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An indulgence, in Roman Catholic theology, is the (full or partial) remission of temporal punishment due to sins which have already been forgiven. The indulgence is granted by the church after the sinner has confessed and received absolution.[1] Indulgences draw on the storehouse of merit acquired by Jesus' sacrifice and the virtues and penances of the saints.[2] They are granted for specific good works and prayers.[2] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... This article is about the practice of confession in the Modern confessional in the Church of the Holy Name, Dunedin, New Zealand. ...


Indulgences replaced the severe penances of the early church.[2]


Indulgences, and the abuses[2] that crept into granting them, were a major point of contention when Martin Luther initiated the Protestant Reformation (1517). Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Reformation redirects here. ...

A Roman Catholic indulgence, dated Dec. 19, 1521. The use of the printing press made possible the mass production of form documents offering indulgences.
A Roman Catholic indulgence, dated Dec. 19, 1521. The use of the printing press made possible the mass production of form documents offering indulgences.

Contents

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ...

Roman Catholic theology

Sin

Personal sins, that is specific sins committed by a person instead of the inherited original sin or evil resultant of personal sin, are either mortal or venial. “Original Sin” redirects here. ... According to Catholicism, a venial sin is a sin which meets at least one of the following critera: it does not concern a grave matter, it is not committed with full knowledge, or it is not committed with both deliberate and complete consent. ...

  • Mortal sins destroy charity in the heart of man by a grave (serious) violation of God's law. It turns man away from God, who is his ultimate end and his beatitude, by preferring an inferior good to him. It deprives us of communion with God and therefore makes us incapable of eternal life. For a sin to be mortal, three conditions must be met: The act must be of grave (serious) matter, you must have full knowledge of the sinful character of the act, and you must deliberately consent to committing the act (Catechism of the Catholic Church).

Venial sins are less serious sins. They allow charity to subsist, even though it offends and wounds it (CCC). According to the beliefs of Roman Catholicism, a mortal sin is a sin that, unless confessed and absolved (or at least sacramental confession is willed if not available), condemns a persons soul to Hell after death. ...


Punishments for sin can be temporal and eternal. Temporal punishments are temporary punishments - those that affect us in this life or in Purgatory. The more temporal punishments you incur, the more punishment/suffering you have to endure on earth or in Purgatory. Eternal punishment is everlasting. Basically, if you are suffering eternal punishment, you are in hell. All sins entail some sort of temporal punishment. Mortal sins also carry an eternal punishment. Even though you may be forgiven of a sin (through the sacrament of Reconciliation), and relieved of any eternal punishment (hell), temporal punishments may still remain. Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré, an imaginative picturing of Purgatory. ...


An Indulgence is granted for the remission of the remaining temporal punishments due to sins that have already been forgiven.


Penance

Plenary (full) indulgences are gained after the individual earning the indulgence completes the required tasks, which always includes the reception of the sacrament of Penance. Because the sacrament of reconciliation removes the culpable element of sin, the penitent is restored by reconciliation to the state of grace. However, while the individual’s guilt and any eternal punishment is removed by reconciliation, temporal punishments may still remain. God has mercy upon sinners who repent their sins, but His justice still requires that the sinner be punished for the wrongdoing. In addition, even though the separation caused by sin is removed, the repercussions/consequences for the sin have not been removed and still require punishment. E.g. if one steals a loaf of bread, the baker still is missing and suffers the loss of the bread even if the thief makes amends. This punishment is called "temporal punishment", both because it is a punishment of time, as opposed to eternal punishment, and because it relates to the temporary world (Earth or Purgatory), rather than to the “final destination” (Heaven or Hell). In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation is popularly called Confession. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological or philosophical afterlife. ...


Temporal punishment in Purgatory

Church teachings explain that individuals who experience trials and tribulations in this world by God's grace may have them serve as their temporal punishment for forgiven sins (Catechism 1473); other individuals die without having served the full temporal punishment for their sins. These individuals do not have guilt for sin, because it has been forgiven either through reconciliation or perfect contrition before death, and therefore they will attain Heaven. However, they are not yet ready to enter Heaven, as their punishment has yet to be served. Therefore, these individuals “enter” Purgatory, and the punishment they owe is "purged." The Church teaches that the souls in Purgatory desire to be there because they have realized that they are not yet ready to attain Heaven. Purgatory may be illustrated as a place of preparation for the deceased; they know they will enter Heaven, and Purgatory is a place in which the deceased are cleansed for God.


Temporal punishment and indulgences

In Catholic theology, the salvation made possible by Jesus allows the faithful sinner eventual admittance to Heaven. Baptism forgives all of the baptized person's existing sins; any sin committed after baptism incurs both guilt and a penalty that must be addressed. These are the sins addressed in reconciliation. With the act of penance after reconciliation, both the guilt and eternal punishment for the confessed sins are canceled, though not necessarily the entire temporal punishment. Furthermore, human beings by nature commit many venial, "light" sins daily which are unconfessed and, though they don't break communion with God, do damage one spiritually, and temporal punishment remains for these. This punishment may be remitted in Purgatory, or by indulgence. The granting of an indulgence is the spiritual reassignment, as it were, of existing merit to an individual requiring that merit. For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...

Indulgences occur when the Church, acting by virtue of its authority, applies existing merit from the Church’s treasury to an individual. The individual gains the indulgence by participating in certain activities, most often the recitation of prayers. By decree of Pope Pius V in 1567, following the Council of Trent, it is forbidden to attach the receipt of an indulgence to any financial act, including the giving of alms. In addition, the only punishment remitted by an indulgence is existing punishment, that is, for sins already committed. Indulgences do not remit punishment for future sins, as those sins have yet to be committed. Thus, indulgences are not a “license to sin” or a “get-out-of-Hell-free” card; they are a means for the sinner to “pay” the “wages” of sin. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Treasure House of Merit (or treasure of merit) is an idea related to the Roman Catholic Church and indulgences. ... Treasure House of Merit (or treasure of merit) is an idea related to the Roman Catholic Church and indulgences. ... Pope St. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Alms Bag taken from some Tapestry in Orleans, Fifteenth Century. ...


Indulgences are "plenary" or "partial”:

  • "plenary" indulgences remit all of the existing temporal punishment due for the individual’s sins. An individual can only earn one plenary indulgence per day.
  • "partial" indulgences remit only a part of the existing punishment.

Before the Second Vatican Council, partial indulgences were stated as a term of days, weeks, months, or years. This has resulted in Catholics and non-Catholics alike believing that indulgences remit a specific period of time equal to the length of the soul's stay in Purgatory. This was not true, rather the stated length of time actually indicated that the indulgence was equal to the amount of remission the individual would have earned by performing a canonical penance for that period of time. For example, the amount of punishment remitted by a “forty day” indulgence would be equal to the amount of punishment remitted by the individual performing forty days of penance. The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


The original reasoning for the "days" notation was, in the early days of the Church, a person's only means of returning to the state of grace was performing penances equal to the actions he had committed. Because a person may not receive Eucharist while not in a state of grace, he must perform these penances if he wished to be Catholic. However, because some people had been professional thieves, prostitutes, or some other sinful individual, he would have to undergo hundreds of years of penance to get remission for his sins. To alleviate this, the Church instituted certain actions or prayers which would cleanse him for the amount of time noted.


In addition to remitting punishment for the individual's own existing sins, an individual may perform the actions necessary to gain an indulgence with the intention of gaining the indulgence for a specific individual in Purgatory. In doing so, the individual both gains the indulgence for the soul in Purgatory, and performs a spiritual act of mercy.


To gain an indulgence the individual must be “in communion” with the Church, and have the intention of performing the work for which the indulgence is granted. To be “in communion,” the individual must be a baptized Catholic without any un-reconciled mortal sins (if there are any un-reconciled mortal sins, the individual has cut himself/herself off from God and cannot receive the indulgence) and must not be dissenting from the Church’s teaching. The individual must also intend to receive the indulgence.


Generally, a plenary indulgence requires the following conditions in order to be valid (in addition to the acts performed to earn the indulgence).

  • reconciliation, which is required for all indulgences
  • receiving the Eucharist
  • All attachment to sin must be absent.
  • pray for the intentions of the Holy Father. An Our Father and a Hail Mary said for the intentions of the Pontiff is sufficient, although you are free to substitute other prayers of your own choice.

It is recommended that the Communion be received at Mass on the same day that the indulgence is earned. Reconciliation may be within a prudent period before or after the act (typically, one week, though during the Great Jubilee, the Vatican specifically allowed confession within three weeks of the act). Several indulgences may be earned under the same confession (reconciliation). If any of these additional conditions is missing, the plenary indulgence will instead be partial. For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Hail Mary... The official logo of the Great Jubilee of 2000 features its motto: Christ Yesterday, Today, Forever. ...


Penitential redemptions were a milder form of indulgence that cut down the time of penance.[3]


Indulgenced acts

The following acts are examples of those which result in the award of an indulgence:

  • An act of spiritual communion, expressed in any devout formula whatsoever, is endowed with a partial indulgence.
  • A partial indulgence is granted the Christian faithful who devoutly spend time in mental prayer.
  • A plenary indulgence is granted when the rosary is recited in a church or oratory or when it is recited in a family, a religious community, or a pious association. A partial indulgence is granted for its recitation in all other circumstances.
  • A partial indulgence is granted the Christian faithful who read sacred Scripture with the veneration due God’s word and as a form of spiritual reading. The indulgence will be a plenary one when such reading is done for at least one-half hour [provided the other conditions are met].
  • A partial indulgence is granted to the Christian faithful who devoutly sign themselves with the cross while saying the customary formula: "In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen."
  • A partial indulgence is granted for the recitation of the Angelus.
  • A partial indulgence is granted to Christian faithful who on day of the liturgical feast of any saint recite in that Saint's honor a prayer taken from the Missal or other prayer approved by legitimate authority.
  • A partial indulgence is granted for reading the Holy Scripture at least 15 minutes per day.

Our Lady of Lourdes - Mary appearing at Lourdes with Rosary beads. ... This article is about a religious devotion. ...

Controversy

The abuse of indulgences in part led to the start of the Protestant Reformation.[2] Reformation redirects here. ...


The ability to grant full or partial pardons from the punishment of sins has been used by members of the Western Church's hierarchy throughout history.[citation needed] These indulgences were related to the removal of the temporal punishment of forgiven sinners.


In 1517, Pope Leo X offered indulgences for those who gave alms to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. The aggressive marketing practices of Johann Tetzel in promoting this cause provoked Martin Luther to write his 95 theses, protesting what he saw as the purchase and sale of salvation. In thesis 28 Luther objected to a saying attributed to Tetzel: "As soon as a coin in the coffer rings, a soul from purgatory springs".[4] The 95 Theses not only denounced such transactions as worldly but denied the pope's right to grant pardons on God's behalf in the first place: the only thing indulgences guaranteed, Luther said, was an increase in profit and greed, because the pardon of the Church was in God's power alone.[5] Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. ... This article is about the famous building in Rome. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For the magazine, see Marketing (magazine). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The 95 Theses. ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ...


While Luther did not deny the pope’s right to grant pardons for penance imposed by the Church, he made it clear that preachers who claimed indulgences absolved buyers from all punishments and granted them salvation were in error.[6] From this controversy the Protestant Reformation was launched. For other uses, see Penance (disambiguation). ... Reformation redirects here. ...


In 1294, Pope Celestine V issued a bull of pardon in L'Aquila, Italy, offering plenary indulgence to everybody sincerely contrite and confessed entering the basilica of Santa Maria di Collemaggio. The only other Saint Door outside Vatican is opened annually by a Cardinal between the evening of August 28 and the day after. For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Pope Celestine V (c. ... A Papal bull is a particular type of patent or charter issued by a pope. ... City centre. ... Saint Peter Repentant 1823-25 , Goya Contrition (from the Latin contritus ground to pieces, i. ... St. ... The façade of Santa Maria di Collemaggio S. Maria di Collemaggio is a large medieval church in LAquila, celebrated not only for its architecture, but also as the site of the original Papal Jubilee, a penitential observation devised by Pope Celestine V, who is buried here. ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Other traditions

An 18th century indulgence granted by the Patriarch of Jerusalem and sold by Greek monks in Wallachia
An 18th century indulgence granted by the Patriarch of Jerusalem and sold by Greek monks in Wallachia

Because the underlying doctrine of salvation differs from the Latin Catholic model, indulgences do not exist in Eastern Orthodoxy, although formerly there existed, in some places, a similar practice of Absolution Certificates until the twentieth century, known as aphesis or συγχωροχαρτια - synchorochartia; at the beginning of the 18th century Dositheos Notaras (1641-1707), Patriarch of Jerusalem, writes about Indulgences as something known to everyone in the ancient tradition: "This practice was confirmed by ancient Tradition that was known to all, that the Most Holy Patriarchs would grant certificates (συγχωροχαρτιόν - synchorochartion) for the remission of sins to the faithful people." Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2992x2431, 2319 KB) 18th century Orthodox indulgence granted by the patriarch Abraham (Avramie) of Jerusalem, sold by the Greek monks for the forgiving of the sins The original is located at the History Museum of Bucharest Åžtefan Ionescu, BucureÅŸtii în... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2992x2431, 2319 KB) 18th century Orthodox indulgence granted by the patriarch Abraham (Avramie) of Jerusalem, sold by the Greek monks for the forgiving of the sins The original is located at the History Museum of Bucharest Åžtefan Ionescu, BucureÅŸtii în... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... ... By far the most important of the many synods held at Jerusalem (see Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon, 2nd ed. ... The term Patriarch of Jerusalem can refer to the holders of one of three offices: The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, who is one of the Roman Catholic patriarchs of the east The Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, who is one of nine highest-ranking Eastern Orthodox bishops, called patriarchs The Armenian...


The Eastern Catholics have certain indulgenced prayers, such as the Akathistos, Paraklesis, Evening Prayer, and Prayer for the Faithful Departed (from the Byzantine church), Prayer of Thanksgiving (from the Armenian church), Prayer of the Shrine and the Lakhu Mara (from the Chaldean church), Prayer of Incense and Prayer to Glorify Mary the Mother of God (from the Coptic church), Prayer for the Remission of Sins and Prayer to Follow Christ (from the Ethiopian church), Prayer for the Church, and Prayer of Leave-taking from the Altar (from the Maronite church), and Intercessions for the Faithful Departed (from the Syrian church).[7] The domes of an Ukrainian Catholic parish in Simpson, Pennsylvania This article refers to Eastern Churches in full communion with the See of Rome. ... Icon of the Theotokos from Spasky Cathedral in Yaroslavl (13th-century). ... Paraklesis in the Orthodox Christian Church, is a service of supplication for the welfare of the living. ...


Though indulgences are usually gained for the personal benefit of the person who recites the prayer or performs the work of piety to which the indulgence is attached, the fact that, in Roman Catholic teaching, indulgences may be applied also for the benefit of the dead has led members of other denominations to associate them solely with the concept of Purgatory, which they reject, and for that reason they reject indulgences also. Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré, an imaginative picturing of Purgatory. ...


The practice of offering sacrifice (with animals puchased through a collection) for the expiation of the sins of the dead appears in the deuterocanonical 2 Maccabees 12:46 (ca. 100 BC). This practice is seen nowhere else in the Bible[8] in favour of the dead. The author praises the practice of donating money to the temple as a way of improving the standing of dead sinners on Judgment Day.[citation needed] These "indulgences" are associated with the Pharisees.[citation needed] The Sadducees did not believe in Judgment Day and the Essenes were not part of the Temple power structure. The deuterocanonical books are the books that Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Oriental Orthodoxy include in the Old Testament that were not part of the Jewish Tanakh. ... This article or section should be merged with End times and Last judgment The Last Judgement - Tympanum sculpture at the Abbey Church of Ste-Foy, Conques-en-Rouergue, France In Christian eschatology, the Last Judgement is the ethical-judicial trial, judgement, and punishment/reward of individual humans (assignment to heaven... For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ... The sect of the Sadducees - possibly from Hebrew Tsdoki צדוקי [], whence Zadokites or other variants - was founded in the 2nd century BCE, possibly as a political party, and ceased to exist sometime after the 1st century CE. The Hebrew name, Tsdoki, indicates their claim that they are the followers of the... The Essenes (sg. ...


The Reformation, from which most Protestant denominations came, arguably began with Martin Luther's posting of his 95 Theses, a harsh critique of the practice. Thus, Protestant denominations today frequently cite indulgences as a prime Roman Catholic error. Luther rejected the distinction between temporal and eternal debt and argued that Christ paid all debts of all sinners in full by his sacrifice. Any need of the sinner to merit remission of divinely imposed penalties, argued Luther, obscured the glory and merit of Christ and overthrew the Gospel of unmerited salvation for Christ's sake. In contrast the papal understanding of the Office of the Keys as a legislative power given to the pope for creating conditions and means for salvation, Luther understood the Keys as bestowed on the whole Church, administered publicly by all the clergy equally, and consisting in the command of Christ to forgive the sins of the penitent and retain the sins of the impenitent. As he saw the right use of the Keys as commanded by God, no bishop or pope could possibly have the authority to set up additional means of obtaining forgiveness, whether canonical satisfactions or indulgences. Most Protestants continue to express a sense of a completed atonement similar to Luther's, although Luther's doctrine of the Keys is found almost exclusively among Lutherans today. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The 95 Theses. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Code of Canon Law, (Cann. 992-997) Indulgences
  2. ^ a b c d e Wetterau, Bruce. World history. New York: Henry Holt and company. 1994.
  3. ^ Boudinhon, A. (1913). "Penitential Redemptions". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  4. ^ Bainton, 60; Brecht, 1:182; Kittelson, 104.
  5. ^ Certum est, nummo in cistam tinniente augeri questum et avariciam posse: suffragium autem ecclesie est in arbitrio dei solius. (Thesis 28)
  6. ^ Errant itaque indulgentiarum predicatores ii, qui dicunt per pape indulgentias hominem ab omni pena solvi et salvari. (Thesis 21)
  7. ^ Enchiridion Indulgentiarum, 4th edition, 1999, pp. 68-69.
  8. ^ Only the denominations that arose from the Protestant Reformation exclude this book from the Bible. The pre-existing Churches, such as the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Ortodoxy consider it an integral part of the Bible.

This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Reformation redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The...

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CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Indulgences (5395 words)
A famous indulgence is that of the Portiuncula (q.v.), obtained by St. Francis in 1221 from Honorius III.
The Council of Trent in its decree "On Indulgences" (Sess.
The Congregation of Indulgences was definitively established by Clement IX in 1669 and reorganized by Clement XI in 1710.
Indulgence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2123 words)
Indulgences are only granted by the Church after the individual earning the indulgence receives the sacrament of Penance or experiences perfect contrition.
A plenary indulgence is granted when the rosary is recited in a church or oratory or when it is recited in a family, a religious community, or a pious association.
For example, a plenary indulgence was proclaimed by Pope Urban II in 1095, and by several of his successors, to anyone who went on the Crusades to re-claim the Holy Land from the Saracens, or who died along the way.
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