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Encyclopedia > Industrial Revolution
A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world.
A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world.[1]

The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions in Britain. The changes subsequently spread throughout Europe and North America and eventually the world, a process that continues as industrialisation. The onset of the Industrial Revolution marked a major turning point in human society; almost every aspect of daily life was eventually influenced in some way. In the later part of the 1700s the manual labour-based economy of some parts of Great Britain began to be replaced by one dominated by the manufacture by machinery. It started with the mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal. Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways. The introduction of steam power (fuelled primarily by coal) and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity.[2] The development of all-metal machine tools in the first two decades of the 19th century facilitated the manufacture of more production machines for manufacturing in other industries. The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the 19th century, eventually affecting most of the world. The impact of this change on society was enormous.[3] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The major components of a Watt pumping engine. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Socioeconomics or Socio-economics is the study of the relationship between economic activity and social life. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... A factory in Ilmenau (Germany) around 1860 Industrialisation (also spelt Industrialization) or an Industrial Revolution is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a pre-industrial society (an economy where the amount of capital accumulated per capita is low) to an industrial one... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... Textile manufacturing is one of the oldest of mans technologies. ... A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by machining, which is the selective removal of metal. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... North American redirects here. ...


The First Industrial Revolution, which began in the eighteenth century merged into the Second Industrial Revolution around 1850, when technological and economic progress gained momentum with the development of steam-powered ships, railways, and later in the nineteenth century with the internal combustion engine and electrical power generation. The Second Industrial Revolution (1865–1900) is a phrase used by some historians to describe an assumed second phase of the Industrial Revolution. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ...


The period of time covered by the Industrial Revolution varies with different historians. Eric Hobsbawm held that it 'broke out' in the 1780s and was not fully felt until the 1830s or 1840s,[4] while T. S. Ashton held that it occurred roughly between 1760 and 1830.[5] Some twentieth century historians such as John Clapham and Nicholas Crafts have argued that the process of economic and social change took place gradually and the term revolution is not a true description of what took place. This is still a subject of debate amongst historians.[6][7] Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm CH (born June 9, 1917) is a British Marxist historian and author. ... Thomas Southcliffe Ashton (1899-1968) was an economic historian. ... Sir John Harold Clapham (September 13, 1873- March 29, 1946) was the first Professor of Economic History at Cambridge University from 1928 to 1938, and Vice-Provost of Kings College, Cambridge from 1933 until 1943. ... Nicholas F. R. Crafts (born March 9, 1949, Nottingham, England) is Professor of Economics and Economic History at the University of Warwick, a post he has held since 2005. ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ...


GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy.[8] The Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies.[9] For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ...

Contents

Causes

Regional GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the Industrial Revolution. (The empty areas mean no data, not very low levels. There is data for the years 1, 1000, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1820, 1900, and 2003)
Regional GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the Industrial Revolution. (The empty areas mean no data, not very low levels. There is data for the years 1, 1000, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1820, 1900, and 2003)

The causes of the Industrial Revolution were complicated and remain a topic for debate, with some historians feeling the Revolution as an outgrowth of social and institutional changes brought by the end of feudalism in Britain after the English Civil War in the 17th century. As national border controls became more effective, the spread of disease was lessened, therefore preventing the epidemics common in previous times[citation needed]. The percentage of children who lived past infancy rose significantly, leading to a larger workforce. The Enclosure movement and the British Agricultural Revolution made food production more efficient and less labour-intensive, forcing the surplus population who could no longer find employment in agriculture into cottage industry, for example weaving, and in the longer term into the cities and the newly developed factories. The colonial expansion of the 17th century with the accompanying development of international trade, creation of financial markets and accumulation of capital are also cited as factors, as is the scientific revolution of the 17th century. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1023x783, 44 KB) Summary Data Source: Angus Maddisons World Population, GDP and Per Capita GDP, 1-2003 AD (This Microsoft Excel file can also be read by using the free Open office) at The Groningen Growth and Development Centre. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1023x783, 44 KB) Summary Data Source: Angus Maddisons World Population, GDP and Per Capita GDP, 1-2003 AD (This Microsoft Excel file can also be read by using the free Open office) at The Groningen Growth and Development Centre. ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Enclosure (disambiguation). ... The British Agricultural Revolution describes a period of agricultural development in Britain between the 16th century and the mid-19th century, which saw a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output. ... The use of the term has expanded, and is used to refer to any event which allows a large number of people to lalalawork part time. ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... A factory (previously manufactory) is a large industrial building where goods or products are manufactured. ... Colonialism is a system in which a state claims sovereignty over territory and people outside its own boundaries, often to facilitate economic domination over their resources, labor, and often markets. ... In finance, financial markets facilitate: The raising of capital (in the capital markets); The transfer of risk (in the derivatives markets); and International trade (in the currency markets). ... Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ... This article is about the period or event in history. ...


Technological innovation was the heart of the Industrial Revolution and the key enabling technology was the invention and improvement of the steam engine.[10] // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ...


Historian Lewis Mumford has proposed that the Industrial Revolution had its origins in the early Middle Ages, much earlier than most estimates. He explains that the model for standardised mass production was the printing press and that "the archetypal model for the industrial era was the clock". He also cites the monastic emphasis on order and time-keeping, as well as the fact that mediaeval cities had at their centre a church with bell ringing at regular intervals as being necessary precursors to a greater synchronisation necessary for later, more physical, manifestations such as the steam engine. Lewis Mumford (October 19, 1895 – January 26, 1990) was an American historian of technology and science. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


The presence of a large domestic market should also be considered an important driver of the Industrial Revolution, particularly explaining why it occurred in Britain. In other nations, such as France, markets were split up by local regions, which often imposed tolls and tariffs on goods traded amongst them.[11] Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ...


Governments' grant of limited monopolies to inventors under a developing patent system (the Statute of Monopolies 1623) is considered an influential factor. The effects of patents, both good and ill, on the development of industrialisation are clearly illustrated in the history of the steam engine, the key enabling technology. In return for publicly revealing the workings of an invention the patent system rewards inventors by allowing, e.g, James Watt to monopolise the production of the first steam engines, thereby enabling inventors and increasing the pace of technological development. However, monopolies bring with them their own inefficiencies which may counterbalance, or even overbalance, the beneficial effects of publicising ingenuity and rewarding inventors.[12] Watt's monopoly may have prevented other inventors, such as Richard Trevithick, William Murdoch or Jonathan Hornblower, from introducing improved steam engines thereby retarding the industrial revolution by up to 20 years.[13] This article is about the economic term. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Englands Statute of Monopolies of 1623 (21 Jac. ... For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... Richard Trevithick (born April 13, 1771 in Cornwall - died April 22, 1833 in Kent) was a British inventor, mining engineer and builder of the first working railway steam locomotive. ... William Murdoch. ... Jonathan Carter Hornblower (July 5, 1753 - February 23, 1815) was an English pioneer of steam power, the son of Jonathan Hornblower (sic) and brother of Jabez Carter Hornblower, two fellow pioneers. ...


Causes for occurrence in Europe

Further information: Industrial Revolution in China and Muslim Agricultural Revolution
A 1623 Dutch East India Company bond.European 17th century colonial expansion, international trade, and creation of financial markets produced a new legal and financial environment, one which supported and enabled 18th century industrial growth.
A 1623 Dutch East India Company bond.
European 17th century colonial expansion, international trade, and creation of financial markets produced a new legal and financial environment, one which supported and enabled 18th century industrial growth.

One question of active interest to historians is why the industrial revolution occurred in Europe and not in other parts of the world in the 18th century, particularly China, India, and the Middle East, or at other times like in Classical Antiquity[14] or the Middle Ages.[15] Numerous factors have been suggested, including ecology, government, and culture. There was no indigenous Industrial Revolution in China in the 18th and 19th centuries like that of Europe. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Image File history File links Vereinigte_Ostindische_Compagnie_bond. ... Image File history File links Vereinigte_Ostindische_Compagnie_bond. ... This article is about the trading company. ... For alternative meanings, see bond (a disambiguation page). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Benjamin Elman argues that China was in a high level equilibrium trap in which the non-industrial methods were efficient enough to prevent use of industrial methods with high costs of capital. Kenneth Pomeranz, in the Great Divergence, argues that Europe and China were remarkably similar in 1700, and that the crucial differences which created the Industrial Revolution in Europe were sources of coal near manufacturing centres, and raw materials such as food and wood from the New World, which allowed Europe to expand economically in a way that China could not.[16] The high level equilibrium trap is a concept developed by Mark Elvin to explain why China never underwent an indigenous Industrial Revolution, despite its wealth, stability and scientific advancement. ... Kenneth Pomeranz is a professor and the chair of the history department at the University of California, Irvine in the US. He received his Ph. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ...


However, most historians contest the assertion that Europe and China were roughly equal because modern estimates of per capita income on Western Europe in the late 18th century are of roughly 1,500 dollars in purchasing power parity (and Britain had a per capita income of nearly 2,000 dollars[17]) whereas China, by comparison, had only 450 dollars. Also, the average interest rate was about 5% in Britain and over 30% in China, which illustrates how capital was much more abundant in Britain; capital that was available for investment. PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... Per capita income means how much each individual receives, in monetary terms, of the yearly income generated in their country. ... An interest rate is the price a borrower pays for the use of money he does not own, and the return a lender receives for deferring his consumption, by lending to the borrower. ...


Some historians such as David Landes[18] and Max Weber credit the different belief systems in China and Europe with dictating where the revolution occurred. The religion and beliefs of Europe were largely products of Judaeo-Christianity, and Greek thought. Conversely, Chinese society was founded on men like Confucius, Mencius, Han Feizi (Legalism), Lao Tzu (Taoism), and Buddha (Buddhism). The key difference between these belief systems was that those from Europe focused on the individual, while Chinese beliefs centred around relationships between people. The family unit was more important than the individual for the large majority of Chinese history, and this may have played a role in why the Industrial Revolution took much longer to occur in China. There was the additional difference as to whether people looked backwards to a reputedly glorious past for answers to their questions or looked hopefully to the future. Furthermore, Western European peoples had experienced the Renaissance, Reformation and Enlightenment; other parts of the world had not had a similar intellectual breakout, a condition that holds true even into the 21st century.[18] David Landes is professor emeritus of economics and retired professor of history at Harvard University. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Judeo-Christian (or Judaeo-Christian) is a term used to describe the body of concepts and values which are thought to be held in common by Judaism and Christianity, and typically considered (along with classical Greco-Roman civilization) a fundamental basis for Western legal codes and moral values. ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... Mencius (Romanization; 孟子, pinyin: Mèng Zǐ; Wade-Giles: Meng Tzu; most accepted dates: 372 – 289 BCE; other possible dates: 385 – 303/302 BCE) was a Chinese philosopher who was arguably the most famous Confucian after Confucius himself. ... Traditional Chinese: 韓非子 Simplified Chinese: 韩非子 Pinyin: Hán Fēizǐ Wade-Giles: Han Fei-tzu Han Feizi (韓非子) (d. ... In Chinese history, Legalism (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fa-chia; literally School of law) was one of the four main philosophic schools during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period (the other three being Confucianism, Taoism and Mohism). ... Lao Zi (also spelled Laozi, Lao Tzu, or Lao Tse) was a famous Chinese philosopher who is believed to have lived in approximately the 4th century BC, during the Hundred Schools of Thought and Warring States Periods. ... Taoism (pronounced or ; also spelled Daoism) refers to a variety of related philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The word Enlightment redirects here. ...


Regarding India, the Marxist historian Rajani Palme Dutt said: "The capital to finance the Industrial Revolution in India instead went into financing the Industrial Revolution in England."[19] In contrast to China, India was split up into many competing kingdoms, with the three major ones being the Marathas, Sikhs and the Mughals. In addition, the economy was highly dependent on two sectors—agriculture of subsistence and cotton, and technical innovation was non-existent. The vast amounts of wealth were stored away in palace treasuries, and as such, were easily moved to Britain. Rajani Palme Dutt (1896 - 1974) was a leading figure in the Communist Party of Great Britain. ... Extent of the Maratha Confederacy ca. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ...


Causes for occurrence in Britain

As the Industrial Revolution developed British manufactured output surged ahead of other economies
As the Industrial Revolution developed British manufactured output surged ahead of other economies

The debate about the start of the Industrial Revolution also concerns the massive lead that Great Britain had over other countries. Some have stressed the importance of natural or financial resources that Britain received from its many overseas colonies or that profits from the British slave trade between Africa and the Caribbean helped fuel industrial investment. It has been pointed out, however, that slavery provided only 5% of the British national income during the years of the Industrial Revolution.[20] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ...


Alternatively, the greater liberalisation of trade from a large merchant base may have allowed Britain to produce and use emerging scientific and technological developments more effectively than countries with stronger monarchies, particularly China and Russia. Britain emerged from the Napoleonic Wars as the only European nation not ravaged by financial plunder and economic collapse, and possessing the only merchant fleet of any useful size (European merchant fleets having been destroyed during the war by the Royal Navy[21]). Britain's extensive exporting cottage industries also ensured markets were already available for many early forms of manufactured goods. The conflict resulted in most British warfare being conducted overseas, reducing the devastating effects of territorial conquest that affected much of Europe. This was further aided by Britain's geographical position — an island separated from the rest of mainland Europe. Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


Another theory is that Britain was able to succeed in the Industrial Revolution due to the availability of key resources it possessed. It had a dense population for its small geographical size. Enclosure of common land and the related Agricultural Revolution made a supply of this labour readily available. There was also a local coincidence of natural resources in the North of England, the English Midlands, South Wales and the Scottish Lowlands. Local supplies of coal, iron, lead, copper, tin, limestone and water power, resulted in excellent conditions for the development and expansion of industry. Also, the damp, mild weather conditions of the North West of England provided ideal conditions for the spinning of cotton, providing a natural starting point for the birth of the textiles industry. For other uses, see Enclosure (disambiguation). ... The British Agricultural Revolution describes a period of agricultural development in Britain between the 16th century and the mid-19th century, which saw a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output. ... Northern England, The North or North of England is a rather ill-defined term, with no universally accepted definition. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Approximate extent of South East Wales. ... Lowland-Highland divide The Scottish Lowlands (a Ghalldachd, meaning roughly the non-Gaelic region, in Gaelic), although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due...


The stable political situation in Britain from around 1688, and British society's greater receptiveness to change (compared with other European countries) can also be said to be factors favouring the Industrial Revolution. In large part due to the Enclosure movement, the peasantry was destroyed as significant source of resistance to industrialisation, and the landed upper classes developed commercial interests that made them pioneers in removing obstacles to the growth of capitalism.[22] (This point is also made in Hilaire Belloc's The Servile State.) Photograph of Belloc Joseph Hilaire Pierre René Belloc (27 July 1870 – 16 July 1953) was one of the most prolific writers in England during the early twentieth century. ... The Servile State is a book written by Hilaire Belloc in 1912 about economics. ...


Protestant work ethic

Another theory is that the British advance was due to the presence of an entrepreneurial class which believed in progress, technology and hard work.[23] The existence of this class is often linked to the Protestant work ethic (see Max Weber) and the particular status of the Baptists and the dissenting Protestant sects, such as the Quakers and Presbyterians that had flourished with the English Civil War. Reinforcement of confidence in the rule of law, which followed establishment of the prototype of constitutional monarchy in Britain in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the emergence of a stable financial market there based on the management of the national debt by the Bank of England, contributed to the capacity for, and interest in, private financial investment in industrial ventures. For the computer game by Peter Molyneux, see The Entrepreneur. ... The Protestant work ethic, or sometimes called the Puritan work ethic, is a Calvinist value emphasizing the necessity of constant labor in a persons calling as a sign of personal salvation. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ... Quaker redirects here. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... Government debt (public debt, national debt) is money owed by government, at any level (central government, federal government, national government, municipal government, local government, regional government). ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ...


Dissenters found themselves barred or discouraged from almost all public offices, as well as education at England's only two universities at the time (although dissenters were still free to study at Scotland's four universities). When the restoration of the monarchy took place and membership in the official Anglican Church became mandatory due to the Test Act, they thereupon became active in banking, manufacturing and education. The Unitarians, in particular, were very involved in education, by running Dissenting Academies, where, in contrast to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge and schools such as Eton and Harrow, much attention was given to mathematics and the sciences —areas of scholarship vital to the development of manufacturing technologies. English Dissenters were dissenters from England who opposed State interference in religious matters and founded their own communities over the 16th to 18th century period. ... The Ancient universities of Scotland are those universities founded during the medieval period, and comprise (list by year of being chartered): The University of St Andrews, founded 1411 by papal bull The University of Glasgow, founded 1451 by papal bull The University of Aberdeen, founded 1495 by papal bull (as... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ... The several Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and Nonconformists. ... Historic Unitarianism believed in the oneness of God as opposed to traditional Christian belief in the Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit). ...


Historians sometimes consider this social factor to be extremely important, along with the nature of the national economies involved. While members of these sects were excluded from certain circles of the government, they were considered fellow Protestants, to a limited extent, by many in the middle class, such as traditional financiers or other businessmen. Given this relative tolerance and the supply of capital, the natural outlet for the more enterprising members of these sects would be to seek new opportunities in the technologies created in the wake of the scientific revolution of the 17th century. The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... This article is about the period or event in history. ...


Innovations

The only surviving example of a Spinning Mule built by the inventor Samuel Crompton

The commencement of the Industrial Revolution is closely linked to a small number of innovations, made in the second half of the 18th century:

These represent three 'leading sectors', in which there were key innovations, which allowed the economic take off by which the Industrial Revolution is usually defined. This is not to belittle many other inventions, particularly in the textile industry. Without some earlier ones, such as spinning jenny and flying shuttle in the textile industry and the smelting of pig iron with coke, these achievements might have been impossible. Later inventions such as the power loom and Richard Trevithick's high pressure steam engine were also important in the growing industrialisation of Britain. The application of steam engines to powering cotton mills and ironworks enabled these to be built in places that were most convenient because other resources were available, rather than where there was water to power a mill. For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... A hand-turned spinning wheel in action Cones of yarn for industrial use Z-twist and S-twist yarns Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope, cable) from various raw fiber materials. ... Sir Richard Arkwright (Old Style 23 December 1732 / New Style 3 January 1733 – 3 August 1792), was an Englishman who is credited for inventing the spinning frame — later renamed the water frame following the transition to water power. ... The water frame is an extension of the spinning frame; both of which are credited to Richard Arkwright. ... For the magazine of the same name, see Spinning Jenny (magazine). ... The spinning mule was created by Samuel Crompton. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Lancashire cotton mill, 1914 A cotton mill is a factory housing spinning and weaving machinery. ... Worsted is the name of a dick the cloth made from this yarn, as well as a yarn weight category. ... Yarn Spools of thread Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Hydropower (or waterpower) harnesses the energy of moving or falling water. ... Ironworks at Coalbrookdale, Shropshire, England An ironworks or iron works is a building or site where iron is smelted and where heavy iron and/or steel products are made. ... Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ... Electric phosphate smelting furnace in a TVA chemical plant (1942) Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of extractive metallurgy. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Two weights used in the theatre and made of pig iron; because of this, they are dubbed pig weights or simply pigs. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Schematic drawing of a puddling furnace The puddling furnace is a metalmaking technology to create wrought iron from the pig iron produced in a blast furnace. ... Henry Cort is a good guy(1740 – 1800) was an English ironmaster. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... For the magazine of the same name, see Spinning Jenny (magazine). ... The flying shuttle was developed by John Kay in 1733, and was one of the key developments in weaving that helped fuel the Industrial Revolution. ... For other uses, see Loom (disambiguation). ... Richard Trevithick (born April 13, 1771 in Cornwall - died April 22, 1833 in Kent) was a British inventor, mining engineer and builder of the first working railway steam locomotive. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... Lancashire cotton mill, 1914 A cotton mill is a factory housing spinning and weaving machinery. ... Ironworks at Coalbrookdale, Shropshire, England An ironworks or iron works is a building or site where iron is smelted and where heavy iron and/or steel products are made. ... The term mill, depending on context, can refer to: Mill (factory) – a place of business for making articles of manufacture; e. ...


In the textile sector, such mills became the model for the organisation of human labour in factories, epitomised by Cottonopolis, the name given to the vast collection of cotton mills, factories and administration offices based in Manchester. The assembly line system greatly improved efficiency, both in this and other industries. With a series of men trained to do a single task on a product, then having it moved along to the next worker, the number of finished goods also rose significantly. The name given to Manchester in the 19th Century inspired by its status as the centre of the cotton and textile industries. ... Lancashire cotton mill, 1914 A cotton mill is a factory housing spinning and weaving machinery. ... A factory (previously manufactory) is a large industrial building where goods or products are manufactured. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ...


Also important was the 1756 rediscovery of concrete (based on hydraulic lime mortar) by the British engineer John Smeaton, which had been lost for 13 centuries.[24] This article is about the construction material. ... Lime mortar is an old type of mortar used to stick bricks and stones together in building. ... Portrait of John Smeaton, with the Eddystone Lighthouse in the background John Smeaton, FRS, (June 8, 1724 – October 28, 1792) was a civil engineer – often regarded as the father of civil engineering – responsible for the design of bridges, canals, harbours and lighthouses. ...


Transfer of knowledge

Knowledge of new innovation was spread by several means. Workers who were trained in the technique might move to another employer or might be poached. A common method was for someone to make a study tour, gathering information where he could. During the whole of the Industrial Revolution and for the century before, all European countries and America engaged in study-touring; some nations, like Sweden and France, even trained civil servants or technicians to undertake it as a matter of state policy. In other countries, notably Britain and America, this practice was carried out by individual manufacturers anxious to improve their own methods. Study tours were common then, as now, as was the keeping of travel diaries. Records made by industrialists and technicians of the period are an incomparable source of information about their methods.

A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery (ca. 1766)Informal philosophical societies spread scientific advances
A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery (ca. 1766)
Informal philosophical societies spread scientific advances

Another means for the spread of innovation was by the network of informal philosophical societies, like the Lunar Society of Birmingham, in which members met to discuss 'natural philosophy' (i.e. science) and often its application to manufacturing. The Lunar Society flourished from 1765 to 1809, and it has been said of them, "They were, if you like, the revolutionary committee of that most far reaching of all the eighteenth century revolutions, the Industrial Revolution".[25] Other such societies published volumes of proceedings and transactions. For example, the London-based Royal Society of Arts published an illustrated volume of new inventions, as well as papers about them in its annual Transactions. Image File history File links Wright_of_Derby,_The_Orrery. ... Image File history File links Wright_of_Derby,_The_Orrery. ... A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery, or the full title, A Philosopher giving a Lecture on the Orrery in which a lamp is put in place of the Sun, is a painting by Joseph Wright of Derby depicting a lecturer who carries a possibly intentional similarity to Sir Isaac Newton... The Lunar Society was a discussion club of prominent industrialists, natural philosophers and intellectuals who met regularly between 1765 and 1813 in Birmingham, England. ... This article is about the British city. ... The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) is a British multi-disciplinary institution, based in London. ...


There were publications describing technology. Encyclopaedias such as Harris's Lexicon Technicum (1704) and Dr Abraham Rees's Cyclopaedia (1802-1819) contain much of value. Cyclopaedia contains an enormous amount of information about the science and technology of the first half of the Industrial Revolution, very well illustrated by fine engravings. Foreign printed sources such as the Descriptions des Arts et Métiers and Diderot's Encyclopédie explained foreign methods with fine engraved plates. 1913 advertisement for Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Lexicon technicum, or an universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences The first alphabetical encyclopaedia written in English, it was the work of a London clergyman, John Harris. ... 1913 advertisement for Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Descriptions des Arts et Métiers, faites ou approuvées par messieurs de lAcadémie Royale des Sciences was published by the Académie Royale des Sciences of Paris between 1761 and 1788. ... This article is about the 18th-century French encyclopaedia. ...


Periodical publications about manufacturing and technology began to appear in the last decade of the 18th century, and many regularly included notice of the latest patents. Foreign periodicals, such as the Annales des Mines, published accounts of travels made by French engineers who observed British methods on study tours.


Technological developments in Britain

Textile manufacture

Model of the spinning jenny in a museum in Wuppertal, Germany. The spinning jenny was one of the innovations that started the revolution
Model of the spinning jenny in a museum in Wuppertal, Germany. The spinning jenny was one of the innovations that started the revolution

In the early 18th century, British textile manufacture was based on wool which was processed by individual artisans, doing the spinning and weaving on their own premises. This system is called a cottage industry. Flax and cotton were also used for fine materials, but the processing was difficult because of the pre-processing needed, and thus goods in these materials made only a small proportion of the output. With the establishment of overseas colonies, the British Empire at the end of the 17th century/beginning of the 18th century had a vast source of raw materials and a vast market for goods. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For the magazine of the same name, see Spinning Jenny (magazine). ... Wuppertal university Wuppertal is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... A hand-turned spinning wheel in action Cones of yarn for industrial use Z-twist and S-twist yarns Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope, cable) from various raw fiber materials. ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... The use of the term has expanded, and is used to refer to any event which allows a large number of people to lalalawork part time. ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ...


Use of the spinning wheel and hand loom restricted the production capacity of the industry, but incremental advances increased productivity to the extent that manufactured cotton goods became the dominant British export by the early decades of the 19th century. India was displaced as the premier supplier of cotton goods. A spinning wheel is a device for making thread or yarn from fibrous material such as wool or cotton. ... For other uses, see Loom (disambiguation). ...


Lewis Paul patented the Roller Spinning machine and the flyer-and-bobbin system for drawing wool to a more even thickness, developed with the help of John Wyatt in Birmingham. Paul and Wyatt opened a mill in Birmingham which used their new rolling machine powered by a donkey. In 1743, a factory was opened in Northampton with fifty spindles on each of five of Paul and Wyatt's machines. This operated until about 1764. A similar mill was built by Daniel Bourn in Leominster, but this burnt down. Both Lewis Paul and Daniel Bourn patented carding machines in 1748. Using two sets of rollers that travelled at different speeds, it was later used in the first cotton spinning mill. Lewis's invention was later developed and improved by Richard Arkwright in his water frame and Samuel Crompton in his spinning mule. Lewis Paul (d. ... This article is about the British city. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... Northampton is a large market town and a local government district in the English East Midlands region. ... , For the Leominster in the USA, see Leominster, Massachusetts. ... -1... Lancashire cotton mill, 1914 A cotton mill is a factory housing spinning and weaving machinery. ... Sir Richard Arkwright (Old Style 23 December 1732 / New Style 3 January 1733 – 3 August 1792), was an Englishman who is credited for inventing the spinning frame — later renamed the water frame following the transition to water power. ... The water frame is an extension of the spinning frame; both of which are credited to Richard Arkwright. ... Samuel Crompton (December 3, 1753 – June 26, 1827), English inventor, was born at Firwood, in Bolton, Lancashire. ... The spinning mule was created by Samuel Crompton. ...


Other inventors increased the efficiency of the individual steps of spinning (carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling) so that the supply of yarn increased greatly, which fed a weaving industry that was advancing with improvements to shuttles and the loom or 'frame'. The output of an individual labourer increased dramatically, with the effect that the new machines were seen as a threat to employment, and early innovators were attacked and their inventions destroyed. Yarn Spools of thread Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. ... The simplest shuttle is a flat, narrow piece of wood with notches on the ends to hold the weft yarn. ...


To capitalise upon these advances, it took a class of entrepreneurs, of which the most famous is Richard Arkwright. He is credited with a list of inventions, but these were actually developed by people such as Thomas Highs and John Kay; Arkwright nurtured the inventors, patented the ideas, financed the initiatives, and protected the machines. He created the cotton mill which brought the production processes together in a factory, and he developed the use of power — first horse power and then water power — which made cotton manufacture a mechanised industry. Before long steam power was applied to drive textile machinery. For the computer game by Peter Molyneux, see The Entrepreneur. ... Sir Richard Arkwright (Old Style 23 December 1732 / New Style 3 January 1733 – 3 August 1792), was an Englishman who is credited for inventing the spinning frame — later renamed the water frame following the transition to water power. ... A drawing of Thomas Highs spinning jenny, taken from Edward Bainess History of the Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain Thomas Highs (1718 – 1803) was a talented English reed-maker and inventor known for his creation of the spinning jenny, the throstle (a machine for the continuous twisting and winding... John Kay was a homo in the 1790s he created the man dildo. ... Lancashire cotton mill, 1914 A cotton mill is a factory housing spinning and weaving machinery. ... The horsepower (hp) is the name of several non-metric units of power. ... Hydropower (or waterpower) harnesses the energy of moving or falling water. ... The major components of a Watt pumping engine. ...


Metallurgy

Coalbrookdale by Night, 1801, Philipp Jakob Loutherbourg the YoungerBlast furnaces light the iron making town of Coalbrookdale
Coalbrookdale by Night, 1801, Philipp Jakob Loutherbourg the Younger
Blast furnaces light the iron making town of Coalbrookdale
The Reverberatory Furnace could produce wrought iron using mined coal. The burning coal remained separate from the iron ore and so did not contaminate the iron with impurities like sulphur. This opened the way to increased iron production.
The Reverberatory Furnace could produce wrought iron using mined coal. The burning coal remained separate from the iron ore and so did not contaminate the iron with impurities like sulphur. This opened the way to increased iron production.

The major change in the metal industries during the era of the Industrial Revolution was the replacement of organic fuels based on wood with fossil fuel based on coal. Much of this happened somewhat before the Industrial Revolution, based on innovations by Sir Clement Clerke and others from 1678, using coal reverberatory furnaces known as cupolas. These were operated by the flames, which contained carbon monoxide, playing on the ore and reducing the oxide to metal. This has the advantage that impurities (such as sulphur) in the coal do not migrate into the metal. This technology was applied to lead from 1678 and to copper from 1687. It was also applied to iron foundry work in the 1690s, but in this case the reverberatory furnace was known as an air furnace. The foundry cupola is a different (and later) innovation. Download high resolution version (2048x1309, 206 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1309, 206 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Coalbrookdale by Night was painted by Philip James de Loutherbourg in 1801. ... Lord Howes action, or the Glorious First of June, painted 1795 Philip James de Loutherbourg, also seen as Philippe-Jacques and Philipp Jakob and with the appellation the Younger (31 October 1740 – 11 March 1812) was an English artist of French origin. ... Coalbrookdale is a settlement in a side valley of the Ironbridge Gorge in the borough of Telford and Wrekin and ceremonial county of Shropshire, England. ... Image File history File links Reverberatory_furnace_diagram. ... Image File history File links Reverberatory_furnace_diagram. ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A reverbatory furnace is a metallurgical or process furnace which characteristically isolates the material being processed from contact with the fuel, but not from contact with the combustion gases. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ...


This was followed by Abraham Darby, who made great strides using coke to fuel his blast furnaces at Coalbrookdale in 1709. However, the coke pig iron he made was used mostly for the production of cast iron goods such as pots and kettles. He had the advantage over his rivals in that his pots, cast by his patented process, were thinner and cheaper than theirs. Coke pig iron was hardly used to produce bar iron in forges until the mid 1750s, when his son Abraham Darby II built Horsehay and Ketley furnaces (not far from Coalbrookdale). By then, coke pig iron was cheaper than charcoal pig iron. Abraham Darby (c. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Coalbrookdale is a settlement in a side valley of the Ironbridge Gorge in the borough of Telford and Wrekin and ceremonial county of Shropshire, England. ... Two weights used in the theatre and made of pig iron; because of this, they are dubbed pig weights or simply pigs. ... Abraham Darby II (1711-1763) was the second of that name of three generations of an English Quaker family that was key to the development of the Industrial Revolution. ... Map sources for Horsehay at grid reference SJ675075 Horsehay is a small village located in the ceremonial county of Shropshire in England. ... Map sources for Ketley at grid reference SJ676109 Ketley is a suburb of the new town of Telford in Shropshire, England. ...


Bar iron for smiths to forge into consumer goods was still made in finery forges, as it long had been. However, new processes were adopted in the ensuing years. The first is referred to today as potting and stamping, but this was superseded by Henry Cort's puddling process. From 1785, perhaps because the improved version of potting and stamping was about to come out of patent, a great expansion in the output of the British iron industry began. The new processes did not depend on the use of charcoal at all and were therefore not limited by charcoal sources. A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... Iron tapped from the blast furnace is pig iron, and contains significant amounts of carbon and silicon. ... Henry Cort is a good guy(1740 – 1800) was an English ironmaster. ... Schematic drawing of a puddling furnace The puddling furnace is a metalmaking technology to create wrought iron from the pig iron produced in a blast furnace. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ...


Up to that time, British iron manufacturers had used considerable amounts of imported iron to supplement native supplies. This came principally from Sweden from the mid 17th century and later also from Russia from the end of the 1720s. However, from 1785, imports decreased because of the new iron making technology, and Britain became an exporter of bar iron as well as manufactured wrought iron consumer goods. A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Since iron was becoming cheaper and more plentiful, it also became a major structural material following the building of the innovative Iron Bridge in 1778 by Abraham Darby III. The Iron Bridge Map sources for Ironbridge at grid reference SJ672033 Ironbridge is a settlement beside the River Severn in Shropshire, England that grew up beside the 100 foot (30 meter) cast-iron bridge that was built across the river there in 1779. ... Abraham Darby III (1750 – 1791) was an English ironmaster and Quaker. ...


An improvement was made in the production of steel, which was an expensive commodity and used only where iron would not do, such as for the cutting edge of tools and for springs. Benjamin Huntsman developed his crucible steel technique in the 1740s. The raw material for this was blister steel, made by the cementation process. For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Benjamin Huntsman (1704 - 1776), English inventor and steel-manufacturer, was born in Lincolnshire. ... Crucible steel describes a number of different techniques for making steel alloy by slowly heating and cooling iron and carbon (typically in the form of charcoal) in a crucible. ... The cementation process is a obsolete technique for making steel. ...


The supply of cheaper iron and steel aided the development of boilers and steam engines, and eventually railways. Improvements in machine tools allowed better working of iron and steel and further boosted the industrial growth of Britain. A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by machining, which is the selective removal of metal. ...


Mining

Coal mining in Britain, particularly in South Wales started early. Before the steam engine, pits were often shallow bell pits following a seam of coal along the surface, which were abandoned as the coal was extracted. In other cases, if the geology was favourable, the coal was mined by means of an adit or drift mine driven into the side of a hill. Shaft mining was done in some areas, but the limiting factor was the problem of removing water. It could be done by hauling buckets of water up the shaft or to a sough (a tunnel driven into a hill to drain a mine). In either case, the water had to be discharged into a stream or ditch at a level where it could flow away by gravity. The introduction of the steam engine greatly facilitated the removal of water and enabled shafts to be made deeper, enabling more coal to be extracted. These were developments that had begun before the Industrial Revolution, but the adoption of James Watt's more efficient steam engine from the 1770s reduced the fuel costs of engines, making mines more profitable. Coal mining was very dangerous owing to the presence of firedamp in many coal seams. Some degree of safety was provided by the safety lamp which was invented in 1816 by Sir Humphrey Davy and independently by George Stephenson. However, conditions of work were very poor, with a casualty rate from rock falls and explosions. Chinese coal miners in an illustration of the Tiangong Kaiwu Ming Dynasty encyclopedia, published in 1637 by Song Yingxing. ... The Economy of Wales ranks as the smallest of the four economies of the United Kingdom in terms of GDP(2002). ... The El Chino mine located near Silver City, New Mexico is an open-pit copper mine Open-pit mining refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. ... A Bell Pit is a primitive method of mining coal where the coal lies near the surface on flat land. ... Gated entrance of an abandoned adit An adit is a type of entrance to an underground mining operation in which the entrance shaft is horizontal or nearly horizontal. ... Abandoned mine shafts in Marl, Germany. ... A Sough is an underground channel for draining water out of a mine. ... Firedamp is a flammable gas found in coal mines. ... Safety lamp is the name of a variety of lamps for safety in coal-mines against coal dust, methane, or firedamp, a highly explosive mixture of natural gas apt to accumulate in them. ... Humphry Davy Sir Humphry Davy (December 17, 1778 - May 29, 1829), often incorrectly spelled Humphrey, was a Cornish chemist. ... George Stephenson George Stephenson For the British politician, see George Stevenson. ...


Steam power

Newcomen's steam powered atmospheric engine was the first practical engine. Subsequent steam engines were to power the Industrial Revolution
Newcomen's steam powered atmospheric engine was the first practical engine. Subsequent steam engines were to power the Industrial Revolution

The development of the stationary steam engine was an essential early element of the Industrial Revolution; however, for most of the period of the Industrial Revolution, the majority of industries still relied on wind and water power as well as horse and man-power for driving small machines. During the Industrial Revolution, steam power replaced water power and muscle power (which often came from horses) as the primary source of power in use in industry. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A stationary steam engine, preserved at Tower Bridge in London. ...


The first real attempt at industrial use of steam power was due to Thomas Savery in 1698. He constructed and patented in London a low-lift combined vacuum and pressure water pump, that generated about one horsepower (hp) and was used as in numerous water works and tried in a few mines (hence its "brand name", The miner's Friend), but it was not a success since it was limited in pumping height and prone to boiler explosions. Thomas Savery (c. ... This article is about a unit of measurement. ...


The first safe and successful steam power plant was introduced by Thomas Newcomen from 1719. Newcomen apparently conceived his machine quite independently of Savery, but as the latter had taken out a very wide-ranging patent, Newcomen and his associates were obliged to come to an arrangement with him, marketing the engine until 1733 under a joint patent.[26] Newcomen's engine appears to have been based on Papin's experiments carried out 30 years earlier, and employed a piston and cylinder, one end of which was open to the atmosphere above the piston. Steam just above atmospheric pressure (all that the boiler could stand) was introduced into the lower half of the cylinder beneath the piston during the gravity-induced upstroke; the steam was then condensed by a jet of cold water injected into the steam space to produce a partial vacuum; the pressure differential between the atmosphere and the vacuum on either side of the piston displaced it downwards into the cylinder, raising the opposite end of a rocking beam to which was attached a gang of gravity-actuated reciprocating force pumps housed in the mineshaft. The engine's downward power stroke raised the pump, priming it and preparing the pumping stroke. At first the phases were controlled by hand, but within ten years an escapement mechanism had been devised worked by of a vertical plug tree suspended from the rocking beam which rendered the engine self-acting. Thomas Newcomen (baptised 24 February 1664; died 5 August 1729) was an ironmonger by trade, and a Baptist lay preacher by calling. ... Denis Papin Denis Papin (22 August 1647 - c. ...


A number of Newcomen engines were successfully put to use in Britain for draining hitherto unworkable deep mines, with the engine on the surface; these were large machines, requiring a lot of capital to build, and produced about 5 hp (3.7 kW). They were extremely inefficient by modern standards, but when located where coal was cheap at pit heads, opened up a great expansion in coal mining by allowing mines to go deeper. Despite their disadvantages, Newcomen engines were reliable and easy to maintain and continued to be used in the coalfields until the early decades of the nineteenth century. By 1729, when Newcomen died, his engines had spread to France, Germany, Austria, Hungary and Sweden. A total of 110 are known to have been built by 1733 when the joint patent expired, of which 14 were abroad. In the 1770s, the engineer John Smeaton built some very large examples and introduced a number of improvements. A total of 1,454 engines had been built by 1800. Portrait of John Smeaton, with the Eddystone Lighthouse in the background John Smeaton, FRS, (June 8, 1724 – October 28, 1792) was a civil engineer – often regarded as the father of civil engineering – responsible for the design of bridges, canals, harbours and lighthouses. ...


A fundamental change in working principles was brought about by James Watt. With the close collaboration Matthew Boulton, he had succeeded by 1778 in perfecting his steam engine, which incorporated a series of radical improvements, notably the closing off of the upper part of the cylinder thereby making the low pressure steam drive the top of the piston instead of the atmosphere, use of a steam jacket and the celebrated separate steam condenser chamber. All this meant that a more constant temperature could be maintained in the cylinder and that engine efficiency no longer varied according to atmospheric conditions. These improvements increased engine efficiency by a factor of about five, saving 75% on coal costs. For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... Matthew Boulton. ... The major components of a Watt pumping engine. ...


Nor could the atmospheric engine be easily adapted to drive a rotating wheel, although Wasborough and Pickard did succeed in doing so towards 1780. However by 1783 the more economical Watt steam engine had been fully developed into a double-acting rotative type, which meant that it could be used to directly drive the rotary machinery of a factory or mill. Both of Watt's basic engine types were commercially very successful, and by 1800, the firm Boulton & Watt had constructed 496 engines, with 164 driving reciprocating pumps, 24 serving blast furnaces, and 308 powering mill machinery; most of the engines generated from 5 to 10 hp (7.5 kW). The firm of Boulton & Watt, was initially a partnership between Matthew Boulton and James Watt, formed in 1775 to make steam engines at their Soho Foundry in Smethwick, near Birmingham, England. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ...


The development of machine tools, such as the lathe, planing and shaping machines powered by these engines, enabled all the metal parts of the engines to be easily and accurately cut and in turn made it possible to build larger and more powerful engines. A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by the selective removal of metal. ...


Until about 1800, the most common pattern of steam engine was the beam engine, built as an integral part of a stone or brick engine-house, but soon various patterns of self-contained portative engines (readily removable, but not on wheels) were developed, such as the table engine. Towards the turn of the 19th century, the Cornish engineer Richard Trevithick, and the American, Oliver Evans began to construct higher pressure non-condensing steam engines, exhausting against the atmosphere. This allowed an engine and boiler to be combined into a single unit compact enough to be used on mobile road and rail locomotives and steam boats. The remains of a beam engine at Wanlockhead A beam engine is a design of stationary steam engine. ... A table engine is a variety of stationary steam engine where the cylinder is placed on top of a table-shaped base, the legs of which stand on the baseplate which locates the crankshaft bearings. ... Richard Trevithick (born April 13, 1771 in Cornwall - died April 22, 1833 in Kent) was a British inventor, mining engineer and builder of the first working railway steam locomotive. ... Oliver Evans Oliver Evans (13 September 1755 – 15 April 1819) was a United States inventor. ... Great Western Railway No. ... For other uses, see Steamboat (disambiguation). ...


In the early 19th century after the expiration of Watt's patent, the steam engine underwent many improvements by a host of inventors and engineers.


Chemicals

The Thames Tunnel (opened 1843)Cement was used in the world's first underwater tunnel
The Thames Tunnel (opened 1843)
Cement was used in the world's first underwater tunnel

The large scale production of chemicals was an important development during the Industrial Revolution. The first of these was the production of sulphuric acid by the lead chamber process invented by the Englishman John Roebuck (James Watt's first partner) in 1746. He was able to greatly increase the scale of the manufacture by replacing the relatively expensive glass vessels formerly used with larger, less expensive chambers made of riveted sheets of lead. Instead of a few pounds at a time, he was able to make a hundred pounds (45 kg) or so at a time in each of the chambers. Interior of the Thames Foot Tunnel, mid-19th century This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Interior of the Thames Foot Tunnel, mid-19th century This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Interior of the Thames Tunnel, mid-19th century The Thames Tunnel was the worlds first underwater tunnel, built beneath the River Thames in London. ... Sulfuric acid (British English: sulphuric acid), H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... The Lead Chamber Process was an industrial process used to produce relatively strong concentrations of sulfuric acid in large quantities. ... This article is about the English inventor. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ...


The production of an alkali on a large scale became an important goal as well, and Nicolas Leblanc succeeded in 1791 in introducing a method for the production of sodium carbonate. The Leblanc process was a reaction of sulphuric acid with sodium chloride to give sodium sulphate and hydrochloric acid. The sodium sulphate was heated with limestone (calcium carbonate) and coal to give a mixture of sodium carbonate and calcium sulphide. Adding water separated the soluble sodium carbonate from the calcium sulphide. The process produced a large amount of pollution (the hydrochloric acid was initially vented to the air, and calcium sulphide was a useless waste product). Nonetheless, this synthetic soda ash proved economical compared to that from burning certain plants (barilla) or from kelp, which were the previously dominant sources of soda ash,[27] and also to potash (potassium carbonate) derived from hardwood ashes. Alkaline redirects here. ... Nicolas Leblanc (December 6, 1742 – January 16, 1806) was a French chemist and surgeon who discovered how to manufacture soda from common salt. ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... The Leblanc process was the industrial process for the production of soda ash (sodium carbonate) used throughout the 19th century. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Sodium sulfate is an important compound of sodium. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... Calcium sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula CaS. This white material crystallizes in cubes, with the rock salt structure. ... Sodium carbonate or soda ash, Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... Barilla Spa is one of the major Italian food companies. ... Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Potash Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of potassium carbonate (K2CO3). ... Flash point Not flammable Related Compounds Other cations Lithium carbonate, sodium carbonate, caesium carbonate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Potassium carbonate is a white salt, soluble in water (insoluble in alcohol), which forms...


These two chemicals were very important because they enabled the introduction of a host of other inventions, replacing many small-scale operations with more cost-effective and controllable processes. Sodium carbonate had many uses in the glass, textile, soap, and paper industries. Early uses for sulphuric acid included pickling (removing rust) iron and steel, and for bleaching cloth. This article is about the chemical whitener. ...


The development of bleaching powder (calcium hypochlorite) by Scottish chemist Charles Tennant in about 1800, based on the discoveries of French chemist Claude Louis Berthollet, revolutionised the bleaching processes in the textile industry by dramatically reducing the time required (from months to days) for the traditional process then in use, which required repeated exposure to the sun in bleach fields after soaking the textiles with alkali or sour milk. Tennant's factory at St Rollox, North Glasgow, became the largest chemical plant in the world. Calcium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with formula Ca(ClO)2. ... Charles Tennant Charles Tennant (May 3, 1768 - October 1, 1838) Scottish chemist and industrialist. ... Claude Louis Berthollet. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ...


In 1824 Joseph Aspdin, a British brick layer turned builder, patented a chemical process for making portland cement which was an important advance in the building trades. This process involves sintering a mixture of clay and limestone to about 1400 °C, then grinding it into a fine powder which is then mixed with water, sand and gravel to produce concrete. Portland cement was used by the famous English engineer Marc Isambard Brunel several years later when constructing the Thames Tunnel.[28] Cement was used on a large scale in the construction of the London sewerage system a generation later. Joseph Aspdin (1788 – 20 March 1855) was an English mason, bricklayer and inventor who patented Portland cement on 21 October 1824. ... Sampling fast set Portland cement Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general usage, as it is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and plaster. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the construction material. ... Marc Isambard Brunel, engraving by G. Metzeroth, circa 1880 Sir Marc Isambard Brunel, FRS (April 25, 1769 – December 12, 1849) was a French-born engineer who settled in the United Kingdom. ... Interior of the Thames Tunnel, mid-19th century The Thames Tunnel was the worlds first underwater tunnel, built beneath the River Thames in London. ... The new Abbey Mills Pumping Station The original Abbey Mills pumping station The London sewerage system is part of the water infrastructure serving London. ...


Machine tools

The Industrial Revolution could not have developed without machine tools, for they enabled manufacturing machines to be made. They have their origins in the tools developed in the 18th century by makers of clocks and watches and scientific instrument makers to enable them to batch-produce small mechanisms. The mechanical parts of early textile machines were sometimes called 'clock work' because of the metal spindles and gears they incorporated. The manufacture of textile machines drew craftsmen from these trades and is the origin of the modern engineering industry. A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by machining, which is the selective removal of metal. ...


Machines were built by various craftsmen—carpenters made wooden framings, and smiths and turners made metal parts. A good example of how machine tools changed manufacturing took place in Birmingham, England, in 1830. The invention of a new machine by William Joseph Gillott, William Mitchell and James Stephen Perry allowed mass manufacture of robust, cheap steel pen nibs; the process had been laborious and expensive. Because of the difficulty of manipulating metal and the lack of machine tools, the use of metal was kept to a minimum. Wood framing had the disadvantage of changing dimensions with temperature and humidity, and the various joints tended to rack (work loose) over time. As the Industrial Revolution progressed, machines with metal frames became more common, but they required machine tools to make them economically. Before the advent of machine tools, metal was worked manually using the basic hand tools of hammers, files, scrapers, saws and chisels. Small metal parts were readily made by this means, but for large machine parts, production was very laborious and costly. For other uses, see Carpenter (disambiguation). ... William Mitchell refers to more than one historical figure: Billy Mitchell, father of the U.S. Air Force William A. Mitchell, corporate chemist responsible for Tang and Pop Rocks William D. Mitchell, U.S. Attorney General Sir William Mitchell, Oxford physicist who helped pioneer neutron scattering, and former scientific advisory...

A lathe from 1911. A type of machine tool able to make other machines
A lathe from 1911. A type of machine tool able to make other machines

Apart from workshop lathes used by craftsmen, the first large machine tool was the cylinder boring machine used for boring the large-diameter cylinders on early steam engines. The planing machine, the slotting machine and the shaping machine were developed in the first decades of the 19th century. Although the milling machine was invented at this time, it was not developed as a serious workshop tool until during the Second Industrial Revolution. Image File history File links Lathe. ... Image File history File links Lathe. ... For other uses, see Lathe (disambiguation). ... A tunnel boring machine that was used at Yucca Mountain. ... Endmills for a milling machine. ...


Military production had a hand in the development of machine tools. Henry Maudslay, who trained a school of machine tool makers early in the 19th century, was employed at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, as a young man where he would have seen the large horse-driven wooden machines for cannon boring made and worked by the Verbruggans. He later worked for Joseph Bramah on the production of metal locks, and soon after he began working on his own. He was engaged to build the machinery for making ships' pulley blocks for the Royal Navy in the Portsmouth Block Mills. These were all metal and were the first machines for mass production and making components with a degree of interchangeability. The lessons Maudslay learned about the need for stability and precision he adapted to the development of machine tools, and in his workshops he trained a generation of men to build on his work, such as Richard Roberts, Joseph Clement and Joseph Whitworth. Henry Maudslay. ... The Royal Arsenal, originally known as the Woolwich Arsenal, carried out armaments manufacture, ammunition proofing and explosives research. ... , Woolwich town hall dates from when this was a borough in its own right. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... Joseph Bramah (1748 - December 9, 1814), born Stainborough, Yorkshire, England. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The Portsmouth Block Mills form part of the Portsmouth Dockyard at Portsmouth, Hampshire, England, and were built during the Napoleonic Wars to supply the British Royal Navy with pulley blocks. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... In telecommunication, an interchangeability is a condition which exists when two or more items possess such functional and physical characteristics as to be equivalent in performance and durability, and are capable of being exchanged one for the other without alteration of the items themselves, or of adjoining items, except for... Richard Roberts Richard Roberts (22 April 1789 – 11 March 1864) was a British engineer whose development of high-precision machine tools contributed to the birth of production engineering and mass production. ... Joseph Clement was a British engineer and industrialist. ... Sir Joseph Whitworth Sir Joseph Whitworth, Baronet (December 21, 1803 - January 22, 1887) was an English engineer and entrepreneur. ...


James Fox of Derby had a healthy export trade in machine tools for the first third of the century, as did Matthew Murray of Leeds. Roberts was a maker of high-quality machine tools and a pioneer of the use of jigs and gauges for precision workshop measurement. James Fox (born 19 May 1939) is an English actor. ... This article is about the city in England. ... Matthew Murray was a steam engine and machine tool manufacturer, who designed and built the first commercially viable steam locomotive, the twin cylinder The Salamanca in 1812. ...


Gas lighting

Main article: Gas lighting

Another major industry of the later Industrial Revolution was gas lighting. Though others made a similar innovation elsewhere, the large scale introduction of this was the work of William Murdoch, an employee of Boulton and Watt, the Birmingham steam engine pioneers. The process consisted of the large scale gasification of coal in furnaces, the purification of the gas (removal of sulphur, ammonium, and heavy hydrocarbons), and its storage and distribution. The first gaslighting utilities were established in London between 1812-20. They soon became one of the major consumers of coal in the UK. Gaslighting had in impact on social and industrial organisation because it allowed factories and stores to remain open longer than with tallow candles or oil. Its introduction allowed night life to flourish in cities and towns as interiors and street could be lighted on a larger scale than before. Gas lighting is the process of burning piped natural gas or coal gas for illumination. ... Gas lighting is the process of burning piped natural gas or coal gas for illumination. ... William Murdoch. ... The firm of Boulton and Watt, a partnership between Matthew Boulton and James Watt, made steam engines at their Soho Foundry in Smethwick, near Birmingham, England. ... This article is about the British city. ... The major components of a Watt pumping engine. ...


Glass making

The 1851 Great Exhibition in Hyde Park .
The 1851 Great Exhibition in Hyde Park .

A new method of producing glass, known as the cylinder process, was developed in Europe during the early 19th century. In 1832, this process was used by the Chance Brothers to create sheet glass. They became the leading producers of window and plate glass. This advancement allowed for larger panes of glass to be created without interruption, thus freeing up the space planning in interiors as well as the fenestration of buildings. The crystal palace is the supreme example of the use of sheet glass in a new and innovative structure. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x544, 99 KB) Summary The Crystal Palace from the northeast from Dickinsons Comprehensive Pictures of the Great Exhibition of 1851, published 1854. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x544, 99 KB) Summary The Crystal Palace from the northeast from Dickinsons Comprehensive Pictures of the Great Exhibition of 1851, published 1854. ... Chance Brothers and Company was a glassworks in Smethwick, Staffordshire, England. ... Crystal Palace may refer to: The Crystal Palace was a 19th century building in Britain. ...


Agriculture

In the mid nineteenth century John Fowler, an engineer and inventor, began to look at the possibility of using steam engines for ploughing and digging drainage channels. The system that he invented involved either a single stationary engine at the corner of a field drawing a plough via sets of winches and pulleys, or two engines placed at either end of a field drawing the plough backwards and forwards between them by means of a cable attached to winches. Fowler's ploughing system vastly reduced the cost of ploughing farmland compared with horse-drawn ploughs. Also his ploughing system, when used for digging drainage channels, made possible the cultivation of previously unusable swampy land. John Fowler (11 July 1826 – 4 December 1864) was an English agricultural engineer who was a pioneer in the use of steam engines for ploughing and digging drainage channels. ...


Transport in Britain

At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, inland transport was by navigable rivers and roads, with coastal vessels employed to move heavy goods by sea. Railways or wagon ways were used for conveying coal to rivers for further shipment, but canals had not yet been constructed. Animals supplied all of the motive power on land, with sails providing the motive power on the sea. Transportation of raw materials to the manufacture sites, and of the finished clothing and linen from the centres of production in the Pennines in central England, was limited by the lack of large scale rivers. ...


The Industrial Revolution improved Britain's transport infrastructure with a turnpike road network, a canal, and waterway network, and a railway network. Raw materials and finished products could be moved more quickly and cheaply than before. Improved transportation also allowed new ideas to spread quickly.


Coastal sail

Sailing vessels had long been used for moving goods round the British coast. The trade transporting coal to London from Newcastle had begun in mediaeval times. The major international seaports such as London, Bristol, and Liverpool, were the means by which raw materials such as cotton might be imported and finished goods exported. Transporting goods onwards within Britain by sea was common during the whole of the Industrial Revolution and only fell away with the growth of the railways at the end of the period. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Navigable rivers

See also: List of rivers of United Kingdom

All the major rivers of the United Kingdom were navigable during the Industrial Revolution. Some were anciently navigable, notably the Severn, Thames, and Trent. Some were improved, or had navigation extended upstream, but usually in the period before the Industrial Revolution, rather than during it. For lists of rivers in the Great Britain by part see List of rivers of England and Wales List of rivers of Scotland The Severn bridges crossing near the mouth of the River Severn Image:Lambeth. ... The Severn is the name of a river in the United Kingdom. ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... Trent is the name of several Places: Trento in Italy, famous for the Roman Catholic Council of Trent Trent, Texas, USA Trent, South Dakota, USA Trent, Dorset, UK Trent, Germany, a municipality on the island of Rügen, Germany Rivers: River Trent in the UK, or one of several other...


The Severn, in particular, was used for the movement of goods to the Midlands which had been imported into Bristol from abroad, and for the export of goods from centres of production in Shropshire (such as iron goods from Coalbrookdale) and the Black Country. Transport was by way of trows—small sailing vessels which could pass the various shallows and bridges in the river. The trows could navigate the Bristol Channel to the South Wales ports and Somerset ports, such as Bridgwater and even as far as France. The Severn is the name of a river in the United Kingdom. ... Shropshire (pronounced /, -/), alternatively known as Salop[6] or abbreviated Shrops[7], is a county in the West Midlands of England. ... Coalbrookdale is a settlement in a side valley of the Ironbridge Gorge in the borough of Telford and Wrekin and ceremonial county of Shropshire, England. ... The Black Country is a loosely-defined area of the English West Midlands conurbation, to the north and west of Birmingham, and to the south and east of Wolverhampton, around the South Staffordshire coalfield. ... See also Trowe, a type of troll. ... , Bridgwater in Somerset, England, is a market town, the administrative centre of the Sedgemoor district, and the leading industrial town in the county. ...


Canals

Main article: History of the British canal system

Canals began to be built in the late eighteenth century to link the major manufacturing centres in the Midlands and north with seaports and with London, at that time itself the largest manufacturing centre in the country. Canals were the first technology to allow bulk materials to be easily transported across country. A single canal horse could pull a load dozens of times larger than a cart at a faster pace. By the 1820s, a national network was in existence. Canal construction served as a model for the organisation and methods later used to construct the railways. They were eventually largely superseded as profitable commercial enterprises by the spread of the railways from the 1840s on. The British canal system of water transport played a vital role in Britains Industrial Revolution at a time when roads were only just emerging from the medieval mud and long trains of pack horses were the only means of mass transit by road of raw materials and finished products... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 598 KB)Pontcysyllte Aquaduct Picture by Akke Monasso File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 598 KB)Pontcysyllte Aquaduct Picture by Akke Monasso File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Aqueduct, view from the ground Crossing the aqueduct A view of the ground below from the aqueduct The Pontcysyllte Aqueduct is an aqueduct which carries the Llangollen Canal over the valley of the River Dee, east of Llangollen in north Wales. ...


Britain's canal network, together with its surviving mill buildings, is one of the most enduring features of the early Industrial Revolution to be seen in Britain.


Roads

The Iron Bridge (1781)The first large bridge made of cast iron
The Iron Bridge (1781)
The first large bridge made of cast iron

Much of the original British road system was poorly maintained by thousands of local parishes, but from the 1720s (and occasionally earlier) turnpike trusts were set up to charge tolls and maintain some roads. Increasing numbers of main roads were turnpiked from the 1750s to the extent that almost every main road in England and Wales was the responsibility of some turnpike trust. New engineered roads were built by John Metcalf, Thomas Telford and John Macadam. The major turnpikes radiated from London and were the means by which the Royal Mail was able to reach the rest of the country. Heavy goods transport on these roads was by means of slow, broad wheeled, carts hauled by teams of horses. Lighter goods were conveyed by smaller carts or by teams of pack horse. Stage coaches carried the rich, and the less wealthy could pay to ride on carriers carts. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Iron Bridge The Iron Bridge The Iron Bridge The Iron Bridge crosses the River Severn at the Ironbridge Gorge, by the village of Ironbridge, in Shropshire, England. ... A toll road, turnpike or tollpike is a road on which a toll authority collects a fee for use. ... The Hyde Park Toll Gate, London. ... John Metcalf, or as he was more popularly known, Blind Jack Metcalf (August 15, 1717 – April 26, 1810) was the first of the professional road builders to emerge during the Industrial Revolution. ... Thomas Telford (August 9, 1757 - September 2, 1834) was born in Westerkirk, Scotland. ... John Loudon McAdam (born September 21, 1756 in Ayr; died November 26, 1836 in Moffat) was a Scottish engineer and road-builder. ... Two pairs of Shire horses and a pair of Suffolk Punches A draft horse, draught horse, or harness horse is a large, strong horse bred for heavy work rather than speed. ... The un-sprung cart was a simple, sturdy, one-horse, two-wheeled vehicle used by roadmen, farmers and the like for small loads of relatively dense material like road metal or dung. ...


Railways

Main article: History of rail transport in Great Britain
A replica of the early locomotive Sans Pareil at a 1980 restaging of the Rainhill Trials of 1829
A replica of the early locomotive Sans Pareil at a 1980 restaging of the Rainhill Trials of 1829

Wagonways for moving coal in the mining areas had started in the 17th century and were often associated with canal or river systems for the further movement of coal. These were all horse drawn or relied on gravity, with a stationary steam engine to haul the wagons back to the top of the incline. The first applications of the steam locomotive were on wagon or plate ways (as they were then often called from the cast iron plates used). Horse-drawn public railways did not begin until the early years of the 19th century. Steam-hauled public railways began with the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825 and the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in 1830. The construction of major railways connecting the larger cities and towns began in the 1830s but only gained momentum at the very end of the first Industrial Revolution. The Midland Railways London terminus at St Pancras. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 526 pixelsFull resolution (892 × 586 pixel, file size: 134 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) © Jon Stubley Date: Saturday, May 1980. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 526 pixelsFull resolution (892 × 586 pixel, file size: 134 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) © Jon Stubley Date: Saturday, May 1980. ... The Sans Pareil was a locomotive built by Timothy Hackworth which took part in the 1829 Rainhill Trials on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, held to select a builder of locomotives. ... The Rainhill Trials were an important competition in the early days of steam locomotive railways, run in October of 1829 near Rainhill (just outside Liverpool). ... Great Western Railway No. ... The Stockton and Darlington railway (S&DR) was the worlds first railway to successfully use steam locomotives and carry passengers, and is considered the worlds first modern railway. ... Inaugural journey of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway The Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR) was the worlds first intercity passenger railway in which all the trains were timetabled and operated for most of the distance solely by steam locomotives. ...


After many of the workers had completed the railways, they did not return to their rural lifestyles but instead remained in the cities, providing additional workers for the factories.


Railways helped Britain's trade enormously, providing a quick and easy way of transport.


Social effects

In terms of social structure, the Industrial Revolution witnessed the triumph of a middle class of industrialists and businessmen over a landed class of nobility and gentry. The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...


Ordinary working people found increased opportunities for employment in the new mills and factories, but these were often under strict working conditions with long hours of labour dominated by a pace set by machines. However, harsh working conditions were prevalent long before the Industrial Revolution took place. Pre-industrial society was very static and often cruel—child labour, dirty living conditions and long working hours were just as prevalent before the Industrial Revolution.[29]


Factories and urbanisation

Manchester, England ("Cottonopolis"), pictured in 1840, showing the mass of factory chimneys
Manchester, England ("Cottonopolis"), pictured in 1840, showing the mass of factory chimneys

Industrialisation led to the creation of the factory. Arguably the first was John Lombe's water-powered silk mill at Derby, operational by 1721. However, the rise of the factory came somewhat later when cotton spinning was mechanised. Image File history File links Cottonopolis1. ... Image File history File links Cottonopolis1. ... The name given to Manchester in the 19th Century inspired by its status as the centre of the cotton and textile industries. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... John Lombe (1693 - 1722) was an inventor who patented 3 types of Silk machines, for winding, spinning and twisting. ... The Derby Industrial Museum is housed in a former Silk Mill in Derby, England. ... This article is about the city in England. ...


The factory system was largely responsible for the rise of the modern city, as large numbers of workers migrated into the cities in search of employment in the factories. Nowhere was this better illustrated than the mills and associated industries of Manchester, nicknamed "Cottonopolis", and arguably the world's first industrial city. For much of the 19th century, production was done in small mills, which were typically water-powered and built to serve local needs. Later each factory would have its own steam engine and a chimney to give an efficient draft through its boiler. For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... The name given to Manchester in the 19th Century inspired by its status as the centre of the cotton and textile industries. ... The use of water power in Britain was at its peak just before the Industrial Revolution. ...


The transition to industrialisation was not without difficulty. For example, a group of English workers known as Luddites formed to protest against industrialisation and sometimes sabotaged factories. The Luddites were a social movement of English textile artisans in the early nineteenth century who protested — often by destroying textile machines — against the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution, which they felt threatened their livelihood. ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ...


In other industries the transition to factory production was not so divisive. Some industrialists themselves tried to improve factory and living conditions for their workers. One of the earliest such reformers was Robert Owen, known for his pioneering efforts in improving conditions for workers at the New Lanark mills, and often regarded as one of the key thinkers of the early socialist movement. For other uses, see Robert Owen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Robert Owen (disambiguation). ... Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern Socialist thought. ...


By 1746, an integrated brass mill was working at Warmley near Bristol. Raw material went in at one end, was smelted into brass and was turned into pans, pins, wire, and other goods. Housing was provided for workers on site. Josiah Wedgwood and Matthew Boulton were other prominent early industrialists, who employed the factory system. Warmley is a village in South Gloucestershire, England. ... This article is about the English city. ... This article is about the eldest Josiah Wedgwood. ... Matthew Boulton. ...


Child labour

A young "drawer" pulling a coal tub up a mine shaft
A young "drawer" pulling a coal tub up a mine shaft

The Industrial Revolution led to a population increase, but the chance of surviving childhood did not improve throughout the industrial revolution (although infant mortality rates were improved markedly).[30][31] There was still limited opportunity for education, and children were expected to work. Employers could pay a child less than an adult even though their productivity was comparable; there was no need for strength to operate an industrial machine, and since the industrial system was completely new there were no experienced adult labourers. This made child labour the labour of choice for manufacturing in the early phases of the Industrial Revolution between the 18th and 19th centuries. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Child labour had existed before the Industrial Revolution, but with the increase in population and education it became more visible. Before the passing of laws protecting children, many were forced to work in terrible conditions for much lower pay than their elders. Child labour or labor is the phenomenon of children in employment. ...


Reports were written detailing some of the abuses, particularly in the coal mines[32] and textile factories [33] and these helped to popularise the children's plight. The public outcry, especially among the upper and middle classes, helped stir change in the young workers' welfare.


Politicians and the government tried to limit child labour by law, but factory owners resisted; some felt that they were aiding the poor by giving their children money to buy food to avoid starvation, and others simply welcomed the cheap labour. In 1833 and 1844, the first general laws against child labour, the Factory Acts, were passed in England: Children younger than nine were not allowed to work, children were not permitted to work at night, and the work day of youth under the age of 18 was limited to twelve hours. Factory inspectors supervised the execution of the law. About ten years later, the employment of children and women in mining was forbidden. These laws decreased the number of child labourers; however, child labour remained in Europe up to the 20th century. This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... The Factory Acts were a series of Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to limit the number of hours worked by women and children first in the textile industry, then later in all industries. ...


Housing

Over London by Rail Gustave Doré c. 1870. Shows the densely populated and polluted environments created in the new industrial cities
Over London by Rail Gustave Doré c. 1870. Shows the densely populated and polluted environments created in the new industrial cities

Living conditions during the Industrial Revolution varied from the splendour of the homes of the owners to the squalor of the lives of the workers. Cliffe Castle, Keighley, is a good example of how the newly rich chose to live. This is a large home modelled loosely on a castle with towers and garden walls. The home is very large and was surrounded by a massive garden, the Cliffe Castle is now open to the public as a museum. Over London by Rail - Gutav Dore c 1870, Lumos3 13:14, 25 Jun 2005 (UTC) File links The following pages link to this file: Industrial Revolution Categories: Public domain art ... Over London by Rail - Gutav Dore c 1870, Lumos3 13:14, 25 Jun 2005 (UTC) File links The following pages link to this file: Industrial Revolution Categories: Public domain art ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... For the constituency of the same name, see Keighley (UK Parliament constituency). ...


Poor people lived in very small houses in cramped streets. These homes would share toilet facilities, have open sewers and would be at risk of damp. Disease was spread through a contaminated water supply. Conditions did improve during the 19th century as public health acts were introduced covering things such as sewage, hygiene and making some boundaries upon the construction of homes. Not everybody lived in homes like these. The Industrial Revolution created a larger middle class of professionals such as lawyers and doctors. The conditions for the poor improved over the course of the 19th century because of government and local plans which led to cities becoming cleaner places, but life had not been easy for the poor before industrialisation. However, as a result of the Revolution, huge numbers of the working class died due to diseases spreading through the cramped living conditions. Chest diseases from the mines, cholera from polluted water and typhoid were also extremely common, as was smallpox. Accidents in factories with child and female workers were regular. Dickens' novels perhaps best illustrate this; even some government officials were horrified by what they saw. Strikes and riots by workers were also relatively common. DAMP can stand for: Deficits in Attention, Motor Control and Perception Disk array Management Program, a Hitachi software program for manage disk storage array This article consisting of a 4-letter acronym or initialism is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Dickens redirects here. ...


Luddites

Main article: Luddite
The Leader of the luddites, engraving of 1812
The Leader of the luddites, engraving of 1812

The rapid industrialisation of the English economy cost many craft workers their jobs. The movement started first with lace and hosiery workers near Nottingham and spread to other areas of the textile industry owing to early industrialisation. Many weavers also found themselves suddenly unemployed since they could no longer compete with machines which only required relatively limited (and unskilled) labour to produce more cloth than a single weaver. Many such unemployed workers, weavers and others, turned their animosity towards the machines that had taken their jobs and began destroying factories and machinery. These attackers became known as Luddites, supposedly followers of Ned Ludd, a folklore figure. The first attacks of the Luddite movement began in 1811. The Luddites rapidly gained popularity, and the British government took drastic measures using the militia or army to protect industry. Those rioters who were caught were tried and hanged, or transported for life. The Luddites were a social movement of English textile artisans in the early nineteenth century who protested — often by destroying textile machines — against the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution, which they felt threatened their livelihood. ... For other uses, see Lace (disambiguation). ... Hosiery describes undergarments worn directly on the feet and legs. ... For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ... Ned Lud is the person that forms the basis for the character of King (or Captain) Ludd who was supposedly the leader and founder of the Luddites. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ...


Unrest continued in other sectors as they industrialised, such as agricultural labourers in the 1830s, when large parts of southern Britain were affected by the Captain Swing disturbances. Threshing machines were a particular target, and rick burning was a popular activity. The riots led however, to the first formation of trade unions, and further pressure for reform. This article is about the threatening letters of the Swing Riots. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers...


Organisation of labour

See also Labour history
The Great Chartist Meeting on Kennington Common, 1848
The Great Chartist Meeting on Kennington Common, 1848

The Industrial Revolution concentrated labour into mills, factories and mines, thus facilitating the organisation of combinations or trade unions to help advance the interests of working people. The power of a union could demand better terms by withdrawing all labour and causing a consequent cessation of production. Employers had to decide between giving in to the union demands at a cost to themselves or suffer the cost of the lost production. Skilled workers were hard to replace, and these were the first groups to successfully advance their conditions through this kind of bargaining. The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1350x1002, 290 KB) Taken from A World History of Photography ISBN 0789203294 The Great Chartist Meeting on Kennington Common, April 10, 1848, photograph taken by William Kilburn. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1350x1002, 290 KB) Taken from A World History of Photography ISBN 0789203294 The Great Chartist Meeting on Kennington Common, April 10, 1848, photograph taken by William Kilburn. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ...


The main method the unions used to effect change was strike action. Many strikes were painful events for both sides, the unions and the management. In England, the Combination Act forbade workers to form any kind of trade union from 1799 until its repeal in 1824. Even after this, unions were still severely restricted. Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by employees to perform work. ... The Combination Act of 1799, titled An Act to prevent Unlawful Combinations of Workmen, prohibited trade unions and collective bargaining by British workers. ...


In 1832, the year of the Reform Act which extended the vote in England but did not grant universal suffrage, six men from Tolpuddle in Dorset founded the Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers to protest against the gradual lowering of wages in the 1830s. They refused to work for less than 10 shillings a week, although by this time wages had been reduced to seven shillings a week and were due to be further reduced to six shillings. In 1834 James Frampton, a local landowner, wrote to the Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne, to complain about the union, invoking an obscure law from 1797 prohibiting people from swearing oaths to each other, which the members of the Friendly Society had done. James Brine, James Hammett, George Loveless, George's brother James Loveless, George's brother in-law Thomas Standfield, and Thomas's son John Standfield were arrested, found guilty, and transported to Australia. They became known as the Tolpuddle martyrs. In the 1830s and 1840s the Chartist movement was the first large scale organised working class political movement which campaigned for political equality and social justice. Its Charter of reforms received over three million signatures but was rejected by Parliament without consideration. In the United Kingdom, the Reform Act could refer to various Acts Reform Act 1832 (The First Reform Act or The Great Reform Act), which abolished rotten boroughs and gave representation to previously unrepresented urban areas like Birmingham etc. ... Tolpuddle is a small village. ... Viscount Melbourne was a title created for Peniston Lamb in 1781 in the peerage of Ireland. ... The shelter erected as a memorial in 1934. ... A movement for social and political reform in the United Kingdom during the mid_19th century, Chartism gains its name from the Peoples Charter of 1838, which set out the main aims of the movement. ...


Working people also formed friendly societies and co-operative societies as mutual support groups against times of economic hardship. Enlightened industrialists, such as Robert Owen also supported these organisations to improve the conditions of the working class. A friendly society (sometimes called a mutual society, benevolent society or fraternal organization) is a mutual association for insurance-like purposes, and often, especially in the past, serving ceremonial and friendship purposes also. ... Co-op redirects here. ... For other uses, see Robert Owen (disambiguation). ...


Unions slowly overcame the legal restrictions on the right to strike. In 1842, a General Strike involving cotton workers and colliers was organised through the Chartist movement which stopped production across Great Britain.[34] A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... A movement for social and political reform in the United Kingdom during the mid_19th century, Chartism gains its name from the Peoples Charter of 1838, which set out the main aims of the movement. ...


Eventually effective political organisation for working people was achieved through the trades unions who, after the extensions of the franchise in 1867 and 1885, began to support socialist political parties that later merged to became the British Labour Party. The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ...


Other effects

The application of steam power to the industrial processes of printing supported a massive expansion of newspaper and popular book publishing, which reinforced rising literacy and demands for mass political participation. For other uses, see Print. ...


Industrial Revolution elsewhere

United States

Main article: Technological and industrial history of the United States

As in Britain, the United States originally used water power to run its factories, with the consequence that industrialisation was essentially limited to New England and the rest of the Northeastern United States, where fast-moving rivers were located. However, the raw materials (cotton) came from the Southern United States. It was not until after the American Civil War in the 1860s that steam-powered manufacturing overtook water-powered manufacturing, allowing the industry to fully spread across the nation. Apollo 11 launch. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Map of the US northeast. ... Historic Southern United States. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Samuel Slater (1768–1835) is popularly known as the founder of the American cotton industry. As a boy apprentice in Derbyshire, England he learnt of the new techniques in the textile industry and defied laws against the emigration of skilled workers by leaving for New York in 1789, hoping to make money with his knowledge. Slater started Slater's mill at Pawtucket, Rhode Island, in 1793 and went on to own thirteen textile mills.[35] Daniel Day established a wool carding mill in the Blackstone Valley at Uxbridge, Massachusetts in 1810, the third woollen mill established in the U.S. (The first was in Hartford, CT, and the second at Watertown, MA). The John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor retraces the history of "America's Hardest working River', the Blackstone. The Blackstone River and its tributaries, which cover more than 45 miles (72 km) from Worcester to Providence, was the birthplace of America's Industrial Revolution. At its peak over 1100 mills operated in this valley, including Slater's mill, and with it the earliest beginnings of America's Industrial and Technological Development. (see also Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor) Samuel Slater (June 9, 1768 – April 21, 1835) was an early American industrialist popularly known as the Founder of the American Industrial Revolution because he brought British textile technology to America. ... Slater Mill, located on the Blackstone River in Pawtucket, RI, is generally cited as the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution in America. ... Pawtucket is a city in Providence County, Rhode Island, United States. ... Daniel Day, 1767-1848; born in Massachusetts; Died at Uxbridge, Worcester County, Massachusetts. ... The Blackstone Valley or Blackstone River Valley is a region of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. ... Uxbridge is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Hartford is the capital of the state of Connecticut, in Hartford County. ... Watertown is a city located in Middlesex County, Massachusetts. ... John Lester Hubbard Chafee (22 October 1922 - 24 October 1999) was an officer in the U.S. Marines, a governor of Rhode Island, the Secretary of the Navy and a United States Senator. ... The Blackstone Valley or Blackstone River Valley is a region of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. ... The Blackstone River begins in central Massachusetts and travels through Rhode Island until emptying into Narragansett Bay which connects to the Atlantic Ocean. ... This article is about the city of Worcester in England. ... Providence may mean: Divine Providence Providence College in Rhode Island, USA Providence, television series Providence, a 1977 film Providence, a 1991 film starring Keanu Reeves Providence, 1970s-era Providence may also refer to: Providence, Rhode Island (in Providence County) Providence, Alabama Providence, Kentucky Providence, New York It is also the... The Blackstone Valley or Blackstone River Valley is a region of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. ...


While on a trip to England in 1810, Newburyport, Massachusetts merchant Francis Cabot Lowell was allowed to tour the British textile factories, but not take notes. Realising the War of 1812 had ruined his import business but that a market for domestic finished cloth was emerging in America, he memorised the design of textile machines, and on his return to the United States, he set up the Boston Manufacturing Company. Lowell and his partners built America's first cotton-to-cloth textile mill at Waltham, Massachusetts. After his death in 1817, his Associates built America's first planned factory town, which they named after him. This enterprise was capitalised in a public stock offering, one of the first uses of it in the United States. Lowell, Massachusetts, utilising 5.6 miles (9.0 km) of canals and ten thousand horsepower delivered by the Merrimack River, is considered the 'Cradle of the American Industrial Revolution'. The short-lived utopia-like Lowell System was formed, as a direct response to the poor working conditions in Britain. However, by 1850, especially following the Irish Potato Famine, the system had been replaced by poor immigrant labour. Newburyport is a small coastal city in Essex County, Massachusetts, 38 miles (61 km) northeast of Boston. ... , Waltham, Massachusetts Francis Cabot Lowell (April 7, 1775 - April 10, 1817) was the American business man for whom the city of Lowell, Massachusetts, United States is named. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... Waltham, Massachusetts Boston Manufacturing Company was organized during the War of 1812 by Boston merchants previously engaged in the India trade. ... One of the early centers of the Industrial Revolution in northern America, Waltham is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. ... In financial markets, an initial public offering (IPO) is the first sale of a companys common shares to public investors. ... Nickname: Motto: Art is the Handmaid of Human Good Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1653 Incorporated 1826 A city 1836 Government  - Type Manager-City council  - Mayor William F. Martin, Jr. ... Merrimack River watershed The Merrimack River (or Merrimac River, an earlier spelling that is sometimes still used) is a -long river in the Northeastern United States. ... Cover of the Lowell Offering illustrating the paternalistic atmosphere. ... For other uses, please see Great Famine. ...

See also: History of Lowell, Massachusetts

Lowell, Massachusetts is considered the Birthplace of the American Industrial Revolution, as it was the first large-scale factory town in America. ...

Continental Europe

The Industrial Revolution on Continental Europe came later than in Great Britain. In many industries, this involved the application of technology developed in Britain in new places. Often the technology was purchased from Britain or British engineers and entrepreneurs moved abroad in search of new opportunities. By 1809 part of the Ruhr Valley in Westphalia were being called Miniature England because of its similarities to the industrial areas of England. The German, Russian and Belgian governments all provided state funding to the new industries. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Ruhr Area within Germany Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area, also called simply Ruhr, (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large formerly industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to...


In some cases (such as iron), the different availability of resources locally meant that only some aspects of the British technology were adopted. General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ...


Japan

In 1871 a group of Japanese politicians known as the Iwakura Mission toured Europe and the USA to learn western ways. The result was a deliberate state led industrialisation policy to prevent Japan from falling behind. The Bank of Japan, founded in 1877, used taxes to fund model steel and textile factories. Education was expanded and Japanese students were sent to study in the west. The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... The Eco history of Japan is one of the most studied for its spectacular growth, first in the period from the late twentieth century that saw Japan become a world power and then again after the devastation of the Second World War when the island nation rose to become the... The Iwakura Mission or Iwakura Embassy was a diplomatic journey around the world, initiated by the oligarchs of the Meiji era. ... The Bank of Japan has its headquarters in this building in Tokyo. ...


Second Industrial Revolutions and later evolution

Bessemer converter
Bessemer converter

The insatiable demand of the railways for more durable rail led to the development of the means to cheaply mass-produce steel. Steel is often cited as the first of several new areas for industrial mass-production, which are said to characterise a "Second Industrial Revolution", beginning around 1850, although a method for mass manufacture of steel was not invented until the 1860's, when Sir Henry Bessemer invented a new furnace which could make wrought iron and steel in large quantities. However, it only became widely available in the 1870's. This second Industrial Revolution gradually grew to include the chemical industries, petroleum refining and distribution, electrical industries, and, in the twentieth century, the automotive industries, and was marked by a transition of technological leadership from Britain to the United States and Germany. The Second Industrial Revolution (1865–1900) is a phrase used by some historians to describe an assumed second phase of the Industrial Revolution. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Sir Henry Bessemer (January 19, 1813 - March 15, 1898), English engineer, was born at Charlton near Hitchin in Hertfordshire. ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. ... Petro redirects here. ... The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ... Industrial robots welding a car body in the white section of a production line. ...


The introduction of hydroelectric power generation in the Alps enabled the rapid industrialisation of coal-deprived northern Italy, beginning in the 1890s. The increasing availability of economical petroleum products also reduced the importance of coal and further widened the potential for industrialisation. Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... Alp redirects here. ...


Marshall McLuhan analysed the social and cultural impact of the electric age. While the previous age of mechanisation had spread the idea of splitting every process into a sequence, this was ended by the introduction of the instant speed of electricity that brought simultaneity. This imposed the cultural shift from the approach of focusing on "specialized segments of attention" (adopting one particular perspective), to the idea of "instant sensory awareness of the whole", an attention to the "total field", a "sense of the whole pattern". It made evident and prevalent the sense of "form and function as a unity", an "integral idea of structure and configuration". This had major impact in the disciplines of painting (with cubism), physics, poetry, communication and educational theory.[36] “McLuhan” redirects here. ... Mechanization refers to the use of powered machinery to help a human operator in some task. ... Georges Braque, Woman with a guitar, 1913 Cubism was a 20th century art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and literature. ... Education theory is the theory or the philosophy of the purpose, application and interpretation of education and learning. ...


By the 1890s, industrialisation in these areas had created the first giant industrial corporations with burgeoning global interests, as companies like U.S. Steel, General Electric, and Bayer AG joined the railroad companies on the world's stock markets. The United States Steel Corporation (NYSE: X) is an integrated steel producer with major production operations in the United States and Central Europe. ... GE redirects here. ... Bayer AG (IPA pronunciation //) (ISIN: DE0005752000, NYSE: BAY, TYO: 4863 ) is a German chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in Barmen, Germany in 1863. ... A stock market or (equity market) is a private or public market for the trading of company stock and derivatives of company stock at an agreed price; both of these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. ...


Intellectual paradigms and criticism

Capitalism

Main article: Capitalism

The advent of The Enlightenment provided an intellectual framework which welcomed the practical application of the growing body of scientific knowledge — a factor evidenced in the systematic development of the steam engine, guided by scientific analysis, and the development of the political and sociological analyses, culminating in Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations. One of the main arguments for capitalism, presented for example in the book The Improving State of the World, is that industrialisation increases wealth for all, as evidenced by raised life expectancy, reduced working hours, and no work for children and the elderly. For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... Adam Smiths first title page An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist Adam Smith, published on March 9, 1776, during the Scottish Enlightenment. ... The Improving State of the World: Why Were Living Longer, Healthier, More Comfortable Lives On a Cleaner Planet is a 2007 book by Indur M. Goklany. ...


Marxism

Main article: Marxism

Marxism is essentially a reaction to the Industrial Revolution.[37] According to Karl Marx, industrialisation polarised society into the bourgeoisie (those who own the means of production, the factories and the land) and the much larger proletariat (the working class who actually perform the labour necessary to extract something valuable from the means of production). He saw the industrialisation process as the logical dialectical progression of feudal economic modes, necessary for the full development of capitalism, which he saw as in itself a necessary precursor to the development of socialism and eventually communism. ; Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Bourgeois redirects here. ... Means of production (abbreviated MoP; German: Produktionsmittel), are the combination of the means of labor and the subject of labor used by workers to make products. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... Broadly speaking, a dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a disagreement. ... Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ...


Romanticism

Main article: Romanticism

During the Industrial Revolution an intellectual and artistic hostility towards the new industrialisation developed. This was known as the Romantic movement. Its major exponents in English included the artist and poet William Blake and poets William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, John Keats, Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley. The movement stressed the importance of "nature" in art and language, in contrast to 'monstrous' machines and factories; the "Dark satanic mills" of Blake's poem And did those feet in ancient time. Mary Shelley's short story Frankenstein reflected concerns that scientific progress might be two-edged. Romantics redirects here. ... For other persons named William Blake, see William Blake (disambiguation). ... Wordsworth redirects here. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... Keats redirects here. ... The poet George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron is often referred to simply as Byron. ... Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4, 1792 – July 8, 1822; pronounced ) was one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among the finest lyric poets of the English language. ... “Jerusalem (song)” redirects here. ... Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin) (30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English romantic/gothic novelist and the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... This article is about the 1818 novel. ...


History of the name

The term Industrial Revolution applied to technological change was common in the 1830s. Louis-Auguste Blanqui in 1837 spoke of la révolution industrielle. Friedrich Engels in The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 spoke of "an industrial revolution, a revolution which at the same time changed the whole of civil society." Louis Auguste Blanqui (February 8, 1805 - January 1, 1881) was a French political activist. ... Engels redirects here. ... The Condition of the Working Class is the best-known work of Friedrich Engels, and in many ways still the best study of the working class in Victorian England. ...


In his book Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Raymond Williams states in the entry for Industry: The idea of a new social order based on major industrial change was clear in Southey and Owen, between 1811 and 1818, and was implicit as early as Blake in the early 1790s and Wordsworth at the turn of the century. Raymond Henry Williams (31 August 1921 - 26 January 1988) was a Welsh academic, novelist and critic. ... Robert Southey, English poet Robert Southey (August 12, 1774 – March 21, 1843) was an English poet of the Romantic school, one of the so-called Lake Poets, and Poet Laureate. ... For other uses, see Robert Owen (disambiguation). ... For other persons named William Blake, see William Blake (disambiguation). ... Wordsworth redirects here. ...


Credit for popularising the term may be given to Arnold Toynbee, whose lectures given in 1881 gave a detailed account of the process. This page is about the economic historian Arnold Toynbee; for the universal historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee see this article. ...


See also

Scheibler's Factory, Łódź (1896)
General
Other

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina Łódź City Rights 1423 Government  - Mayor Jerzy Kropiwnicki Area  - City 293. ... Capitalism in the nineteenth century As the nineteenth century began, the United Kingdom was locked in a struggle with Napoleonic France that did much to define the terms for institutional developments, capitalist and otherwise, in the remainder of the century. ... The British Agricultural Revolution describes a period of agricultural development in Britain between the 16th century and the mid-19th century, which saw a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output. ... Electrification refers to changing a thing or system to operate using electricity. ... Pre-industrial society refers to specific social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution and the rise of Capitalism. ... A factory in Ilmenau (Germany) around 1860 Industrialisation (also spelt Industrialization) or an Industrial Revolution is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a pre-industrial society (an economy where the amount of capital accumulated per capita is low) to an industrial one... Deindustrialization is the process by which the manufacturing-based economy of a country or region declines. ... The Dialectics of progress is the problem that when a society dedicates itself to certain standards and those standards change, it is harder to adapt. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The information revolution is one of the theoretical frameworks within which trends in current society can be conceptualized. ... Birmingham is the second-largest city in the United Kingdom. ... The Lunar Society was a discussion club of prominent industrialists, natural philosophers and intellectuals who met regularly between 1765 and 1813 in Birmingham, England. ... Apollo 11 launch. ... The Protestant work ethic, or sometimes called the Puritan work ethic, is a Calvinist value emphasizing the necessity of constant labor in a persons calling as a sign of personal salvation. ...

Note and references

  1. ^ Watt steam engine image: located in the lobby of the Superior Technical School of Industrial Engineers of the UPM (Madrid)
  2. ^ Business and Economics. Leading Issues in Economic Development, Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-511589-9 Read it
  3. ^ Russell Brown, Lester. Eco-Economy, James & James / Earthscan. ISBN 1-85383-904-3 Read it
  4. ^ Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789–1848, Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd. ISBN 0-349-10484-0
  5. ^ Joseph E Inikori. Africans and the Industrial Revolution in England, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-01079-9 Read it
  6. ^ Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution Maxine Berg, Pat Hudson, Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 45, No. 1 (Feb., 1992), pp. 24-50 doi:10.2307/2598327
  7. ^ Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution by Julie Lorenzen, Central Michigan University. Accessed November 2006
  8. ^ Robert Lucas, Jr. (2003). The Industrial Revolution. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved on 2007-11-14. “it is fairly clear that up to 1800 or maybe 1750, no society had experienced sustained growth in per capita income. (Eighteenth century population growth also averaged one-third of 1 percent, the same as production growth.) That is, up to about two centuries ago, per capita incomes in all societies were stagnated at around $400 to $800 per year.”
  9. ^ Lucas, Robert (2003). The Industrial Revolution Past and Future. “[consider] annual growth rates of 2.4 percent for the first 60 years of the 20th century, of 1 percent for the entire 19th century, of one-third of 1 percent for the 18th century”
  10. ^ Hudson, Pat. The Industrial Revolution, Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-7131-6531-6 Read it
  11. ^ Deane, Phyllis. The First Industrial Revolution, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29609-9 Read it
  12. ^ Eric Schiff, Industrialisation without national patents: the Netherlands, 1869-1912; Switzerland, 1850-1907, Princeton University Press, 1971.
  13. ^ Michele Boldrin and David K. Levine, Economic and Game Theory Against Intellectual Monopoly, Chapter 1, November 11, 2005 revisionPDF (143 KiB), page 3.
  14. ^ Why No Industrial Revolution in Ancient Greece? J. Bradford DeLong, Professor of Economics, University of California at Berkeley, September 20, 2002. Accessed January 2007.
  15. ^ The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England | The History Guide, Steven Kreis, October 11, 2006 - Accessed January 2007
  16. ^ Immanuel Chung-Yueh Hsu. The Rise of Modern China, Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-512504-5 Read it
  17. ^ Cobb-Douglas in pre-modern Europe1 - Simulating early modern growthPDF (254 KiB) Jan Luiten van Zanden, International Institute of Social History/University of Utrecht. May 2005. Accessed January 2007
  18. ^ a b Landes, David (1999). The Wealth and Poverty of Nations. London: Abacus, pp 38-9. ISBN 0349111669. 
  19. ^ South Asian History -Pages from the history of the Indian subcontinent: British rule and the legacy of colonisation. Rajni-Palme Dutt India Today (Indian Edition published 1947); Accessed January 2007
  20. ^ http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/con_economic.cfm Was slavery the engine of economic growth? Digital History
  21. ^ The Royal Navy itself may have contributed to Britain’s industrial growth. Among the first complex industrial manufacturing processes to arise in Britain were those that produced material for British warships. For instance, the average warship of the period used roughly 1000 pulley fittings. With a fleet as large as the Royal Navy, and with these fittings needing to be replaced ever 4 to 5 years, this created a great demand which encouraged industrial expansion. The industrial manufacture of rope can also be see as a similar factor.
  22. ^ Barrington Moore, Jr., Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World, pp. 29-30, Boston, Beacon Press, 1966.
  23. ^ Foster, Charles (2004). Capital and Innovation: How Britain Became the First Industrial Nation. ISBN 0951838245.  Argues that capital accumulation and wealth concentration in an entrepreneurial culture following the commercial revolution made the industrial revolution possible, for example.
  24. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (2008) "Building construction: the reintroduction of modern concrete"
  25. ^ The Lunar Society at Moreabout, the website of the Birmingham Jewellery Quarter guide, Bob Miles.
  26. ^ Hulse, David H: The Early Development of the Steam Engine; TEE Publishing, Leamington Spa, U.K., 1999 ISBN 1 85761 107 1
  27. ^ Clow, Archibald and Clow, Nan L. (1952). Chemical Revolution, (Ayer Co Pub, June 1952), pp. 65-90. ISBN 0-8369-1909-2.
  28. ^ Properties of Concrete Published lecture notes from University of Memphis Department of Civil Engineering, accessed 2007-10-17
  29. ^ R.M. Hartwell, The Industrial Revolution and Economic Growth, Methuen and Co., 1971, page 339-341 ISBN 0-416-19500-8
  30. ^ Mabel C. Buer, Health, Wealth and Population in the Early Days of the Industrial Revolution, London: George Routledge & Sons, 1926, page 30 ISBN 0-415-38218-1
  31. ^ Demographic Transition and Industrial Revolution: A Macroeconomic Investigation (2007). Retrieved on 2007-11-05. “The decrease [in mortality] beginning in the second half of the 18th century was due mainly to declining adult mortality. Sustained decline of the mortality rates for the age groups 5-10, 10-15, and 15-25 began in the mid 19th century, while that for the age group 0-5 began three decades later”. Although the survival rates for infants and children were static over this period, the birth rate & overall life expectancy increased. Thus the population grew, but the average Briton was about as old in 1850 as in 1750 (see figures 5 & 6, page 28). Population size statistics from mortality.org put the mean age at about 26.
  32. ^ Testimony Gathered by Ashley's Mines Commission (2008). Retrieved on 2008-22-03.
  33. ^ The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth-Century England (2008). Retrieved on 2008-22-03.
  34. ^ General Strike 1842 From chartists.net, Accessed 13 November 2006.
  35. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (1998): Samuel Slater
  36. ^ Marshall McLuhan (1964) Understanding Media, p.13 [1]
  37. ^ Karl Marx: Communist as Religious EschatologistPDF (3.68 MiB)

The major components of a Watt pumping engine. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Robert Emerson Bob Lucas, Jr. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Real income is the income of individuals or nations after adjusting for inflation. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Immanuel Chung-Yueh Hsu (1923- October 24, 2005)(徐中約) was a sinologist, a scholar of modern Chinese intellectual and diplomatic history, and an Emeritus Professor of History at the University of California at Santa Barbara. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... David Landes is professor emeritus of economics and retired professor of history at Harvard University. ... Born 1913, Barrington Moore Jr. ... Wealth condensation is a theoretical process by which, in certain conditions, newly-created wealth tends to become concentrated in the possession of already-wealthy individuals or entities. ... The Commercial Revolution was a period of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism which lasted from approximately 1520 until 1650. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “McLuhan” redirects here. ... Understanding Media is a book by Marshall McLuhan. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ...

Bibliography

General

  • Ashton, Thomas S., The Industrial Revolution (1760-1830), Oxford University Press, 1948, ISBN 0195002520 online edition
  • Berlanstein; Lenard R. The Industrial Revolution and work in nineteenth-century Europe Routledge, 1992 online edition
  • Bernal, John Desmond, Science and Industry in the Nineteenth Century, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1970.
  • Paul Bairoch, Economics and World History: Myths and Paradoxes. University of Chicago Press, 1993
  • J. H. Clapham; An Economic History of Modern Britain: The Early Railway Age, 1820-1850. Cambridge University Press, 1926 online edition
  • M. J. Daunton; Progress and Poverty: An Economic and Social History of Britain, 1700-1850, Oxford University Press, 1995 online edition
  • Derry, Thomas Kingston and Trevor I. Williams, A Short History of Technology: From the Earliest Times to A.D. 1900, New York: Dover Publications, 1993.
  • Hughes, Thomas Parke. Development of Western Technology Since 1500 (1980)
  • Toynbee, Arnold (1884). Lectures on the Industrial Revolution of the Eighteenth Century in England. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger Publishing (paperback edition 2004).. ISBN 1-4191-2952-X. 
  • Kranzberg, Melvin and Carroll W. Pursell, Jr. eds. Technology in Western civilization, Oxford University Press, 1967.
  • David S. Landes. The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor (1999)
  • Lines, Clifford, Companion to the Industrial Revolution, London, New York etc., Facts on File, 1990, ISBN 0-8160-2157-0
  • Mokyr; Joel. The British Industrial Revolution: An Economic Perspective (1999) online edition
  • More; Charles. Understanding the Industrial Revolution (2000) online edition
  • Sidney Pollard; Peaceful Conquest: The Industrialization of Europe, 1760-1970 Oxford University Press, 1981 online edition
  • Usher; Abbott Payson. An Introduction to the Industrial History of England (1920) online edition

Professor T. S. Ashton was a historian and author (1889 - 1968), a professor of economic history at the University of London from 1944 until his death. ... This page is about the economic historian Arnold Toynbee; for the universal historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee see this article. ...

Social and Political Impact

  • Graeme Gill; "Farm to Factory: A Reinterpretation of the Soviet Industrial Revolution, " Economic Record, Vol. 80, 2004 online edition
  • Hayek, Friedrich A., Capitalism and the Historians, The University of Chicago Press, 1963, ISBN 0-226-32072-3
  • Hobsbawm, Eric J., Industry and Empire: From 1750 to the Present Day, W. W. Norton, 1999.
  • Smelser, Neil J. Social Change in the Industrial Revolution: An Application of Theory to the British Cotton Industry University of Chicago Press, 1959 online edition
  • Stearns; Peter N. The Industrial Revolution in World History Westview Press, 1998 online version
  • Thompson, E. P., The Making of the English Working Class, London: Penguin Books, 1980. (First published 1963.)

Friedrich August von Hayek, CH (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an Austrian-born British economist and political philosopher known for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against socialist and collectivist thought in the mid-20th century. ... Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm CH (born June 9, 1917) is a British Marxist historian and author. ... Neil J. Smelser was a University of California Berkeley sociologist who studied collective behavior. ... Edward Palmer Thompson (February 3, 1924 - August 28, 1993), was an English historian, socialist and peace campaigner. ...

Causes

  • Landes, David S., The Unbound Prometheus: Technical Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 1750 to the Present 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003
  • Paul Mantoux, The Industrial Revolution in the Eighteenth Century, First English translation 1928, revised edition 1961 online edition
  • Dunham; Arthur Louis. The Industrial Revolution in France, 1815-1848 Exposition Press, 1955 online edition

David Landes is professor emeritus of economics and retired professor of history at Harvard University. ...

Local Studies

  • Constance McLaughlin Green, Holyoke, Massachusetts: A Case History of the Industrial Revolution in America Yale University Press, 1939 online edition
  • Herbert Kisch, From Domestic Manufacture to Industrial Revolution The Case of the Rhineland Textile Districts. Oxford US, 1989 online edition
  • B. Trinder, The Industrial Revolution in Shropshire (3rd edn, 2000).

Coal, Metallurgy

  • R. F. Tylecote, A history of metallurgy (2nd edn, 1992).
  • P. W. King, 'Sir Clement Clerke and the Adoption of Coal in Metallurgy' Transactions of Newcomen Society 73, 33-53.
  • P. W. King, 'The production and consumption of iron in early modern England and Wales' Economic History Review LVIII (2005), 1-33.
  • R. A. Mott, Henry Cort: the Great Finer (1983), ISBN 0-904357-55-4
  • A. Birch, The economic history of the British iron and steel industry 1784 to 1879 (Cass, London 1967)).
  • C. K. Hyde, Technological change and the British iron industry 1700-1870 (Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ 1977).

Machine tools

  • Norman Atkinson, Sir Joseph Whitworth, 1996, Sutton Publishing Limited 1996 ISBN 0-7509-1211-1 (hc), ISBN 0-7509-1648-6 (pb)
  • John Cantrell and Gillian Cookson, eds., Henry Maudslay and the Pioneers of the Machine Age, 2002, Tempus Publishing, Ltd, pb., (ISBN 0-7524-2766-0)
  • Rev. Dr. Richard L. Hills, Life and Inventions of Richard Roberts, 1789-1864, Landmark Publishing Ltd, 2002, (ISBN 1-84306-027-2)
  • Roe, Joseph Wickham (1916), English and American Tool Builders, New Haven, Connecticut, USA: Yale University Press, LCCN 16-011753 . Reprinted by McGraw-Hill, New York and London, 1926 (LCCN 27-024075); and by Lindsay Publications, Inc., Bradley, IL, USA (ISBN 978-0-917914-73-7). Also available online via Google Book Search.

The Library of Congress Control Number or LCCN is a serially based system of numbering books in the Library of Congress in the United States. ... The Library of Congress Control Number or LCCN is a serially based system of numbering books in the Library of Congress in the United States. ...

Steam power

  • Ivor Blashka Hart. James Watt and the History of Steam Power (1949)
  • Rev. Dr. Richard L. Hills, James Watt 3 vol Vol. 1, His time in Scotland, 1736-1774; (ISBN 1-84306-045-0); Vol. 2, The Years of Toil, 1775-1784, (ISBN 1-84306-046-9); Vol. 3, Triumph through Adversity, 1784-1719, Landmark Publishing Ltd, (ISBN 1-84306-193-7)
  • L. T. C. Rolt and J. S. Allen, The Steam Engine of Thomas Newcomen, Landmark Publishing Ltd, (1997), (ISBN 1-901522-44-X)
  • Vaclav Smil; Energy in World History. Westview Press, 1994 online edition

The Rev. ... Lionel Thomas Caswell Rolt (usually abbreviated to Tom Rolt or L.T.C. Rolt) (1910-1974) was a prolific English writer and the biographer of major civil engineering figures including Isambard Kingdom Brunel and Thomas Telford. ...

Transportation

  • Pawson, E., Transport and Economy: the turnpike roads of 18th century England, 1977.
  • Szostak; Rick. The Role of Transportation in the Industrial Revolution: A Comparison of England and France McGill-Queens University Press, 1991 online edition

External links

The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Surface coal mining in Wyoming in the United States of America. ... Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For the musical form, see Invention (music). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower or hydraulic power is the force or energy of moving water. ... The workforce is the labour pool in employment. ... Sir Richard Arkwright (Old Style 23 December 1732 / New Style 3 January 1733 – 3 August 1792), was an Englishman who is credited for inventing the spinning frame — later renamed the water frame following the transition to water power. ... Thomas Boulsover (1705–1788), Sheffield cutler and the inventor of Sheffield Plate, was born in what is now the Ecclesfield district of the city and died at his home at Whiteley Wood Hall, on the River Porter. ... Matthew Boulton. ... James Brindley. ... Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859) (IPA: ), was a British engineer. ... Edmund Cartwright Edward (Edmund) Cartwright (April 24, 1743 in Marnham, Nottinghamshire – October 30, 1823 in Hastings, Sussex) was an English clergyman and inventor of the power loom. ... Henry Cort is a good guy(1740 – 1800) was an English ironmaster. ... Thomas and George Cranege developed the use of the reverberatory furnace for the production of wrought iron from cast iron. ... Samuel Crompton (December 3, 1753 – June 26, 1827), English inventor, was born at Firwood, in Bolton, Lancashire. ... Abraham Darby (c. ... Abraham Darby II (1711-1763) was the second of that name of three generations of an English Quaker family that was key to the development of the Industrial Revolution. ... Abraham Darby III (1750 – 1791) was an English ironmaster and Quaker. ... Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater (May 21, 1736–March 8, 1803) (also the 6th Earl of Bridgewater), known as Lord Francis Egerton until 1748, was a British nobleman, younger son of the 1st duke. ... Sir William Fairbairn Sir William Fairbairn (February 19, 1789 - August 18, 1874) was a Scottish engineer. ... James Hargreaves (also known as James Hargraves [1]) (1720 – 22 April 1778) was a weaver, carpenter and an inventor in Lancashire, England. ... A drawing of Thomas Highs spinning jenny, taken from Edward Bainess History of the Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain Thomas Highs (1718 – 1803) was a talented English reed-maker and inventor known for his creation of the spinning jenny, the throstle (a machine for the continuous twisting and winding... Eaton A. Hodgkinson (February 26, 1789 - June 18, 1861) was an English engineer, a pioneer of the application of mathematics to problems of structural design. ... Benjamin Huntsman (1704 - 1776), English inventor and steel-manufacturer, was born in Lincolnshire. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Memorial to John Kay in Bury, Lancashire, England John Kay (June 17, 1704 – 1780) was the inventor of the flying shuttle, which was a key contribution to the Industrial Revolution. ... John Kay was a homo in the 1790s he created the man dildo. ... , Waltham, Massachusetts Francis Cabot Lowell (April 7, 1775 - April 10, 1817) was the American business man for whom the city of Lowell, Massachusetts, United States is named. ... The Lunar Society was a discussion club of prominent industrialists, natural philosophers and intellectuals who met regularly between 1765 and 1813 in Birmingham, England. ... Thomas Newcomen (baptised 24 February 1664; died 5 August 1729) was an ironmonger by trade, and a Baptist lay preacher by calling. ... For other uses, see Robert Owen (disambiguation). ... Lewis Paul (d. ... William Radcliffe is a British inventor and author of the essay Origin of the New System of Manufacture, Commonly Called Power loom Weaving. ... Richard Roberts Richard Roberts (22 April 1789 – 11 March 1864) was a British engineer whose development of high-precision machine tools contributed to the birth of production engineering and mass production. ... Thomas Savery (c. ... Portrait of John Smeaton, with the Eddystone Lighthouse in the background John Smeaton, FRS, (June 8, 1724 – October 28, 1792) was a civil engineer – often regarded as the father of civil engineering – responsible for the design of bridges, canals, harbours and lighthouses. ... George Stephenson George Stephenson For the British politician, see George Stevenson. ... Statue of Robert Stephenson at Euston Station, London Robert Stephenson FRS (October 16, 1803–October 12, 1859) was an English civil engineer. ... Thomas Telford (August 9, 1757 - September 2, 1834) was born in Westerkirk, Scotland. ... Richard Trevithick (born April 13, 1771 in Cornwall - died April 22, 1833 in Kent) was a British inventor, mining engineer and builder of the first working railway steam locomotive. ... For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... John Iron-Mad Wilkinson (1728 – 1808) was a British industrialist who suggested the use of iron for many roles where other materials had previously been used. ... John Wyatt (? – 1766), an English inventor, was born near Lichfield and was related to Sarah Ford, Doctor Johnsons mother. ... Abbeydale Industrial Hamlet in Sheffield, England is a steel working site with a very long history. ... The Bridgewater Canal is a navigable canal in the north west of England, connecting Runcorn and Manchester. ... , Broseley is a small town in Shropshire, England with a population of 4,912 (2001 census). ... Coalbrookdale is a settlement in a side valley of the Ironbridge Gorge in the borough of Telford and Wrekin and ceremonial county of Shropshire, England. ... Cromford, in Derbyshire, England, is a village that is one of the significant sites in the development of the Industrial Revolution. ... Masson Mills, Derwent Valley Derwent Valley Mills is a World Heritage Site along the River Derwent in Derbyshire, England, designated in December 2001. ... The village, seen from the bridge Ironbridge is a settlement beside the River Severn, at the heart of the Ironbridge Gorge in Shropshire, England. ... New Lanark is a village on the River Clyde, approximately two kilometres from the Royal Burgh of Lanark, in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. ... The Portsmouth Block Mills form part of the Portsmouth Dockyard at Portsmouth, Hampshire, England, and were built during the Napoleonic Wars to supply the British Royal Navy with pulley blocks. ... Quarry Bank Mill is an historic factory in Cheshire, England, one of the best preserved of the Industrial Revolution and is now a museum of the cotton industry. ... Soho Foundry is a factory created by Matthew Boulton and James Watt at Smethwick, near Birmingham, England, for the manufacture of steam engines. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway by John Dobbin, circa 1825. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... Lancashire cotton mill, 1914 A cotton mill is a factory housing spinning and weaving machinery. ... Crucible steel describes a number of different techniques for making steel alloy by slowly heating and cooling iron and carbon (typically in the form of charcoal) in a crucible. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The flying shuttle was developed by John Kay in 1733, and was one of the key developments in weaving that helped fuel the Industrial Revolution. ... Animation of a schematic Newcomen steam engine. ... Some of the 1200 power looms at the Plevna factory building, completed in 1877 , at the Finlayson & Co cotton mills in Tampere, Finland The power loom was designed in 1784 by Edmund Cartwright and first built in 1785 . ... A reverbatory furnace is a metallurgical or process furnace which characteristically isolates the material being processed from contact with the fuel, but not from contact with the combustion gases. ... Sheffield plate is a layered combination of silver and copper that was used for many years to produce larger silver goods such as serving trays and teapots. ... The spinning frame was an invention developed during the 18th century British Industrial Revolution. ... For the magazine of the same name, see Spinning Jenny (magazine). ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... A contemporary drawing of Rocket Rocket as preserved in the Science Museum, London. ... The water frame is an extension of the spinning frame; both of which are credited to Richard Arkwright. ... The major components of a Watt pumping engine. ... Bourgeois redirects here. ... A twelve year old American uneducated child laborer, Furman Owens, who stated Yes I want to learn but cant when I work all the time. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The use of the term has expanded, and is used to refer to any event which allows a large number of people to lalalawork part time. ... The Factory Acts were a series of Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to limit the number of hours worked by women and children first in the textile industry, then later in all industries. ... Industrial unrest is the term used to describe activities undertaken by the workforce when they protest against pay or conditions of their employment. ... The Luddites were a social movement of English textile artisans in the early nineteenth century who protested — often by destroying textile machines — against the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution, which they felt threatened their livelihood. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... The Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, founded in 1844, is usually considered the first successful co-operative enterprise, forming the basis for the modern co-operative movement. ... The wheel was invented circa 4000 BC, and has become one of the worlds most famous, and most useful technologies. ... The British canal system of water transport played a vital role in Britains Industrial Revolution at a time when roads were only just emerging from the medieval mud and long trains of pack horses were the only means of mass transit by road of raw materials and finished products... Industrial archaeology, like other branches of archeology, is the study of the past, but with a focus on industry or industrial heritage. ... This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ... Timeline of clothing and textiles technology. ... This is a chronological list of inventions. ... Timeline of materials technology // 29,000–25,000 BCE - First ceramic appears 3rd millennium BC - Copper metallurgy is invented and copper is used for ornamentation 2nd millennium BC - Bronze is used for weapons and armour 1st millennium BC - Pewter beginning to be used in China and Egypt 16th century BC... See Steam engine, Steam power during the Industrial Revolution. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Industrial Revolution - MSN Encarta (1411 words)
The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation had a profound effect on...
Industrial Revolution, widespread replacement of manual labor by machines that began in Britain in the 18th century and is still continuing in some parts of the world.
In the 20th century industrialization on a wide scale extended to parts of Asia and the Pacific Rim.
Industrial Revolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (8038 words)
The causes of the Industrial Revolution were complex and remained a topic for debate, with some historians seeing the Revolution as an outgrowth of social and institutional changes brought by the end of feudalism in Britain after the English Civil War in the 17th century.
The major change in the metal industries during the era of the Industrial Revolution was the replacement of organic fuels based on wood with fossil fuel based on coal.
This "second" Industrial Revolution gradually grew to include the chemical industries, petroleum refining and distribution, electrical industries, and, in the twentieth century, the automotive industries, and was marked by a transition of technological leadership from Britain to the United States and Germany.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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