of management usually mean. If you are able to see this in the content of the text book written about him, you might begin to see that our field is a spectacularly advanced science which has been around more than 200 years. 
 In fact beginnings of the science of management introduced by Taylor were so well advanced for the time that Frederick W. Taylor Scientific Management enlightened a high caliber management team named “Vickers” brought from England which was going to be used in the NAVY in lieu of Taylor’s by one skeptic major division. 
 According to the author of the text book about Taylor’s systems, there is no account of weather The Vicker’s System was ever used in the NAVY. Taylor’s certainly was adopted and used more by some than by others. This is not to say that our U.S.A. Government was behind the A-Ball before Taylor joined them. It was not at all. On the contrary, when Taylor executed his in-kind “government-efficiency” consulting service with the ARMY, he found that they were quite advanced already. In the first decade of 1900 The ARMY already “selected officers from the line by competitive examinations” or what we might now refer to as civil service process (Vol. 2; pp 328). 
 Taylor’s first contributions to this science within The United States of America (U.S.A.) Government (Frederick W. Taylor Father of Scientific Management, First edition 1923, reprinted 1969, pp. 210-327) were with the engineering and manufacturing work of The NAVY’s yards and of The ARMY’s Ordenance Department (Frederick W. Taylor Father of Scientific Management, Vol. II, First edition 1923, reprinted 1969, pp. 328 – 352). Now we are able to apply them to other industries, and business-sectors such as the non-profit sector, the for-profit sector, the public sector, the private sector, the start-up sector, City, County and state government agencies and more federal agencies and in entrepreneur endeavors. 

In addition to the terms mentioned previously, Frederick W. Taylor alos contributed the term "First-Class Men", which in personnel selection is key. We look for the best fit between the job and the person. Taylor presented a House Committee a pretty nifty description of the meaning he inteneded when he used the term "First-Class Men." His description is as useful today as it might have been when he educated the house committee on the subject. In the following parragraphs, you will find an executive summary using methorphors and parallel thinking as opposed to linear, describing the term creatively. Furthermore,l it allows us to see how well developed and rich the Indsutrial and Organizational Psychology history is in its thought provoking ideas and yet simpllcity in its down to earth illustrations of its concepts.


Definition of the Term First-Class Men

Taylor’s definition of the term “First-Class Men” as he used it is furnished through an illustration, using the great capacity of horses. He used before the Special House Committee” this illustration in which he presented the “types of horses and the use for which they were intended. He explained how if you had 300 to 400 horses in a stable, you will have horses intended specially for hauling coal wagons, horses for hauling grocery wagons; you will have a certain number of trotting horses, a certain number of sattle (pleasure horses) and of ponies in that stable” (Frederick W. Taylor Father of Scientific Management, Vol. II, First edition 1923, reprinted 1969, pp. 76 to 77). Let’s say you ran out of coal hauling horses on a given day and you decide to use grocery wagon hauling horses he continued. The grocery hauling wagon horse would not be a first-class horse for hauling coal wagons. Would it? No, it would not. It would be a second class horse. You may not even have a grocery wagon hauling horse available, in which case, you may decide to use a treating horse; this wouldn’t be a first-class horse either. It would be a second class horse, he explained, or maybe even third for they are less fit than the grocery wagon hauling horse and much less than the coal wagon hauling horse to haul such a heavy duty, high weight material as coal. Last resort if you ran out of all the horses, you, at times, may need to use a Pony he said. The least fit of the three to haul coal wagons. However, do not think ponies are not physically fit; I remember my father while training a pony he had bought for me and my brother before our teenage years got thrown off of it and dragged around in circles. While ponies are not fully trained, they can wrestle you to ground fast and using the element of surprise. They seem easy to get them to do whatever you want them to or to be quickly tamable but they are not if you move on too heavily on them or try to tame them with too much force or heavy weight per my own observation. A pony while very welcoming and easy going can easily bring a tamer on his knees and drag him through the mud, hey, green grass and rocks. My dad was just hanging on to the rope. Luckily he did not get hurt when he pushed the pony too much or beyond the pony’s acceptable threshold of pain.


Now, the grocery wagon hauling horse would be a first-class horse to pull grocery wagons just as a trotting horse would be first-class, and not second class, for riding pleasure.


A pony might also be a first-class horse as far as say trotting for children and young adults under age 18 for gee 18 but not for adults over it. They may later on become first-class trotting horses for adults, but not coal-wagon hauling horses.


On a different dimension of objects from the henceforth mentioned, which used an animal kingdom specie, lets say now us that of an inanimate noun such as the coal wagons and grocery wagons. A coal-wagon is first-class wagon obviously for carrying coal, but not to carry groceries because it is not going to be very clean. Similarly with the case of grocery wagons, a grocery wagon is not a first-class wagon to carry coal for it might not stand the heavy weight. However, it would certainly be first-class to carry groceries.


An easy, yet, impractical solution may well be to make the load of coal wagon so light that even a pony could carry it, or a task so easy, at which point you are making a fool out of yourself, that the task can be done by a second class animal when in fact to be effective and efficient it most be made by a first-class animal. And that is an illustration of using, in specie different from the human specie, the term “First-Class” by Taylor in management.


Taylor’s metaphor was not intended to compare or diminish a worker or laborer’s dignity or value to that of an animal, namely, a horse, or of an inanimate noun such as a hauling wagon. It was nothing but a mere way of using a metaphor or parallel thinking to convey his point which took us as a variable out of the equation. He genuinely and savvyly took a scenario outside our own human species in a situation where human beings would decide which subject (i.e. horses and wagons) within their own categories would be best qualified to do or perform or achieve the job that required doing; which inanimate subject would be determined as first-class and on the basis on which the individual is determined to do the job is simply illustrated by the horses example. This utility of term is transferable personnel management and selection when used in determining who might be the best person fit or qualified to get a certain task or job done without regard to creed, skin color, race, ethnicity, nationality, disability, political affiliation and gender. It is a nifty term for it allows you the broadest flexibility to view yourself as a “First-Class” at whatever it is you are very well qualified to do. And there can be I would think several first-class individual in any field which is very good.


On the one hand when used well in personnel selection, it is a neat way to find and select the crème of the crop (the high-caliber people) to do whatever job needs to be done. On the other hand, if not used well by making jobs too complicated (lumping three into one) or too simple that anybody can do it, one may end up wasting the knowledge, skills, abilities and experience of person doing a simple task which had it been delegated to a qualified person less experienced in breath and in depth it could have been done just as well or maybe better. You might end up, if the first-class men practice for the job is not used at all, having a poorly qualified person of narrow knowledge and shallow experience doing or overseeing a project or program or job which required wider or broader and more comprehensive (deeper) knowledge, skills, abilities and formal education. Thereby ending with negative or undesired results or no results whatsoever, and maybe even in the red from an accounting view point.


You see he, Taylor, took us humans out of the equation in his metaphor to allow us to see his point more easily. His attempt perhaps to show us the classifying of horses and wagons into first and second class was, in my view, to help us with seeing beyond ourselves, straight ahead and forward so that he could keep our minds open just by giving us an example which did not set up into classifying us, humans, into first and second class. Once he allowed us to see his point in a different world, he then showed us how to apply it in ours. And hopefully we have seen beyond the “salad days” or childish, immature reactions such as “he is comparing us to horses, godsh” or he is anti-union No, no, no, he was not. His point simply was every person just as every horse in the horses example can be First-Class or many of the best to do a certain kind of job based on what the job requires and the person’s knowledge, skills, abilities, education and or experience. And he firmly believe that an employee could not just demand higher wages without decreasing cost of production and increasing productivity thereby benefiting the employer, too. Justly so, he too believed that an employer could not overwork their employees, exploit them and keep blinders on them so as not to find out of company which offered better opportunities. In fact as stated in the book about him, he is referred as having such a Yankee mind that he did not only not put blinder on their employees to find out about potentially better employment opportunities. He told them about it too; and that is what qualified his mind as Yankee mind (page 73, vol 2). He, too, took people back whom returned to him for they deemed Taylor’s practices fairer and more financially rewarding and with better working environments.


Taylor was saying a machine can be first-class at his job like a CEO, Attorney, Surgeon can be at their respective jobs. And there may be second-class members in each profession, surely.


Just like a CEO or doctor is not likely to become first-class in mechanic, where he would be only a second class mechanic, the mechanic would never be a first-class CEO or doctor. He would be second-class doing a CEO’s, doctor’s or attorney’s job.


Nevertheless, this did not mean one cannot become first-class in another profession if one had the fortitude, self-discipline and consistency, and acquired the KSA’s (Knowledge, skills and abilities) and achievement results required to be deemed a First-Class individual in whichever profession, educational endeavor or sports.



Aside from concepts, principles and practices Frederick W. Taylor brought from the engineering and the accounting world to the field of Personnel Management and selection academic and practice sides of the field, he although not trained in Industrial and Organizational Psychology at the time was formally educated in engineering and was known as the American Engineer in Management. Furthermore, he promoted and fostered the advamncement of formal academic education referred to him as "intellect" and also acknoledged that just education without common sense or without hands-on experience was aof little value to an individual. He furthermore ranked them and augmented the power of each by adding character or honesty. He ranked character at the top, common sense second and intellect third. This was not to dillute the value of education but just to provide perspective based on his own personal experience of the result he could get from those whe were formally educated without experience in contrast to those whom he trained for whever worked he needed done and and those who came to him with the tremendous combination of an academic education coupled with hands-on work or internship experience. The next Section on these henceforth mentioned valuss (i.e. Character, common sense and intellected) is revealed.


Character, Common Sense and Intellect

Three Individual Achievement Traits or learned behaviors if not traits are, according to The American Engineer in American Management and Organizational Development Science and founding father of Industrial and Organizational Psychology in the United States Of America -- Frederick W. Taylor--are:



1) Character


2) Common Sense, and


3) Intellect



Intellect without character Taylor pointed out makes many people end up in the jail/prison [i.e. the joint] (Frederick W. Taylor Father of Scientific Management by Frank Barkley Copley, Volume II, 1923 and reprinted 1969; library of Congress Catalogue Card Number 68-55515).


And character without common sense or without intellect, I would add, can become Puritanism or in other words just opinions without factual rational backing. It can become expecting people to believe anything just because some body says it. It can become de-individuation a concept in Group Psychology which leads to cults where the individual looses his or her individuality. You shall remedy by educating the group about group-think and thereby breaking it up (Social Psychology by David G. Myers, Third Edition; Copy Right 1990; page 292 to 298). This is the opposite of the good all American value of Individuality. The way to address de-individuation is to break group-think by making people aware of it. And letting the group know that it is perfectly fine and totally American to state a dissenting opinion about whatever without caving-in under political or peer-pressure.

I/O in Ancient Times Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

  • Plato’s Republic
 o Created a taxonomy of citizens (e.g., guardians, auxiliaries, and workers) o Proposed ways to select and train members in each category 
  • The Chinese
 o Developed a selection system for bureaucrats 3,000 years ago (lasted through 1905) o Multiple hurdle system 

In the United States, its origins are those of applied psychology in the early 20th Century, when the nation was experiencing tremendous industrialization, corporatization, unionization, immigration, urbanization and physical expansion. Arguably, the field's greatest pioneers were Hugo Münsterberg (1863-1916), Walter Dill Scott (1869-1955), and Walter Van Dyke Bingham (1880-1952). As in other countries, wartime necessity (e.g., World War I and World War II) led to the discipline's substantial growth. Business demand for scientific management, selection and training also has promoted and sustained the field's development. Hugo Münsterberg (1863-1916) was a German-born American]] psychologist. ... Walter Dill Scott (1869-1955) was one of the first applied psychologists. ...


For a detailed history of industrial and organizational psychology, particularly in the United States (but with some discussion of developments in other countries), one can consult Koppes, L. L. (Ed.). (2007). Historical perspectives in industrial and organizational psychology. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.


For a concise history of Industrial/Organizational Psychology please visit History


Milestones in industrial and organizational psychology

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hawthorne effect. ... Company Masthead Logo Logo until circa 1969, also current logo on company web site Logo 1969–1983 Hi Dan! Western Electric (sometimes abbreviated WE and WECo) was an American electrical engineering company, the manufacturing arm of AT&T from 1881 to 1995. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ...

Key works in industrial and organizational psychology

  • Anderson, N., Ones, D. S., Sinangil, H. K., & Viswesvaran, C. (Eds.). (2002). Handbook of industrial, work and organizational psychology, Volume 1: Personnel psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.
  • Anderson, N., Ones, D. S., Sinangil, H. K., & Viswesvaran, C. (Eds.). (2002). Handbook of industrial, work and organizational psychology, Volume 2: Organizational psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.
  • Borman, W. C., Ilgen, D., R., & Klimoski, R., J. (Eds.). (2003). Handbook of Psychology: Vol 12 Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Borman, W. C., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1993). Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance. Chapter in N. Schmitt and W. C. Borman (Eds.), Personnel Selection. San Francisco: Josey-Bass (pp. 71-98).
  • Campbell, J. P., Gasser, M. B., & Oswald, F. L. (1996). The substantive nature of job performance variability. In K. R. Murphy (Ed.), Individual differences and behavior in organizations (pp. 258–299). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Dunnette, M. D. (Ed.). (1976). Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Chicago: Rand McNally.
  • Dunnette, M. D., & Hough, L. M. (Eds.). (1991). Handbook of Industrial/Organizational Psychology (4 Volumes). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
  • Greenberg, Jerald [1]. Managing Behavior in Organizations, Prentice Hall, 2005. [2]
  • Guion, R. M. (1998). Assessment, measurement and prediction for personnel decisions. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1990). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (2004). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Lowman, R. L. (Ed.). (2002). The California School of Organizational Studies handbook of organizational consulting psychology: A comprehensive guide to theory, skills and techniques. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Muchinsky, P. M. (Ed.). (2002). Psychology Applied to Work. Wadsworth Publishing Company.
  • Rogelberg, S., G. (Ed.). (2002). Handbook of research methods in industrial and organizational psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
  • Sackett, P. R., & Wilk, S. L. (1994). Within group norming and other forms of score adjustment in pre-employment testing. American Psychologist, 49, 929-954.
  • Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1998). The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 262-274.
  • Muchinsky, Paul M., (199). Psychology Applied to Work: An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Third Edition.
  • Frederick W. Taylor Father of Scientific Management, Vol. I and II, First edition 1923, reprinted 1969

Key journals in industrial and organizational psychology

  • Journal of Applied Psychology
  • Personnel Psychology
  • Academy of Management Journal
  • Academy of Management Review
  • Journal of Management
  • Human Performance
  • The Journal of Organizational Behavior
  • Organizational Research Methods
  • The Journal of Vocational Behavior
  • Administrative Science Quarterly
  • Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology
  • European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology
  • Applied Psychology: An International Review
  • International Journal of Selection and Assessment
  • International Journal of Training and Development
  • Work and Stress
  • Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
  • Journal of Organizational Behavior Management
  • International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology [3] (edited annual volume)

Journal of Applied Psychology is a publication of the APA. It has a high impact factor for its field. ...

Organizations

The Australian Psychological Society (APS) is a professional association set up to represent psychologists in Australia. ... The British Psychological Society (BPS) is the representative body for psychologists and psychology in the United Kingdom. ...

Graduate Programs

In many countries it is possible to obtain a bachelor's degree, master's degree, Psy.D., and/or a Ph.D. in industrial and organizational psychology. The types of degrees offered vary by educational institution. There are both advantages and disadvantages to obtaining a specific type of degree (e.g., master's degree) in lieu of another type of degree (e.g., Ph.D.). Some helpful ways to learn more about graduate programs and their fit to one's needs and goals include taking or sitting in on an industrial and organizational psychology course or class; speaking to industrial and organizational psychology faculty, students, and practitioners; consulting with a career counselor; taking a reputable vocational interest survey; and visiting program websites. Regardless of one's needs or goals, admission into industrial and organizational psychology programs can be highly competitive, especially given that many programs accept only a small number of students each year.


In the United States, specific resources that can help to clarify the fit of particular programs to an individual's needs, goals, and abilities are Graduate Training Programs (Including Program Rankings) - SIOP, Top U.S. Graduate School Programs - U.S. News & World Report, and Professional I/O Psychologist Network. In the UK, you must take an accredited psychology degree before you can gain Graduate Basis for Registration with the British Psychological Society [4] and then follow an approved Masters and three years supervision to gain Chartered Occupational Psychologist status.


See also

Behavioral Risk Management is the process of managing Individual behavior risks Organizational behavior risks Industrial and organizational psychology Psychosomatic illness Social Risk Management Category: ... Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. ... Employment law is the branch of the law that deals with employment related issues. ... A group of people share a range of qualities and characteristics which signifies it from other groups. ... Human factors is an umbrella term for several areas of research that include human performance, technology, design, and human-computer interaction. ... Can we start this page on Human Resources Development covering topics like: Training The role of HR professionals Performance appraisals Orientation Multiculturism organizational Development and Change ... Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organizations most valued assets - the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Industrial sociology (also known as sociology of industrial relations or sociology of work) is both a study of the interaction of people within industry (e. ... The field of labor relations looks at the relationship between management and groups of workers represented by a labor union. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Organizational studies - an overview Organizational development Management development Mentoring Coaching Job rotation Professional development Upward feedback Executive education Supervisory training leadership development leadership talent identification and management individual development planning 360 degree feedback succession planning Skills management performance improvement process improvement job enrichment Training & Development managing change and also change... This page aims to list articles related to psychology. ... This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. ... Organizational Studies (also known as Industrial Organizations, Organizational Behavior and I/O) is a distinct field of academic study which takes as its subject organizations, examining them using the methods of economics, sociology, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ... The field of organization development (OD) has had several definitions. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... For the parapsychology phenomenon of distance knowledge, see psychometry. ... The scope of social psychological research. ... Look up tat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational processes. ... Sexual harassment is harassment of a sexual nature, typically in the workplace or other setting where raising objections or refusing may have negative consequences. ... An office romance, work romance, or corporate affair is a romance that occurs between two people who work together in the same office, work location, or business. ...

External links

WorkPlace Templates:

  • Resignation
  • Pregnancy
  • Apology to co-workers
  • Industrial & organizational psychology at The Psychology Wiki
  • Research on Organizations: Bibliography Database and Maps
  • Professional I/O Psychologist Network (where you can post your own messages and/or read and reply to others' postings; organized by topic; maintains anonymity via use of avatars)
  • [5] HR Tests - Employment testing, personnel selection, and assessment

  Results from FactBites:
 
sociology - Industrial and organizational psychology (267 words)
Industrial and organizational psychology (or I/O psychology) is the study of the behavior of people in the workplace.
Industrial and organizational psychology attempts to apply psychological results and methods to aid workers and organizations.
Industrial and organizational psychologists use psychological testing to measure the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) of people for a variety of employment-related purposes, such as selection for hiring or promotion, training and development, or measuring employee satisfaction.
Industrial and Organizational Psychology (5099 words)
Industrial and Organizational Psychology is represented by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) www.siop.org:
Industrial/Organizational (I/O) psychology is both the study of behavior in organizational and work settings and the application of the methods, facts, and principles of psychology to individuals and groups in organizational and work settings.
Participating in professional, scientific, and educational organizations whose mission is (in whole or part) to advance the knowledge and practice of industrial and organizational psychology.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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