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Encyclopedia > Indus Valley civilization
Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan.
Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan.

History of South Asia

(Subsumes Pakistan and Bangladesh) Image File history File links Mohenjodaro_Sindh. ... Image File history File links Mohenjodaro_Sindh. ... Mohenjo-daro (literally, mound of the dead), like Harappa, was a city of the Indus Valley civilization. ... This article is about the History of South Asia. ...

Stone Age before 3300 BC
Mature Harappan 2600–1700 BC
Late Harappan 1700–1300 BC
Iron Age 1200–300 BC
Maurya Empire • 321–184 BC
Pandya Empire 100 BC -200 CE
Middle Kingdoms 230 BC–1279 AD
Satavahana • 230 BC–220 BC
Gupta Empire • 280–550 AD
Pallava Empire • 600–800 AD
Later Chola Empire • 900–1200 AD
Islamic Sultanates 1206–1596
Vijayanagara Empire 1336-1565
Mughal Empire 1526–1707
Maratha Empire 1674-1818
Sikh Confederacy 1716-1849
British India 1858–1947
Modern States since 1947
Timeline
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The Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3000–1500 BCE, Mature period 2600–1900 BCE), abbreviated IVC, was an ancient civilization that flourished in the Indus river valleys primarily in the Sindh and Punjab provinces of modern-day Pakistan, extending westward into Balochistan province, and in northwestern and western India. Other remains of the IVC can also be found in present-day Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Iran. The mature phase of this civilization is technically known as the Harappan Civilization, after the first of its cities to be excavated, Harappa. Excavation of IVC sites has been ongoing since the 1920s, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999.[1] The Palaeolithic and Mesolithic in South Asia. ... The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BC, in and around the Punjab region. ... The Iron Age in the Indian subcontinent succeeds the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture, also known as the last phase of the Indus Valley Tradition. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... The Pandyan kingdom (Tamil: பாண்டியர்) was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. ... Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cholas. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Lahore, Delhi, Agra , Kabul, Lucknow and Bhopal Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Absolute Monarchy , Unitary Government with a federal structure Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605... Flag of the Maratha Empire Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. ... The Sikh Confederacy (from 1716-1799) was a collection of small to medium sized independent sovereign, punjabi Sikh states, which were governed by barons, in Punjab[1]. They were loosely politically linked but strongly bound in the cultural and religious spheres. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... This article is under construction. ... This is a timeline of Indian history. ... Central New York City. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... Balochistan or Baluchistan may refer to: Balochistan (region) is the name of a large region covering southwest Pakistan and southeast Iran Balochistan (Iran) is part of the Iranian Sistan and Baluchistan Province Balochistan (Pakistan) is the name of a province of Pakistan. ... Location of Harappa in the Indus Valley. ...


The civilization is sometimes referred to as the Indus Ghaggar-Hakra civilization[2] or the Indus-Sarasvati civilization. The appellation Indus-Sarasvati is based on the possible identification of the Ghaggar-Hakra River with the Sarasvati River mentioned in the Rig Veda,[3] but this usage is disputed on linguistic and geographical grounds.[4] The Sarasvati River is an ancient river that is mentioned in Hindu texts. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ...

Contents

Historical context

The IVC has been tentatively identified with the toponym Meluhha known from Sumerian records. It has been compared in particular with the civilizations of Elam (also in the context of the Elamo-Dravidian hypothesis), and with Minoan Crete (because of such isolated cultural parallels such as the ubiquitous goddess worship and depictions of bull-leaping).[5] The mature (Harappan) phase of the IVC is contemporary to the Early to Middle Bronze Age in the Ancient Near East, in particular the Old Elamite period, Early Dynastic to Ur III Mesopotamia, Prepalatial Minoan Crete and Old Kingdom to First Intermediate Period Egypt. Meluhha refers to one of ancient Sumers prominent trading partners, but precisely which one remains an open question. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... The Elamo-Dravidian languages are a hypothesised language family which includes the living Dravidian languages of India and Pakistan, in addition to the extinct Elamite language of ancient Elam, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... The Minoans were an ancient pre-Hellenic civilization on what is now Crete (in the Mediterranean), during the Bronze Age, prior to classical Greek culture. ... Goddess worship is a general description for the veneration of a female Goddess or goddesses. ... Bull-leaping, fresco from the Great Palace at Knossos, Crete The Bull Leaper, an ivory figurine from the palace of knossos, crete. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... Overview map of the ancient Near East The terms ancient Near East or ancient Orient encompass the early civilizations predating classical antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria), during the time roughly spanning... For other uses, see Elam (disambiguation). ... The history of Sumer, taken to include the prehistoric Ubaid and Uruk periods, spans the 5th to 3rd millennia BC, ending with the downfall of the Third Dynasty of Ur around 2004 BC, followed by a transition period of Amorite states before the rise of Babylonia in the 18th century... The Third Dynasty of Ur refers simultaneously to a 21st to 20th century BC (short chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state that some historians regard as a nascent empire. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... The Minoans were an ancient pre-Hellenic civilization on what is now Crete (in the Mediterranean), during the Bronze Age, prior to classical Greek culture. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile... The First Intermediate Period is the name conventionally given by Egyptologists to that period in Ancient Egyptian history between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom. ...


The language of the IVC has not yet been determined. Proto-Dravidian,[6][7] Proto-Indo-Iranian, Proto-Munda, the prefixing Para-Munda and a Language X or "lost phylum" have been proposed as the language.[8] Proto-Dravidian is the proto-language of the Dravidian languages. ... The term Indo-Iranian includes all speakers of Indo-Iranian languages, i. ... Munda Languages are spoken in north east India. ... Nihali is a language isolate of India. ...


Discovery and excavation

The ruins of Harrappa were first described in 1842 by Charles Masson in his Narrative of Various Journeys in Baluchistan, Afghanistan and the Panjab, where locals talked of an ancient city extending "thirteen cosses" (about 25 miles), but no archaeological interest would attach to this for nearly a century.[9] Harappa is a city in Punjab, northeast Pakistan, located beside a former course of the Ravi River; about 35km southwest of Sahiwal. ... The kos is an ancient Indian unit of measurement which has been in use for over three thousand years; evidence exists from Vedic times to the Mughal period, and even now elderly people in rural areas refer to distances from nearby areas in kos. ...


In 1856, British engineers John and William Brunton were laying the East Indian Railway Company line connecting Karachi and Lahore. John wrote: "I was much exercised in my mind how we were to get ballast for the line of the railway." They were told of an ancient ruined city near the lines, called Brahminabad. Visiting the city, he found it full of hard well-burnt bricks; and "convinced that there was a grand quarry for the ballast I wanted", the city of Brahminabad was reduced to ballast.[10] A few months later, further north, John's brother William Brunton's "section of the line ran near another ruined city, bricks from which had already been used by villagers in the nearby village of Harappa at the same site. These bricks now provided ballast along 93 miles of the railroad track running from Karachi to Lahore."[10] Extent of Great Indian Peninsular Railway network in 1870 // A rail system in India was first proposed in 1832 in Madras but it never materialised. ... Not to be confused with Karachay-Cherkessia. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ...


In 1872/5 Alexander Cunningham published the first Harappan seal (with an erroneous identification as Brahmi letters). [11] It was half a century later, in 1912, that more Harappan seals were discovered by J. Fleet, prompting an excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921/22, and resulting in the discovery of the hitherto unknown civilization at Harappa by Sir John Marshall, Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni and Madho Sarup Vats, and at Mohenjo-daro by Rakhal Das Banerjee, E. J. H. MacKay, and Sir John Marshall. By 1931, much of Mohenjo-Daro had been excavated, but excavations continued, such as that led by Sir Mortimer Wheeler, director of the Archaeological Survey of India in 1944. Among other archaeologists who worked on IVC sites before the partition of the subcontinent in 1947 were Ahmad Hasan Dani, Brij Basi Lal, Nani Gopal Majumdar, and Sir Marc Aurel Stein. John Hubert Marshall was an English archaeologist, excavator of the prehistoric city of Taxila in the Himalayas, in todays Pakistan, and of other sites throughout India. ... Mohenjo-daro (literally, mound of the dead), like Harappa, was a city of the Indus Valley civilization. ... Brigadier Sir Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler Kt, CH, CIE, MC (10 September 1890–22 July 1976), was one of the best-known British archaeologists of the twentieth century. ... The Archaeological Survey of India is an Indian government agency in the Department of Culture that is responsible for archaeological studies and the preservation of cultural monuments. ... Ahmad Hassan Dani (born 1920) is a Pakistani archaeologist and linguist, and is considered to be one of the foremost authorities on South Asian archaeology and history. ... B.B. Lal (born in Jhansi, India in 1921) is a well-known Indian archaeologist. ... Sir M(arc) Aurel Stein (1862 - 1943), born in Budapest, was a Hungarian Jewish archaeologist who became a British citizen. ...


Following the partition of British India, both the area and the archaeological finds of the IVC were divided between Pakistan and India, and excavations from this time include those led by Sir Mortimer Wheeler in 1949, archaeological adviser to the Government of Pakistan. Outposts of the Indus Valley civilization were excavated as far west as Sutkagan Dor in Baluchistan, as far north as at Shortugai on the Amudarya or Oxus river in current Afghanistan. Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... The westernmost known site of Indus Valley Civilization was Sutkagan Dor (or Sutkagen Dor). ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ...


Periodisation

The mature phase of the Harappan civilization lasted from c. 2600 to 1900 BCE. With the inclusion of the predecessor and successor cultures — Early Harappan and Late Harappan, respectively — the entire Indus Valley Civilization may be taken to have lasted from the 33rd to the 14th centuries BCE. Two terms are employed for the periodization of the IVC: Phases and Eras.[12][13] The Early Harappan, Mature Harappan, and Late Harappan phases are also called the "Regionalisation," "Integration," and "Localisation" eras, respectively, with the Regionalization era reaching back to the Neolithic Mehrgarh II period. "Discoveries at Mehrgarh changed the entire concept of the Indus civilization," according to Ahmad Hasan Dani, professor emeritus at Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, "There we have the whole sequence, right from the beginning of settled village life."[14] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Indus Valley Civilization. ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... Ahmad Hassan Dani (born 1920) is a Pakistani archaeologist and linguist, and is considered to be one of the foremost authorities on South Asian archaeology and history. ... The University was founded in 1965 as a national institution for higher learning and research and named University of Islamabad. ... Location within Pakistan Coordinates: , Country Pakistan Province Constructed 1960s Union Council 40 UC (District Govt. ...

Date range (BCE) Phase Era
5500-3300 Mehrgarh II-VI (Pottery Neolithic) Regionalisation Era
3300-2600 Early Harappan (Early Bronze Age)
3300-2800 Harappan 1 (Ravi Phase)
2800-2600 Harappan 2 (Kot Diji Phase, Nausharo I, Mehrgarh VII)
2600-1900 Mature Harappan (Middle Bronze Age) Integration Era
2600-2450 Harappan 3A (Nausharo II)
2450-2200 Harappan 3B
2200-1900 Harappan 3C
1900-1300 Late Harappan (Cemetery H, Late Bronze Age) Localisation Era
1900-1700 Harappan 4
1700-1300 Harappan 5

Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Scotland, Europes most complete Neolithic village. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BC, in and around the Punjab region. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ...

Geography

Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization. The shaded area does not include recent excavations such as Rupar, Balakot, Shortughai in Afghanistan, Manda in Jammu, etc. See [1] for a more detailed map.
Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization. The shaded area does not include recent excavations such as Rupar, Balakot, Shortughai in Afghanistan, Manda in Jammu, etc. See [1] for a more detailed map.

The Indus Valley Civilization encompassed most of Pakistan as well as the western states of India, extending from Balochistan to Gujarat, with an upward reach to Punjab from east of the Jhelum River to Rupar on the upper Sutlej; recently, Indus sites have been discovered in Pakistan's northwestern Frontier Province as well. Coastal settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor[15] in Western Baluchistan to Lothal[16] in Gujarat. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus river at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan,[17] in the Gomal river valley in north-west Pakistan,[18] at Manda on the Beas River near Jammu,[19] India, and at Alamgirpur on the Hindon River, only 28 km from Delhi.[20] Indus Valley sites have been found most often on rivers, but also on the ancient sea-coast,[21] for example Balakot,[22] and on islands, for example, Dholavira.[23] Image File history File links by en:User:Dbachmann see also en:Image:Indus_Map. ... Image File history File links by en:User:Dbachmann see also en:Image:Indus_Map. ... Rupnagar is a town in Punjab, India. ... Balakot (Urdu: بالاکوٹ), is a town in Mansehra District in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Jammu   (Hindi: जम्मू, Urdu: جموں) is one of the three regions comprising the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... This article is about the wider Balochistan region. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... The Jhelum River is the largest and most western of the five rivers of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and passes through Jhelum City. ... Rupnagar is a town in Punjab, India. ... The Sutlej, also known as Satluj, is the longest of the five rivers of Punjab (five waters) that flows through Northern India, with its source in Tibet near Mount Kailash. ... The westernmost known site of Indus Valley Civilization was Sutkagan Dor (or Sutkagen Dor). ... Ancient Lothal as envisaged by the Archaeological Survey of India. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Gomal River (Urdu: دریائے گومل ) is a river in Afghanistan and Pakistan, with its headwaters in the south-east of Ghazni. ... The Beas River (Punjabi: ) runs through the Northwestern Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. ... Jammu   (Hindi: जम्मू, Urdu: جموں) is one of the three regions comprising the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Dholavira, an ancient metropolitan city, and locally known as Kotada Timba Prachin Mahanagar Dholavira, is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. ...


There is evidence of dry river beds overlapping with the Hakra channel in Pakistan and the seasonal Ghaggar River in India. Many Indus Valley (or Harappan) sites have been discovered along the Ghaggar-Hakra beds.[24] Among them are: Rupar, Rakhigarhi, Sothi, Kalibangan, and Ganwariwala.[25] According to J. G. Shaffer and D. A. Lichtenstein[26] the Harappan Civilization "is a fusion of the Bagor, Hakra, and Koti Dij traditions or 'ethnic groups' in the Ghaggar-Hakra valley on the borders of India and Pakistan."[24] The Hakra is the dried-out channel of a river in Pakistan that until about 2000 BC - 1500 BC was the continuation of the Ghaggar River in India. ... The Ghaggar is a seasonal river in India, flowing when water is available from monsoon rains. ... Rakhigarhi, or Rakhi Garhi, is a village in Hissar district in the northwest Indian state of Haryana, around 150 kilometers from Delhi. ... Kalibangan (Hindi: काली बंगा) is a town on the banks of the Ghaggar river, Hanumangarh district, Rajasthan, India 205 km. ...


According to some archaeologists over 500 Harappan sites have been discovered along the dried up river beds of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries,[27] in contrast to only about 100 along the Indus and its tributaries,[28] consequently, in their opinion, the appellation Indus Ghaggar-Hakra civilisation or Indus-Saraswati civilisation is justified. However, these politically inspired arguments are disputed by other archaeologists who state that the Ghaggar-Hakra desert area has been left untouched by settlements and agriculture since the end of the Indus period and hence shows more sites than found in the alluvium of the Indus valley; second, that the number of Harappan sites along the Ghaggar-Hakra river beds have been exaggerated and that the Ghaggar-Hakra, when it existed, was a tributary of the Indus, so the new nomenclature is redundant.[29] "Harappan Civilization" remains the correct one, according to the common archaeological usage of naming a civilization after its first findspot. ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ...


Origins

See also: Substratum in Vedic Sanskrit

There are several theories as to the origin of the Indus Valley civilization. The earliest hypothesis was that it was an early form of a Vedic and early Sanskrit civilization which would come to dominate most of India, which was presumed to have been characterized by influence from Indo-European migrations. However, this theory began to be rejected when no signs of the traditional culture associated with the Vedas was uncovered in that of the Indus Valley. The absence of horses amongst the many realistic representations of animals was also considered significant, considering the importance of horses and chariots to the culture described in the Vedas. Detailed bone analysis has revealed that the horse itself was introduced to the subcontinent only at the beginning of the second millennium B.C., which contributes to the chronological problem with this theory.[30][31] Finally, the concept of urban life which dominates the Indus Valley civilization is foreign to the more rural lifestyle which is described in the Vedas. [32] The presence of non-Indo-European vocabulary and retroflex consonants in Vedic Sanskrit is generally taken by linguists to indicate the influence of a non-Indo-European speaking substratum population, variously identified as Proto-Dravidian[1] or Proto- or Para-Munda. ... Vedic may refer to: Ancient India the Vedic civilization the Vedas, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan texts Vedic Sanskrit, their language (see also Vedic meter, Vedic accent, Vedic chant and Shrauta) the historical Vedic religion traditional Hindu culture: Vedic astrology the Ayurveda (Vedic medicine) Ancient Vedic weights and measures modern... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... Veda redirects here. ...


The second theory, which is currently the most popular, was that the civilization was of proto-Dravidian origin[33]. This theory was first proposed by researchers from Russia and Finland who attempted to show that Indus valley symbols could be derived from the Dravidian language group. Today, the Dravidian language family is concentrated mostly in southern India and northern Sri Lanka, but pockets of it still remain throughout the rest of India and in northern Pakistan which is claimed by some to lend credence to the theory. Finnish Indologist Asko Parpola concludes that the uniformity of the Indus inscriptions precludes any possibility of widely different languages being used, and that an early form of Dravidian language must have been the language of the Indus people. However, the proto-Dravidian origin theory is far from being confirmed due to an emphasis on linguistic connection while evidence of a broader cultural connection remains to be found.[34]. Proto-Dravidian is the proto-language of the Dravidian languages. ... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 26 languages that are mainly spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, and eastern and central India. ... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... Asko Parpola, professor of Indology and South Asian Studies at the University of Helsinki, Finland has specialized on the Indus script. ...


Early Harappan

Early Harappan Ravi Phase, named after the nearby Ravi River, lasted from circa 3300 BCE until 2800 BCE. It is related to the Hakra Phase, identified in the Ghaggar-Hakra River Valley to the west, and predates the Kot Diji Phase (2800-2600 BCE, Harappan 2), named after a site in northern Sindh, Pakistan, near Mohenjo Daro. The earliest examples of the "Indus script" date from around 3000 BCE.[7] The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ... The ancient cite at Kot Diji was the forerunner of the Indus Civilization. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... Mohenjo-daro (Urdu: , Sindhi: , English: ) was a city of the Indus Valley Civilization built around 2600 BCE and is located in the Sindh Province of Pakistan. ...   An Indus Valley seal with the seated figure termed pashupati. ...


The mature phase of earlier village cultures is represented by Rehman Dheri and Amri in Pakistan.[35] Kot Diji (Harappan 2) represents the phase leading up to Mature Harappan, with the citadel representing centralised authority and an increasingly urban quality of life. Another town of this stage was found at Kalibangan in India on the Hakra River.[36] A Pre-Harappan Archaelogical Site situated near Dera Ismael Khan in North Westren Province of Pakistan. ... Amri is the site of a Pre-Harappa fortified town which flourished from 3600 to 3300 BC. The site is located south of Mohenjo Daro on Hyderabad-Dadu Road about 110 kilometres north of Hyderabad in Sind province of Pakistan. ... The ancient cite at Kot Diji was the forerunner of the Indus Civilization. ... Kalibangan (Hindi: काली बंगा) is a town on the banks of the Ghaggar river, Hanumangarh district, Rajasthan, India 205 km. ...


Trade networks linked this culture with related regional cultures and distant sources of raw materials, including lapis lazuli and other materials for bead-making. Villagers had, by this time, domesticated numerous crops, including peas, sesame seeds, dates and cotton, as well as various animals, including the water buffalo. Early Harappan communities turned to large urban centres by 2600 BCE, from where the mature Harappan phase started. A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... For other uses and abbreviations, see PEA. Binomial name L. A pea, although treated as a vegetable in cooking, is botanically a fruit; the term is most commonly used to describe the small spherical seeds or the pods of the legume Pisum sativum. ... Binomial name Sesamum indicum Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a crop grown primarily for its oil-rich seeds. ... Binomial name Phoenix dactylifera L. The Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera is a palm, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For the controversy at the University of Pennsylvania, see Water buffalo incident. ...


Mature Harappan

By 2600 BCE, the Early Harappan communities had been turned into large urban centers. Such urban centers include Harappa and Mohenjo Daro in Pakistan and Lothal in India. In total, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar and Indus Rivers and their tributaries. Location of Harappa in the Indus Valley. ... Mohenjo-daro (Urdu: , Sindhi: , English: ) was a city of the Indus Valley Civilization built around 2600 BCE and is located in the Sindh Province of Pakistan. ... Ancient Lothal as envisaged by the Archaeological Survey of India. ...


By 2500 BCE, irrigation had transformed the region.[citation needed]


Cities

So-called "Priest King" statue, Mohenjo-daro, late Mature Harappan period, National Museum, Karachi, Pakistan
So-called "Priest King" statue, Mohenjo-daro, late Mature Harappan period, National Museum, Karachi, Pakistan

A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident in the Indus Valley Civilization. The quality of municipal town planning suggests the knowledge of urban planning and efficient municipal governments which placed a high priority on hygiene, or, alternately, accessibility to the means of religious ritual. Many of the streets of major cities such as Mohenjo-daro or Harappa were laid out in grid patterns.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (584x754, 75 KB) als „Priesterkönig“ gedeutete Steinfigur der Indus-Kultur aus Mohenjo-daro (Pakistan) Quelle: [1] Fotograf: Mamoon Mengal File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Indus... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (584x754, 75 KB) als „Priesterkönig“ gedeutete Steinfigur der Indus-Kultur aus Mohenjo-daro (Pakistan) Quelle: [1] Fotograf: Mamoon Mengal File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Indus... Mohenjo-daro (literally, mound of the dead), like Harappa, was a city of the Indus Valley civilization. ... The term Indus Valley Tradition is used to refer to the cultures of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra rivers, stretching from the Neolithic Mehrgarh period down to the Iron Age or Indo-Gangetic Tradition. ... A municipality or general-purpose district (compare with: special-purpose district) is an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Local government of the United States. ... Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... Mohenjo-daro (literally, mound of the dead), like Harappa, was a city of the Indus Valley civilization. ... Location of Harappa in the Indus Valley. ... A simple grid plan road map (Windermere, Florida). ...


As seen in Harappa, Mohenjo-daro and the recently partially excavated Rakhigarhi, this urban plan included the world's first urban sanitation systems. Within the city, individual homes or groups of homes obtained water from wells. From a room that appears to have been set aside for bathing, waste water was directed to covered drains, which lined the major streets. Houses opened only to inner courtyards and smaller lanes. The house-building in some villages in the region still resembles in some respects the house-building of the Harappans.[37] Rakhigarhi, or Rakhi Garhi, is a village in Hissar district in the northwest Indian state of Haryana, around 150 kilometers from Delhi. ... E. Coli bacteria under magnification Sanitation is the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste, as well as the policy and practice of protecting health through hygienic measures. ... Village pump redirects here, for information on Wikipedia project-related discussions, see Wikipedia:Village pump. ... Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ... A court or courtyard is an enclosed area, often a space enclosed by a building that is open to the sky. ...


The ancient Indus systems of sewerage and drainage that were developed and used in cities throughout the Indus region were far more advanced than any found in contemporary urban sites in the Middle East and even more efficient than those in many areas of Pakistan and India today. The advanced architecture of the Harappans is shown by their impressive dockyards, granaries, warehouses, brick platforms and protective walls. The massive walls of Indus cities most likely protected the Harappans from floods and may have dissuaded military conflicts.[citation needed] The word sewerage means the provision of pipes etc to collect and dispose of sewage. ... Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Small shipyard in Klaksvík (Faroe Islands), reparing fishing vessels Dockyards and shipyards are places which repair and build ships. ... Granary at Thiruparaithurai, Kumbakonam (old temple town), built around 1600-1634 A granary is a storehouse for threshed grain or animal feed. ... Old warehouses in Amsterdam Inside Green Logistics Co. ... A brick wall A wall is a usually solid structure that defines and sometimes protects an area. ...


The purpose of the citadel remains debated. In sharp contrast to this civilization's contemporaries, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, no large monumental structures were built. There is no conclusive evidence of palaces or temples - or of kings, armies, or priests. Some structures are thought to have been granaries. Found at one city is an enormous well-built bath, which may have been a public bath. Although the citadels were walled, it is far from clear that these structures were defensive. They may have been built to divert flood waters. Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ...


Most city dwellers appear to have been traders or artisans, who lived with others pursuing the same occupation in well-defined neighborhoods. Materials from distant regions were used in the cities for constructing seals, beads and other objects. Among the artifacts discovered were beautiful glazed faïence beads. Steatite seals have images of animals, people (perhaps gods) and other types of inscriptions, including the yet un-deciphered writing system of the Indus Valley Civilization. Some of the seals were used to stamp clay on trade goods and most probably had other uses as well. Traders was a Canadian television drama series, which aired on Global Television Network from 1995 to 2000. ... An artisan is a skilled manual worker. ... A bead is a small, decorative object that is pierced for threading or stringing. ... In archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... Faience or faïence is the conventional name in English for fine tin-glazed earthenware on a delicate pale buff body. ... An Egyptian carved and glazed steatite scarab amulet. ...


Although some houses were larger than others, Indus Civilization cities were remarkable for their apparent, if relative, egalitarianism. All the houses had access to water and drainage facilities. This gives the impression of a society with relatively low wealth concentration, though clear social leveling is seen in personal adornments. Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. ...


Science

Further information: Harappan mathematics

The people of the Indus Civilization achieved great accuracy in measuring length, mass, and time. They were among the first to develop a system of uniform weights and measures. Their measurements are said to be extremely precise; however a comparison of available objects indicates large scale variation across the Indus territories. Their smallest division, which is marked on an ivory scale found in Lothal, was approximately 1.704 mm, the smallest division ever recorded on a scale of the Bronze Age. Harappan engineers followed the decimal division of measurement for all practical purposes, including the measurement of mass as revealed by their hexahedron weights. This article is under construction. ... Ancient Lothal as envisaged by the Archaeological Survey of India. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter), symbol mm is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... A hexahedron is a polyhedron with six faces. ...


These chert weights were in a perfect ratio of 4:2:1 with weights of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 units, with each unit weighing approximately 28 grams, similar to the English Imperial ounce or Greek uncia, and smaller objects were weighed in similar ratios with the units of 0.871. However, as in other cultures, actual weights were not uniform throughout the area. The weights and measures later used in Kautilya's Arthashastra (4th century BCE) are the same as those used in Lothal.[38] Chert Chert (IPA: ) is a fine-grained silica-rich cryptocrystalline sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. ... The Imperial units are an irregularly standardized system of units that have been used in the United Kingdom and its former colonies, including the Commonwealth countries. ... Chanakya (c. ... The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kautilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya. ... Ancient Lothal as envisaged by the Archaeological Survey of India. ...


Unique Harappan inventions include an instrument which was used to measure whole sections of the horizon and the tidal lock. In addition, Harappans evolved some new techniques in metallurgy and produced copper, bronze, lead and tin. The engineering skill of the Harappans was remarkable, especially in building docks after a careful study of tides, waves and currents. The function of the so-called "dock" at Lothal, however, is disputed. Canal locks in England. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ...


In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto-dentistry. Later, in April 2006, it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest (and first early Neolithic) evidence for the drilling of human teeth in vivo (i.e. in a living person) was found in Mehrgarh. Eleven drilled molar crowns from nine adults were discovered in a Neolithic graveyard in Mehrgarh that dates from 7,500-9,000 years ago. According to the authors, their discoveries point to a tradition of proto-dentistry in the early farming cultures of that region."[39] Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... This article is about the dental profession. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ...


A touchstone bearing gold streaks was found in Banawali, which was probably used for testing the purity of gold (such a technique is still used in some parts of India).[40] A touchstone is a small tablet of dark stone such as fieldstone or slate, used for probing of precious metal alloys. ... Banawali (Devanagari: बन्वालि) is an Indus Valley site in Hissar, Haryana, about 120 km northeast of Kalibangan. ...


Arts and culture

The "dancing girl of Mohenjo Daro."
The "dancing girl of Mohenjo Daro."

Various sculptures, seals, pottery, gold jewelry and anatomically detailed figurines in terracotta, bronze and steatite have been found at the excavation sites. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ...


A number of gold, terra-cotta and stone figurines of girls in dancing poses reveal the presence of some dance form. Also, these terra-cotta figurines included cows, bears, monkeys, and dogs. Sir John Marshall is known to have reacted with surprise when he saw the famous Indus bronze statuette of a slender-limbed "dancing girl" in Mohenjo-daro: For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ... John Hubert Marshall was an English archaeologist, excavator of the prehistoric city of Taxila in the Himalayas, in todays Pakistan, and of other sites throughout India. ...

… When I first saw them I found it difficult to believe that they were prehistoric; they seemed to completely upset all established ideas about early art, and culture.. Modeling such as this was unknown in the ancient world up to the Hellenistic age of Greece, and I thought, therefore, that some mistake must surely have been made; that these figures had found their way into levels some 3000 years older than those to which they properly belonged. … Now, in these statuettes, it is just this anatomical truth which is so startling; that makes us wonder whether, in this all-important matter, Greek artistry could possibly have been anticipated by the sculptors of a far-off age on the banks of the Indus.

Many crafts "such as shell working, ceramics, and agate and glazed steatite bead making" were used in the making of necklaces, bangles, and other ornaments from all phases of Harappan sites and some of these crafts are still practiced in the subcontinent today.[41] Some make-up and toiletry items (a special kind of combs (kakai), the use of collyrium and a special three-in-one toiletry gadget) that were found in Harappan contexts still have similar counterparts in modern India.[42] Terracotta female figurines were found (ca. 2800-2600 BCE) which had red color applied to the "manga" (line of partition of the hair), a tradition which is still seen in India.[42] In eye care, a collyrium is a lotion or liquid wash used as a cleanser for the eyes, particularly in diseases of the eye. ...


Seals have been found at Mohenjo-daro depicting a figure standing on its head, and another sitting cross-legged in what some call a yoga-like pose (see image, the so-called Pashupati, below). Mohenjo-daro (literally, mound of the dead), like Harappa, was a city of the Indus Valley civilization. ...


A harp-like instrument depicted on an Indus seal and two shell objects found at Lothal indicate the use of stringed musical instruments. The Harappans also made various toys and games, among them cubical dice (with one to six holes on the faces) which were found in sites like Mohenjo-Daro.[43]


Trade and transportation

An artistic conception of ancient Lothal (Archaeological Survey of India). [2]
An artistic conception of ancient Lothal (Archaeological Survey of India). [2]
Computer-aided reconstruction of Harappan coastal settlement at Sokhta Koh near Pasni on the western-most outreaches of the civilization
Computer-aided reconstruction of Harappan coastal settlement at Sokhta Koh near Pasni on the western-most outreaches of the civilization
Further information: Lothal and Meluhha

The Indus civilization's economy appears to have depended significantly on trade, which was facilitated by major advances in transport technology. These advances included bullock carts that are identical to those seen throughout South Asia today, as well as boats. Most of these boats were probably small, flat-bottomed craft, perhaps driven by sail, similar to those one can see on the Indus River today; however, there is secondary evidence of sea-going craft. Archaeologists have discovered a massive, dredged canal and what they regard as a docking facility at the coastal city of Lothal. An extensive canal network, used for irrigation, has however also been discovered by H.-P. Francfort in northwestern India (Haryana, Panjab). Image File history File links Lothal_conception. ... Image File history File links Lothal_conception. ... Ancient Lothal as envisaged by the Archaeological Survey of India. ... The Archaeological Survey of India is an Indian government agency in the Department of Culture that is responsible for archaeological studies and the preservation of cultural monuments. ... Image File history File links Sokhta_Koh. ... Image File history File links Sokhta_Koh. ... Computer-aided reconstruction of coastal Harappan settlement at Sokhta Koh near Pasni, Pakistan. ... Pasni is a fishing port and major town in Balochistan, Pakistan. ... Ancient Lothal as envisaged by the Archaeological Survey of India. ... Meluhha refers to one of ancient Sumers prominent trading partners, but precisely which one remains an open question. ... This article is about economic exchange. ... The Bullock cart is a common means of transportation used traditionally since ancient times in India, which then was what the Indian subcontinent is now. ... Ancient Lothal as envisaged by the Archaeological Survey of India. ...


During 4300 - 3200 BCE of the chalcolithic period (copper age), the Indus Valley Civilization area shows ceramic similarities with southern Turkmenistan and northern Iran which suggest considerable mobility and trade. During the Early Harappan period (about 3200–2600 BCE), similarities in pottery, seals, figurines, ornaments etc. document intensive caravan trade with Central Asia and the Iranian plateau.[44] The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to...


Judging from the dispersal of Indus civilisation artifacts, the trade networks, economically, integrated a huge area, including portions of Afghanistan, the coastal regions of Persia, northern and western India, and Mesopotamia. Motto: Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1 Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic Anthem: SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian, Constitutional status for regional languages such as Azeri and Kurdish [1] Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ...


There was an extensive maritime trade network operating between the Harappan and Mesopotamian civilisations as early as the middle Harappan Phase, with much commerce being handled by "middlemen merchants from Dilmun" (modern Bahrain and Failaka located in the Persian Gulf).[45] Such long-distance sea-trade became feasible with the innovative development of plank-built watercraft, equipped with a single central mast supporting a sail of woven rushes or cloth. Failaka Island is an island in Kuwait, 20 km off the coast of Kuwait City. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


Several coastal settlements like Sotkagen-dor (astride Dasht River, north of Jiwani), Sokhta Koh (astride Shadi River, north of Pasni) and Balakot (near Sonmiani) in Pakistan along with Lothal in India testify to their role as Harappan trading outposts. Shallow harbors located at the estuary of rivers opening into the sea allowed brisk maritime trade with Mesopotamian cities. Computer-aided reconstruction of coastal Harappan settlement at Sokhta Koh near Pasni, Pakistan. ... Pasni is a fishing port and major town in Balochistan, Pakistan. ...


Agriculture

Some post-1980 studies indicate that food production was largely indigenous to the Indus Valley. It is known that the people of Mehrgarh used domesticated wheats and barley[46] and the major cultivated cereal crop was naked six-row barley, a crop derived from two-row barley (see Shaffer and Liechtenstein 1995, 1999). Archaeologist Jim G. Shaffer (1999: 245) writes that the Mehrgarh site "demonstrates that food production was an indigenous South Asian phenomenon" and that the data support interpretation of "the prehistoric urbanization and complex social organization in South Asia as based on indigenous, but not isolated, cultural developments." Others, such as Dorian Fuller, however, indicate that it took some 2000 years before Middle Eastern wheat was acclimatised to South Asian conditions. Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Jim G. Shaffer is an archaeologist who studied at the Arizona State University and University of Wisconsin. ...

Indus civilization agriculture must have been highly productive; after all, it was capable of generating surpluses sufficient to support tens of thousands of urban residents who were not primarily engaged in agriculture. It relied on the considerable technological achievements of the pre-Harappan culture, including the plough. Still, very little is known about the farmers who supported the cities or their agricultural methods. Some of them undoubtedly made use of the fertile alluvial soil left by rivers after the flood season, but this simple method of agriculture is not thought to be productive enough to support cities. There is no evidence of irrigation, but such evidence could have been obliterated by repeated, catastrophic floods.[citations needed] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... The traditional way: a German farmer works the land with horses and plough. ... Alluvium is soil land deposited by a river or other running water. ...


The Indus civilization appears to contradict the hydraulic despotism hypothesis of the origin of urban civilization and the state. According to this hypothesis, all early, large-scale civilizations arose as a by-product of irrigation systems capable of generating massive agricultural surpluses.[citations needed] Hydraulic despotism is a term for despotic rule supported by control of a single, necessary resource. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ...


It is often assumed that intensive agricultural production requires dams and canals. This assumption is easily refuted. Throughout Asia, rice farmers produce significant agricultural surpluses from terraced, hillside rice paddies, which result not from slavery but rather the accumulated labor of many generations of people. Instead of building canals, Indus civilization people may have built water diversion schemes, which—like terrace agriculture—can be elaborated by generations of small-scale labor investments. Such canals have, however, been found in northwestern India (Francfort). It should be noted that only the easternmost section of the Indus Civilisation people could build their lives around the monsoon, a weather pattern in which the bulk of a year's rainfall occurs in a four-month period; others had to depend on the seasonal flooding of rivers caused by snow melt at high elevations.[citations needed] This article is about structures for water impoundment. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... A rice paddy in Japan A paddy field is a flooded parcel of farmland for growing rice (from the Malaysian word padi, a noun meaning growing rice). Paddy fields are a typical feature of rice-growing countries of East and Southeast Asia, such as China, Thailand, Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Indonesia... In agriculture, a terrace is a levelled section of a hilly cultivated area, designed to slow or prevent the rapid run-off of irrigation water. ... For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ...


They domesticated animals like cattle, bears, wild pigs, dogs, water buffalo, elephants, monkeys, dromedary, chickens, goats, cats, and sheep. Trinomial name Bos primigenius indicus Linnaeus, 1758 Zebus (Bos primigenius indicus), sometimes known as humped cattle, are better-adapted to tropical environments than other domestic cattle. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domesticated pig. ... Kritikos Lagonikos, a. ... For the controversy at the University of Pennsylvania, see Water buffalo incident. ... The elephants thick hide protects it from injury. ... Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... Binomial name Camelus dromedarius Linnaeus, 1758 Dromedary range The Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius) (often referred to simply as the Dromedary) is a large even-toed ungulate native to northern Africa, Greater Middle East area and western India, also the land of east Africa, Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the animal, see goat. ... Cats may refer to: Felines, members of the animal family Felidae The domesticated animal, cat The musical, yeah right, I bet that this was really dumb. ... Species See text. ...


Writing or symbol system

Main article: Indus script
Ten Indus characters discovered near the northern gate of Dholavira, c. 2000 BCE
Ten Indus characters discovered near the northern gate of Dholavira, c. 2000 BCE

Well over 400 distinct Indus symbols (some say 600)[47] have been found on seals, small tablets, or ceramic pots and over a dozen other materials, including a "signboard" that apparently once hung over the gate of the inner citadel of the Indus city of Dholavira. Typical Indus inscriptions are no more than four or five characters in length, most of which (aside from the Dholavira "signboard") are exquisitely tiny; the longest on a single surface, which is less than 1 inch (2.54 cm) square, is 17 signs long; the longest on any object (found on three different faces of a mass-produced object) has a length of 26 symbols.   An Indus Valley seal with the seated figure termed pashupati. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Dholavira, an ancient metropolitan city, and locally known as Kotada Timba Prachin Mahanagar Dholavira, is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. ... This article is about the authentication means. ... Ancient River Valley Civilization writings. ...


While the Indus Valley Civilization is often characterized as a "literate society" on the evidence of these inscriptions, this description has been challenged on linguistic and archaeological grounds: it has been pointed out that the brevity of the inscriptions is unparalleled in any known premodern literate society. Based partly on this evidence, a controversial paper by Farmer, Sproat, and Witzel (2004)[48] argues that the Indus system did not encode language, but was instead similar to a variety of non-linguistic sign systems used extensively in the Near East and other societies. Others have claimed on occasion that the symbols were exclusively used for economic transactions, but this claim leaves unexplained the appearance of Indus symbols on many ritual objects, many of which were mass produced in molds. No parallels to these mass-produced inscriptions are known in any other early ancient civilizations.[49] One half of a bronze mold for casting a socketed spear head dated to the period 1400-1000 BC. There are no known parallels for this mold. ...


Photos of many of the thousands of extant inscriptions are published in the Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions (1987, 1991), edited by A. Parpola and his colleagues. Publication of a final third volume, which will reportedly republish photos taken in the 1920s and 1930s of hundreds of lost or stolen inscriptions, along with many discovered in the last few decades, has been announced for several years, but has not yet found its way into print. For now, researchers must supplement the materials in the Corpus by study of the tiny photos in the excavation reports of Marshall (1931), Mackay (1938, 1943), Wheeler (1947), or reproductions in more recent scattered sources.


Religion

An Indus Valley seal similar to the Vedic God Rudra Pashupati (Lord of the animals), also an epithet of the Hindu God Shiva.
Further information: Prehistoric religion  and History of Hinduism

In view of the large number of figurines[50] found in the Indus valley, it has been widely suggested that the Harappan people worshipped a Mother goddess symbolizing fertility. However, this view has now been disputed by S. Clark.[51] Some Indus valley seals show swastikas which are found in other later religions and mythologies, especially in Indian religions such as Hinduism. The earliest evidence for elements of Hinduism are present before and during the early Harappan period[52][53]. The Hindu Siva lingam has been found in the Harappan remains[54]. In the earlier phases of their culture, the Harappans buried their dead; however, later, especially in the Cemetery H culture of the late Harrapan period, they also cremated their dead and buried the ashes in burial urns. Many Indus valley seals show animals; for example, a seal showing a figure seated in what has been compared to yoga postures and surrounded by animals which has been likened to the post-Harappan, Vedic "lord of creatures", Pashupati. The Pashupati seal seems to resemble the Trimurti (Triple Form) of Brahma-Vishnu-Shiva (Creator-Sustainer-Destroyer) in contemporary Hinduism, and if nothing else, intimate the continuity of religious traditions that have morphed into Hinduism as we know it today from periods as far back as five thousand years ago. However, a similar configuration, representing the Celtic god Cernunnos, has also been found at Gundestrup (Denmark).[55] Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Vedic may refer to: Ancient India the Vedic civilization the Vedas, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan texts Vedic Sanskrit, their language (see also Vedic meter, Vedic accent, Vedic chant and Shrauta) the historical Vedic religion traditional Hindu culture: Vedic astrology the Ayurveda (Vedic medicine) Ancient Vedic weights and measures modern... Rudra (Sanskrit: रुद्रः) (Howler) is a Rigvedic God of the storm, the hunt, death, Nature and the Wind. ... Pashupati(Sanskrit: lord of animals) is a god associated with animals and nature. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... Prehistoric religion is a general term for the hypothetical religious belief system of prehistoric peoples. ... Hinduism, includes survivals of traditions of the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilization and of Proto-Indo-Iranian traditions during the Iron Age Vedic religion and the historical Shramana traditions. ... A Cucuteni culture statuette, 4th millennium BC. A mother goddess is a goddess, often portrayed as the Earth Mother, who serves as a general fertility deity, the bountiful embodiment of the earth. ... This article is about the symbol. ... The Sri Venkateshwara temple at Tirupati is the most visited temple in India India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world, with one of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The term Indus Valley Tradition is used to refer to the cultures of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra rivers, stretching from the Neolithic Mehrgarh period down to the Iron Age or Indo-Gangetic Tradition. ... Linga worship (Estate of Cynthia and Harlen Welsh) Lingam or Linga (Sanskrit: Gender as in purusha-linga : Phallus) by some etymologists, is used as a symbol for the worship of the Hindu God Shiva. ... The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BC, in and around the Punjab region. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... For other uses such as Yoga postures, see Yoga (disambiguation) Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Sanskrit: योग Yog, IPA: ) is a group of ancient spiritual practices designed for the purpose of cultivating a steady mind. ... Vedic may refer to: Ancient India the Vedic civilization the Vedas, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan texts Vedic Sanskrit, their language (see also Vedic meter, Vedic accent, Vedic chant and Shrauta) the historical Vedic religion traditional Hindu culture: Vedic astrology the Ayurveda (Vedic medicine) Ancient Vedic weights and measures modern... Pashupati(Sanskrit: lord of animals) is a god associated with animals and nature. ... This article is about the Hindu gods. ... This article is about the Hindu god of creation. ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ...


Late Harappan

Main article: Late Harappan

Around 1800 BCE, signs of a gradual decline began to emerge, and by around 1700 BCE, most of the cities were abandoned. However, the Indus Valley Civilization did not disappear suddenly, and many elements of the Indus Civilization can be found in later cultures. Current archaeological data suggests that material culture classified as Late Harappan may have persisted until at least c. 1000-900 BCE, and was partially contemporaneous with the Painted Grey Ware culture.[56] Archaeologists have emphasised that, just as in most areas of the world, there was a continuous series of cultural developments. These link "the so-called two major phases of urbanisation in South Asia".[56] The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BC, in and around the Punjab region. ... The Painted Grey Ware culture (PGW) is an Iron Age culture of Gangetic plain, lasting from roughly. ...

Indus tablets. The first one shows a Swastika
Indus tablets. The first one shows a Swastika

A possible natural reason for the IVC's decline is connected with climate change that is also signaled for the neighboring areas of the Middle East: The Indus valley climate grew significantly cooler and drier from about 1800 BCE, linked to a general weakening of the monsoon at that time. Alternatively, a crucial factor may have been the disappearance of substantial portions of the Ghaggar Hakra river system. A tectonic event may have diverted the system's sources toward the Ganges Plain, though there is complete uncertainty about the date of this event as most settlements inside Ghaggar-Hakra river beds have not yet been dated. Although this particular factor is speculative, and not generally accepted, the decline of the IVC, as with any other civilization, will have been due to a combination of various reasons.[citation needed] New geological research is now being conducted by a group lead by Peter Clift, from University of Aberdeen to investigate how the courses of rivers have changed in this region since 8000 years ago in order to test whether climate or river reorganizations are responsible for the decline of the Harappan. A 2004 paper indicated that the isotopes of the Ghaggar-Hakra system do not come from the Himalayan glaciers, and were rain-fed instead, contradicting a Harappan time mighty "Sarasvati' river.[57] Image File history File links Triseal. ... Image File history File links Triseal. ... This article is about the symbol. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India and parts of Pakistan. ... Peter Clift is a marine geologist specializing in the geology of Asia and the western Pacific. ... The University of Aberdeen was founded in 1495, in Aberdeen, Scotland. ...


Legacy

In the aftermath of the Indus Civilization's collapse, regional cultures emerged, to varying degrees showing the influence of the Indus Civilization. In the formerly great city of Harappa, burials have been found that correspond to a regional culture called the Cemetery H culture. At the same time, the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture expanded from Rajasthan into the Gangetic Plain. The Cemetery H culture has the earliest evidence for cremation, a practice dominant in Hinduism until today. The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BC, in and around the Punjab region. ... The Ochre Coloured Pottery culture (OCP), is a 2nd millennium BC Bronze Age culture of the Ganga-Yamuna plain. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India and parts of Pakistan. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ...


See also

Computer-aided reconstruction of coastal Harappan settlement at Sokhta Koh near Pasni, Pakistan. ... Meluhha refers to one of ancient Sumers prominent trading partners, but precisely which one remains an open question. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... The table gives a rough picture of the relationships between the various principal cultures of Prehistory outside the Americas, Antarctica, Australia and Oceania. ... The Brahui (بروہی) or Bravi (براوِ) language, spoken by the Brahui, is mainly spoken in Balochistan, Pakistan, although it is also spoken in Afghanistan and Iran. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "'Earliest writing' found", BBC News. 
  2. ^ Ching, Francis D. K.; Jarzombek, Mark;Prakash, Vikramaditya (2006). A Global History of Architecture. Hoboken, N.J.: J. Wiley & Sons, pp. 28–32. ISBN 0471268925. 
  3. ^ (McIntosh 2001, p.24)
  4. ^ Ratnagar, Shereen (2006). Trading Encounters: From the Euphrates to the Indus in the Bronze Age. Oxford University Press, India. ISBN 019568088X. 
  5. ^ Mode, H. (1944). Indische Frühkulturen und ihre Beziehungen zum Westen. 
  6. ^ "Indus civilization". Encyclopædia Britannica. (2007). Retrieved on 2007-02-16. 
  7. ^ a b Parpola, Asko (1994). Deciphering the Indus Script. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521430798. 
  8. ^ Witzel, Michael (1999). "Substrate Languages in Old Indo-Aryan (Ṛgvedic, Middle and Late Vedic)". Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies 5 (1). 
  9. ^ Masson, Charles (1842). "Chapter 2: Haripah", Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan and the Panjab; including a residence in those countries from 1826 to 1838. London: Richard Bentley, p. 472. “A long march preceded our arrival at Haripah, through jangal of the closest description.... When I joined the camp I found it in front of the village and ruinous brick castle. Behind us was a large circular mound, or eminence, and to the west was an irregular rocky height, crowned with the remains of buildings, in fragments of walls, with niches, after the eastern manner.... Tradition affirms the existence here of a city, so considerable that it extended to Chicha Watni, thirteen cosses distant, and that it was destroyed by a particular visitation of Providence, brought down by the lust and crimes of the sovereign.”  Note that the coss, a measure of distance used from Vedic to Mughal times, is approximately 2 miles.
  10. ^ a b Davreau, Robert (1976). "Indus Valley", in Reader's Digest: World's Last Mysteries. 
  11. ^ Cunningham, A., 1875. Archaeological Survey of India, Report for the Year 1872-73, 5: 105-8 and pl. 32-3. Calcutta: Archaeological Survey of India.
  12. ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1991). "The Indus Valley tradition of Pakistan and Western India". Journal of World Prehistory 5: 1–64. doi:10.1007/BF00978474. 
  13. ^ (Shaffer 1992, I:441-464, II:425-446.)
  14. ^ Chandler, Graham (September/October 1999). "Traders of the Plain". Saudi Aramco World: 34–42. 
  15. ^ Dales, George F. (1962). "Harappan Outposts on the Makran Coast". Antiquity 36 (142): 86. 
  16. ^ Rao, Shikaripura Ranganatha (1973). Lothal and the Indus civilization. London: Asia Publishing House. ISBN 0210222786. 
  17. ^ (Kenoyer 1998, p. 96)
  18. ^ Dani, Ahmad Hassan (1970-1971). "Excavations in the Gomal Valley". Ancient Pakistan (5): 1–177. 
  19. ^ Joshi, J. P.; Bala, M. (1982). "Manda: A Harappan site in Jammu and Kashmir", in Possehl, Gregory L. (ed.): Harappan Civilization: A recent perspective. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 185-95. 
  20. ^ "Excavations at Alamgirpur", in A. Ghosh: Indian Archaeology, A Review (1958-1959). Delhi: Archaeol. Surv. India, pp. 51-52. 
  21. ^ Ray, Himanshu Prabha (2003). The Archaeology of Seafaring in Ancient South Asia. Cambridge University Press, 95. ISBN 0521011094. 
  22. ^ Dales, George F. (1979). "The Balakot Project: summary of four years excavations in Pakistan", in Maurizio Taddei (ed.): South Asian Archaeology 1977. Naples: Seminario di Studi Asiatici Series Minor 6. Instituto Universitario Orientate, 241–274. 
  23. ^ Bisht, R. S. (1989). "A new model of the Harappan town planning as revealed at Dholavira in Kutch: a surface study of its plan and architecture", in Chatterjee, Bhaskar (ed.): History and Archaeology. New Delhi: Ramanand Vidya Bhawan, 379–408. ISBN 8185205469. 
  24. ^ a b Possehl, Gregory L. (1990). "Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization". Annual Reviews of Anthropology 19 (19): 261–282 (Map on page 263). doi:10.1146/annurev.an.19.100190.001401. 
  25. ^ Mughal, M. R. 1982. "Recent archaeological research in the Cholistan desert", in Possehl, Gregory L. (ed.): Harappan Civilization. Delhi: Oxford & IBH & A.I.1.S., 85-95. 
  26. ^ Shaffer, Jim G.; Lichtenstein, Diane A. (1989). "Ethnicity and Change in the Indus Valley Cultural Tradition", Old Problems and New Perspectives in the Archaeology of South Asia, Wisconsin Archaeological Reports 2, 117–126. 
  27. ^ (Gupta 1995, p. 183)
  28. ^ e.g. Misra, Virendra Nath (1992). Indus Civilization, a special Number of the Eastern Anthropologist, 1–19. 
  29. ^ Ratnagar, Shereen (2006). Understanding Harappa: Civilization in the Greater Indus Valley. New Delhi: Tulika Books. ISBN 8189487027. 
  30. ^ http://www.harappa.com/script/parpola6.html
  31. ^ http://www.sanskrit.org/www/Hindu%20Primer/induscivilization.html
  32. ^ http://www.harappa.com/script/danitext.html#1
  33. ^ http://www.harappa.com/script/parpola0.html
  34. ^ http://www.harappa.com/script/danitext.html#1
  35. ^ Durrani, F. A. (1984). "Some Early Harappan sites in Gomal and Bannu Valleys", in Lal, B. B. and Gupta, S. P. : Frontiers of Indus Civilisation. Delhi: Books & Books, 505–510. 
  36. ^ Thapar, B. K. (1975). "Kalibangan: A Harappan Metropolis Beyond the Indus Valley". Expedition 17 (2): 19–32. 
  37. ^ It has been noted that the courtyard-pattern and techniques of flooring of Harappan houses has similarities to the way house-building is still done in some villages of the region. (Lal 2002, pp. 93–95)
  38. ^ Sergent, Bernard (1997). Genèse de l'Inde (in French), 113. ISBN 2228891169. 
  39. ^ Coppa, A.; et al. (2006-04-06). "Early Neolithic tradition of dentistry: Flint tips were surprisingly effective for drilling tooth enamel in a prehistoric population". Nature 440. 
  40. ^ Bisht, R. S. (1982). "Excavations at Banawali: 1974-77", in Possehl, Gregory L. (ed.): Harappan Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., 113–124. 
  41. ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1997). "Trade and Technology of the Indus Valley: New Insights from Harappa, Pakistan". World Archaeology 29 (2: "High-Definition Archaeology: Threads Through the Past"): 262–280. 
  42. ^ a b (Lal 2002, p. 82)
  43. ^ (Lal 2002, p. 89)
  44. ^ (Parpola 2005, pp. 2–3)
  45. ^ Neyland, R. S. (1992). "The seagoing vessels on Dilmun seals", in Keith, D.H.; Carrell, T.L. (eds.): Underwater archaeology proceedings of the Society for Historical Archaeology Conference at Kingston, Jamaica 1992. Tucson, AZ: Society for Historical Archaeology, 68–74. 
  46. ^ Jarrige, J.-F. (1986). "Excavations at Mehrgarh-Nausharo". Pakistan Archaeology 10 (22): 63–131. 
  47. ^ Wells, B. An Introduction to Indus Writing. Early Sites Research Society (West) Monograph Series, 2, Independence MO 1999
  48. ^ Farmer, Steve; Sproat, Richard; Witzel, Michael. "The Collapse of the Indus-Script Thesis: The Myth of a Literate Harappan Civilization".
  49. ^ These and other issues are addressed in (Parpola 2005)
  50. ^ Photos: http://www.harappa.com/figurines/index.html
  51. ^ Clark, Sharri R. (2007). "The social lives of figurines: recontextualizing the third millennium BC terracotta figurines from Harappa, Pakistan.". . Harvard PhD
  52. ^ Rigveda. The Hindu Universe. HinduNet Inc. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  53. ^ Hindu History. The BBC names a bath and phallic symbols of the Harappan civilization as features of the "Prehistoric religion (3000-1000BCE)".
  54. ^ (Basham 1967)
  55. ^ Illustration: http://www.ceisiwrserith.com/therest/Cernunnos/cernunnospaper.htm
  56. ^ a b Shaffer, Jim (1993). "Reurbanization: The eastern Punjab and beyond", in Spodek, Howard; Srinivasan, Doris M.: Urban Form and Meaning in South Asia: The Shaping of Cities from Prehistoric to Precolonial Times. 
  57. ^ Tripathi, Jayant K.; Tripathi, K.; Bock, Barbara; Rajamani, V. & Eisenhauer, A. (2004-10-25). "Is River Ghaggar, Saraswati? Geochemical Constraints". Current Science 87 (8). 

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael Witzel (born July 18, 1943 at Schwiebus, Poland) is Wales Professor of Sanskrit at Harvard University, United States. ... The kos is an ancient Indian unit of measurement which has been in use for over three thousand years; evidence exists from Vedic times to the Mughal period, and even now elderly people in rural areas refer to distances from nearby areas in kos. ... Vedic may refer to: Ancient India the Vedic civilization the Vedas, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan texts Vedic Sanskrit, their language (see also Vedic meter, Vedic accent, Vedic chant and Shrauta) the historical Vedic religion traditional Hindu culture: Vedic astrology the Ayurveda (Vedic medicine) Ancient Vedic weights and measures modern... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Dr. Shikaripura Ranganatha Rao (b. ... Ahmad Hassan Dani (born 1920) is a Pakistani archaeologist and linguist, and is considered to be one of the foremost authorities on South Asian archaeology and history. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Jim G. Shaffer is an archaeologist who studied at the Arizona State University and University of Wisconsin. ... B.B. Lal (born in Jhansi, India in 1921) is a well-known Indian archaeologist. ... S.P. Gupta (* 1931) is a well-known Indian archaeologist and art historian. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jonathan Mark Kenoyer is an archaeologist and professor of Anthropology at the University of Wisconsin Madison. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Indus Valley Civilization existed along the Indus River and the Vedic Sarasvati River in present-day Pakistan. ...

Bibliography

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  • Gupta, S. P. (ed.) (1995). The lost Sarasvati and the Indus Civilisation. Jodhpur: Kusumanjali Prakashan. 
  • Kathiroli; et al. (2004). "Recent Marine Archaeological Finds in Khambhat, Gujarat". Journal of Indian Ocean Archaeology (1): 141–149. 
  • Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1998). Ancient cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-577940-1. 
  • Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1991). "The Indus Valley tradition of Pakistan and Western India". Journal of World Prehistory 5: 1–64. doi:10.1007/BF00978474. 
  • Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark; Heuston, Kimberly (2005). The Ancient South Asian World. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195174224. 
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  • McIntosh, Jane (2001). A Peaceful Realm: The Rise And Fall of the Indus Civilization. Boulder: Westview Press. ISBN 0813335329. 
  • Mughal, Mohammad Rafique (1997). Ancient Cholistan, Archaeology and Architecture. Ferozesons. ISBN 9690013505. 
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Ahmad Hassan Dani (born 1920) is a Pakistani archaeologist and linguist, and is considered to be one of the foremost authorities on South Asian archaeology and history. ... Ahmad Hassan Dani (born 1920) is a Pakistani archaeologist and linguist, and is considered to be one of the foremost authorities on South Asian archaeology and history. ... S.P. Gupta (* 1931) is a well-known Indian archaeologist and art historian. ... S.P. Gupta (* 1931) is a well-known Indian archaeologist and art historian. ... Jonathan Mark Kenoyer is an archaeologist and professor of Anthropology at the University of Wisconsin Madison. ... Jonathan Mark Kenoyer is an archaeologist and professor of Anthropology at the University of Wisconsin Madison. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Jonathan Mark Kenoyer is an archaeologist and professor of Anthropology at the University of Wisconsin Madison. ... B.B. Lal (born in Jhansi, India in 1921) is a well-known Indian archaeologist. ... B.B. Lal (born in Jhansi, India in 1921) is a well-known Indian archaeologist. ... B.B. Lal (born in Jhansi, India in 1921) is a well-known Indian archaeologist. ... Muhammad Rafiq Mugal is a Pakistani archaeologist. ... Asko Parpola, professor of Indology and South Asian Studies at the University of Helsinki, Finland has specialized on the Indus script. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregory Possehl is a Professor of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania. ... Dr. Shikaripura Ranganatha Rao (b. ... Jim G. Shaffer is an archaeologist who studied at the Arizona State University and University of Wisconsin. ... Jim G. Shaffer is an archaeologist who studied at the Arizona State University and University of Wisconsin. ... Jim G. Shaffer is an archaeologist who studied at the Arizona State University and University of Wisconsin. ... Michael E. J. Witzel (born 1943) is Wales Professor of Sanskrit and Chair of the Committee on South Asian Studies at Harvard University. ...

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