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Encyclopedia > Indoor football

Indoor football is a variation of American football with rules modified to make it suitable for play within ice hockey arenas. United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ...

Contents

History

Early history

The first major indoor football game was the 1932 NFL Playoff Game, which was played indoors in the Chicago Stadium due to a severe blizzard that prevented playing the game outside. A dirt floor was brought in, and to compensate for the 80-yard length of the field, teams were penalized twenty yards upon crossing midfield. The 1932 NFL Playoff Game was the first ever playoff game held by the National Football League (NFL), the major professional American football sports league in the United States. ... The Chicago Stadium was a famed and historic indoor sports arena in Chicago, Illinois. ...


In the 1960s the Boardwalk Bowl, a post-season game involving small college teams, was contested at the Atlantic City Convention Center, probably known better as the home of the Miss America Pageant, in another attempt to make Atlantic City more of a year-round resort in the pre-gambling era as opposed to a single-season one (the Miss America pageant likewise began as an attempt to extend the season beyond Labor Day). The Philadelphia-based Liberty Bowl game, which had been played at Municipal Stadium from 1959-1963, was moved into the Convention Center in 1964 for the contest between Utah and West Virginia. The game drew just over 6,000 fans, though, and the Liberty Bowl moved to Memphis, where it is still held as of 2006. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... The Boardwalk Bowl was a post-season collegiate American football game held at the Atlantic City Convention Center in Atlantic City, New Jersey. ... Boardwalk Hall, also known as the Historic Atlantic City Convention Hall is an arena which serves as Atlantic Citys convention center. ... The Miss America pageant is a long-standing competition which awards prizes to young women contestants from the states of the United States of America. ... Alternate meanings: See Atlantic City (disambiguation) Atlantic City is a city located in USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 40,517. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... For the stadium, see Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium. ... John F. Kennedy Stadium (or JFK Stadium, originally known as Philadelphia Municipal Stadium) was an open-air stadium in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania that stood from 1925 to 1992. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Utah (also The U or the U of U or the UU), located in Salt Lake City, is the flagship public research university in the state of Utah, and one of 10 institutions that make up the Utah System of Higher Education. ... West Virginia University is an institution of higher learning based in Morgantown, West Virginia, USA. Other campuses include: West Virginia University at Parkersburg in Parkersburg; West Virginia University Institute of Technology in Montgomery; Potomac State College of West Virginia University in Keyser; and a clinical campus for the Universitys... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


This, however, was not technically "indoor football" as discussed here, as the size of the playing surface and hence the rules were essentially the same as in the standard outdoor game, with only the necessity of contingencies for what were to happen should, say, a punt strike the ceiling. Some would say that the relative success of this game, which was staged for several years, helped lead to the domed stadium era which began with the opening of the Houston Astrodome in 1965. The Astrodome in turn led to the development of the artificial turf playing surface required to make the indoor game truly practicable. (The Houston Oilers did not move their games inside the Astrodome as soon it was completed; they continued to play outdoors until 1968.) Football played in domed stadiums such as the Astrodome, however, is not truly "indoor football", as the game as played in domed stadiums is essentially identical to that played outdoors. The Reliant Astrodome, formerly just the Astrodome, is a domed sports stadium in Houston, Texas, and is part of the Reliant Park complex. ... See also: 1964 in sports, other events of 1965, 1966 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Auto Racing Stock car racing: Fred Lorenzen wins the Daytona 500 NASCAR Championship - Ned Jarrett Indianapolis 500 - Jimmy Clark USAC Racing - Mario Andretti Formula One Champion - Jimmy Clark of Great Britain... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // December 8 — Fukuoka Marathon, Japan Mens Winner: Bill Adcocks (ENG) 2:10:48 Stock car racing: Cale Yarborough won the Daytona 500 NASCAR Championship - David Pearson Indianapolis 500 - Bobby Unser USAC Racing - Bobby Unser won the season championship Formula One Champion: Graham Hill of Great Britain 24 hours of...


Arena Football

While several attempts to make up a true indoor football game have been made since shortly after American football was developed, the first, and to this point at least only, version to meet with anything resembling true success and acceptance is Arena football, devised by Jim Foster, a former executive of the United States Football League and the National Football League. He devised his game on the back of a manila envelope while watching indoor soccer, another game derived from a sport traditionally played in a large outdoor venue. He worked on the game in the early 1980s, but put any plans for full development of it on hold while the United States Football League, an attempt to play traditional American football in a non-traditional (spring-summer) season, was in operation in 1983-1985. When the USFL ceased operations following an pyrrhic anti-trust suit against the NFL (the USFL won the case, but was awarded only $3 in damages), Foster saw his opportunity. He staged a "test game" in Rockford, Illinois in 1986 and put together a four-team league for a "demonstration season" in the spring of 1987, with games televised on ESPN. The relative success of this league, which remains in operation (although only one of the original four teams still exists: the Pittsburgh Gladiators, who are now the Tampa Bay Storm), led to the inevitable attempts at imitation. Arena football is a sport invented by Jim Foster, a former executive of the United States Football League and the National Football League. ... Jim Foster is the founder of the Arena Football League in 1987. ... “USFL” redirects here. ... NFL redirects here. ... An indoor soccer game in Mexico. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... “USFL” redirects here. ... A Pyrrhic victory is a victory with devastating cost to the victor. ... “USD” redirects here. ... : The Forest City United States Illinois Winnebago 56. ... See also: 1985 in sports, other events of 1986, 1987 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Auto Racing Stock car racing: Geoff Bodine won the Daytona 500 NASCAR Championship - Dale Earnhardt CART Racing - Bobby Rahal Indianapolis 500 - Bobby Rahal Formula One Championship - Alain Prost of France 24... See also: 1986 in sports, other events of 1987, 1988 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Auto Racing Stock car racing: Bill Elliott won the Daytona 500 NASCAR Championship - Dale Earnhardt CART Racing - Bobby Rahal won the season championship Indianapolis 500 - Al Unser, Sr. ... ESPN/ESPN-DT, formerly an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, is an [[United States|Amer<nowiki>Insert non-formatted text here--68. ... The Tampa Bay Storm are a member franchise of the Arena Football League. ... Conference National Division Southern Year founded 1987 Home arena St. ...


To adapt to the smaller indoor playing surface, which was half the length of the traditional 100 yard field and about half the width as well, with eight yard rather than ten yard end zones, Foster reduced the number of players in the game at one time from eleven to eight per team, and mandated that at least six of them go "both ways", playing on both offensive and defensive downs. This additionally had the desirable effect of limiting roster sizes and team payrolls.


There were numerous other rules designed to help the offense and ensure high-scoring games. Two are most noteworthy: the banning of punting, meaning that if a team felt it was not likely to get a first down after three plays its only kicking option was to attempt a field goal, even if it were of the very unlikely distance of 60 yards or more; and the placing of rebound nets around the ends of the playing surface. Kicked and passed balls bouncing off of these nets are still in play. In the case of a pass, the ball is live only until it touches the ground, but in the case of an unsuccessful field goal or a kickoff, the ball remains in play unless it goes out of bounds or until the player recovering it is downed by contact or scores. This means that on every kicking play except an extra point attempt, either team may have a shot to regain the ball and advance it, much as a blocked kick could be in the traditional outdoor game. Only kicked or passed balls touching the slack nets behind the goalposts (which were only about half of the traditional width) are ruled dead at that point. Josh Miller of the New England Patriots punts the ball. ... A field goal (formerly goal from the field) in American football and Canadian football (collectively called gridiron football) is a goal that may be scored during general play (from the field). Execution of a field goal A field goal may be scored by a placekick or the very rare drop...


In 1990, Foster patented the rules of Arena football, meaning that only persons authorized by him could use his rules and his name for the sport. The patent specifically covered the rebound net feature, meaning that competitors and imitators who attempted to copy the game couldn't use this aspect of the rules.[1] However, under provisions of U.S. patent law, Foster's patent expired on September 30, 2007, enabling imitators to use his rebound nets (at least as originally envisioned, without other innovations that he may have patented). See also: 1989 in sports, other events of 1990, 1991 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Auto Racing Stock car racing: Derrike Cope won the Daytona 500 NASCAR Championship - Dale Earnhardt CART Racing - Al Unser, Jr. ... In the United States, under current patent law, the term of patent is either 20 years from the earliest claimed filing date or 17 years from the issue date, depending on the filing date and the issue date (provided that the maintenance fees are paid in due time): For applications... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ...


Other pro leagues

Several other indoor leagues have been announced without ever actually commencing play, or operating only briefly with a handful of teams. (At least most of these leagues are compiled in the list below, including all which attempted to operate on anything resembling a nationwide level.) Like the Arena Football League, all of these operations contemplated their playing season as being entirely or primarily outside the traditional fall/early winter season of the older sport so as not to be competing with it directly for fan support. Some were apparently attempts to form a second "major" league of indoor football while others were strictly efforts to form a new "minor" league. The common factor all seemed to share was serious undercapitalization. The Arena Football League (AFL) was founded in 1987 as an American football indoor league. ...


The most remarkable development of recent years, other than Arena's signing of a major network television broadcasting contract with NBC, is the development of the official Arena minor league, af2, beginning in 2000. This effort has served two purposes: one as a developmental league for Arena and as a place where former collegiate players could develop while at the same time learning and becoming accustomed to the unique Arena rules, and secondly as a pre-emptive way of shutting out potential new indoor football competitors (especially important as the 2007 expiration of Foster's patent on the rebound nets approaches). At times over forty teams have participated in this league, almost uniformly in cities which also have minor league ice hockey teams and hence suitable arenas. This article is about the television network. ... Minor leagues in the sense intended in this article are professional sports leagues which are not regarded as the premier leagues in those sports. ... af2 (short for arenafootball2) is the name of the Arena Football Leagues minor league, which started play in 2000. ... See also: 1999 in sports, other events of 2000, 2001 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Auto Racing Stock car racing: Dale Jarrett won the Daytona 500 NASCAR Championship - Bobby Labonte Indy Racing League - Buddy Lazier won the season championship Indianapolis 500- Juan Pablo Montoya CART Racing...


There are a number of other indoor leagues, all of which differ from af2 mainly in that they don't use the Arena-patented rebound nets. Over the first decade of indoor football, there has been a pattern of instability. Each off-season has seen teams jumping from league to league. In addition, leagues have annually merged, changed names, and separated. The league that will enter the 2007 season as the American Indoor Football Association has gone through three names in its three seasons. The American Indoor Football Association (originally the Atlantic Indoor Football League, later American Indoor Football League) began play in 2005 with six teams based in the eastern United States. ...


Many leagues have also been plagued with internal dissension. For example, the NIFL has been characterized by annual issues between teams and league owner Carolyn Shiver, while the APFL ended its 2006 season with a forfeit of the championship game when the league offices refused to allow the championship game to be hosted at the home of the team who had won the right to host and refused to play the game. National Indoor Football League is a minor league indoor football league that is based in the United States. ... The American Professional Football League (APFL) is an indoor football league based in the midwestern United States that began play in 2003. ...


However, other leagues, such as UIF and the CIFL have become relatively stable leagues, obtaining decent attendance figures and having a minimum number of problems. United Indoor Football is an indoor American football league that was started in 2005. ... The Continental Indoor Football League (CIFL) is a new indoor football league based along the Northeastern United States region. ...


Style of play

Play in all forms of indoor football has tended to emphasize the forward passing game at the expense of rushing the football. Whereas in a typical National Football League game perhaps half of the total offensive plays are rushing plays and 35 or 40 per cent of all of the yardage gained comes from rushing plays, in Arena and other indoor football it is far more common for rushing plays to constitute only 10 per cent of the offense, or even less in some instances.


Connection to NFL

Probably the most notable player to come out of indoor football into the National Football League is Kurt Warner, former MVP quarterback of the Super Bowl XXXIV champion (2000 game, 1999 season) St. Louis Rams, who had previously quarterbacked the former Iowa Barnstormers of the AFL. The National Football League has removed a ban that had been in place on any of its owners owning teams in any other sort of football operation with respect to Arena football only, and several of them have bought or started Arena teams. However, the NFL allowed to lapse an option it had negotiated allowing it to purchase up to 49% of Arena football, and as of early 2007 seemed to have backed away from any plan it may have had to use Arena football as a developmental league in any sort of "official" sense, perhaps in the interest of not undermining its then-existing "official" developmental league, NFL Europa. This may possibly change after the NFL folded the money-losing NFL Europa after that league's 2007 season. Kurtis Eugene Warner (born June 22, 1971, Burlington, Iowa) is a professional American football quarterback for the Arizona Cardinals. ... In sports, a Most Valuable Player (MVP) award is an honor typically bestowed upon the best performing player or players on a specific team, in an entire league, or for a particular contest or series of contests. ... Date January 30, 2000 Stadium Georgia Dome City Atlanta, Georgia MVP Kurt Warner, Quarterback Favorite Rams by 7 National anthem Faith Hill Coin toss Super Bowl IV participants: Bud Grant, Lamar Hunt, Bobby Bell, Paul Krause, Willie Lanier, Alan Page, and Jan Stenerud Referee Bob McElwee Halftime show Phil Collins... City St. ... The New York Dragons are an Arena Football League team. ... NFL Europa is an American football league which operates in Europe. ...


It is unlikely that the NFL will establish an official link to any such league. But with 19 teams in its major division, most located in major markets, and a strong minor league system which it controls itself, Arena Football is in good financial shape, and "indoor football" seems to have been more than just the passing fad that it was generally dismissed as only a few years ago.


List of Current Arena & Indoor Football Leagues

The Arena Football League (AFL) was founded in 1987 as an American football indoor league. ... af2 (short for arenafootball2) is the name of the Arena Football Leagues minor league, which started play in 2000. ... The American Indoor Football Association (originally the Atlantic Indoor Football League, later American Indoor Football League) began play in 2005 with six teams based in the eastern United States. ... The American Professional Football League (APFL) is an indoor football league based in the midwestern United States that began play in 2003. ... The Continental Indoor Football League (CIFL) is a new indoor football league based along the Northeastern United States region. ... The Intense Football League is an indoor football league founded by Chad Dittman in 2004. ... United Indoor Football is an indoor American football league that was started in 2005. ...

List of Defunct Indoor & Arena Football Leagues

The Eastern Indoor Football League is an indoor American football league that comprises teams located in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States. ... The Indoor Football League began in 1999 as an offshoot of the troubled Professional Indoor Football League. ... The Indoor Professional Football League (IPFL) was the new incarnation of the Professional Indoor Football League, which started in 1998. ... National Indoor Football League is a minor league indoor football league that is based in the United States. ... The North American Indoor Football League was a proposed indoor football league that announced plans in 2004 to begin play in fourteen Canadian cities in February 2005. ... The North American Indoor Football League is an indoor football league planning to start play in 2007. ... The Professional Indoor Football League was the first league to successfully play indoor football as a paid pro-league sport other than the Arena Football League. ... The North American Indoor Football League is an indoor football league planning to start play in 2007. ... The World Indoor Football League was a league that was to begin in 1988 to compete with the Arena Football League, which was playing its second season in 1988. ... The World Indoor Football League is an indoor football league that began play in 2007. ... This league is not to be confused with the XFL, an outdoor football league which operated in 2001 The Xtreme Football League was an indoor football league that was formed in 1999, to begin play in 2000. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ U.S. Patent 4,911,443  (filed September 30, 1987; issued March 27, 1990)

is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Indoor football - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1188 words)
Indoor football is a variation of American football with rules modified to make it suitable for play within basketball gymnasiums and, particularly, ice hockey arenas.
The first major indoor football game was the 1932 NFL Playoff Game, which was played indoors in the Chicago Stadium due to a severe blizzard that prevented playing the game outside.
The United Indoor Football League was formed in 2005 from some of the more successful former af2 and NIFL teams.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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