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Encyclopedia > Indoor air quality
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Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) deals with the content of interior air that could affect health and comfort of building occupants. The IAQ may be compromised by microbial contaminants (mold, bacteria), chemicals (such as carbon monoxide, radon), allergens, or any mass or energy stressor that can induce health effects. Recent findings have demonstrated that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air (albeit with different pollutants) although this has not changed the common understanding of air pollution. In fact, indoor air is often a greater health hazard than the corresponding outdoor setting. Using ventilation to dilute contaminants, filtration, and source control are the primary methods for improving indoor air quality in most buildings. It has been suggested that Pollutant be merged into this article or section. ... Air pollution is a chemical, physical (e. ... The term acid rain also known as acid precipitation is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, dew, or dry particles. ... An air quality measurement station in Edinburgh, Scotland The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized index of the air quality in a given location, given in parts per billion. ... An air quality measurement station in Edinburgh, Scotland The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized indicator of the air quality in a given location. ... Atmospheric dispersion modeling is performed with computer programs that use mathematical equations and algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse in the atmosphere. ... Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ... Eastern China -- Dozens of fires burning on the surface (red dots) and a thick pall of smoke and haze (greyish pixels) filling the skies overhead. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected... Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other pollutant particles obscure the normal clarity of the sky. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since around 1980; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earths... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... Victorian London was notorious for its thick smogs, or pea-soupers, a fact that is often recreated to add an air of mystery to a period costume drama. ... Roadway air dispersion is applied to highway segments Roadway air dispersion modeling is the study of air pollutant transport from a roadway or other linear emitter. ... Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... Eutrophication is caused by the increase of chemical nutrients, typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus, in an ecosystem. ... It has been suggested that Anoxic sea water, Oxygen minimum zone, and Hypoxic zone be merged into this article or section. ... Pumping of highly toxic (dark black) sludge, much seeps back into the ocean in the form of particles. ... Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earths oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. ... Oil Slick is the unintentional release of liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment as a result of human activity. ... Ship pollution is the pollution of water by shipping! It is a problem that has been accelerating as trade has become increasingly globalized. ... Runoff flowing into a stormwater drain Surface runoff is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle[1][2]. Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a channel is also called overland flow. ... Thermal pollution is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence. ... Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ... Waterborne diseases, according to the World Health Organization, are those which generally arise from the contamination of water by feces or urine, infected by pathogenic viruses or bacteria, and which are directly transmitted when unsafe water is drunk or used in the preparation of food. ... Water quality is the chemical and physical characterization of water. ... Standing water redirects here. ... Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil contamination is the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration of the natural soil environment. ... Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... This article about actinides in the environment is about the sources, environmental behaviour and effects of actinides in the environment. ... The environmental radioactivity page is devoted to the subject of radioactive materials in man and his environment. ... Fission products are the residues of fission processes. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Radiation Hazard symbol. ... // Radium Radium in quack medicine See the story of Eben Byers for details of one very nasty case which involved a product called Radithor this contained 1 mCi of 226Ra and 1 mCi of 228Ra per bottle. ... Uranium in the environment, this page is devoted to the science of uranium in the environment and in animals (including humans). ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... This time exposure photo of New York City shows sky glow, one form of light pollution. ... Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ... Radio spectrum pollution is the straying of waves in the radio and electromagnetic spectrums outside their allocations that cause problems for some activities. ... Visual pollution is the term given to unattractive visual elements of a vista, a landscape, or any other thing that a person might want to look at. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. Â§ 1251, et seq. ... Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... This act gave authority to Surgeon General to make programs to reduce or eliminate water pollution in rivers, underground rivers, and other waterways. ... This is a list of environmental organizations, organizations that preserve, analyze or monitor the environment in different ways. ... The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture, fisheries and rural communities. ... EPA redirects here. ... Global Atmosphere Watchs logo The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) is a worldwide system established by the World Meteorological Organization – a United Nations agency – to monitor trends in the Earths atmosphere. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that apply for outdoor air throughout the country. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Toxic mold be merged into this article or section. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... General Name, Symbol, Number radon, Rn, 86 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 6, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass (222) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8 Physical properties Phase gas Density (0 °C, 101. ... An allergen is any substance (antigen), most often eaten or inhaled, that is recognized by the immune system and causes an allergic reaction. ... Air pollution is a chemical, physical (e. ... Return inlet (left)Supply outlet (right). ...


Techniques for analyzing IAQ include collection of air samples, collection of samples on building surfaces and computer modelling of air flow inside buildings. The resulting samples can be analyzed for mold, bacteria, chemicals or other stressors. These investigations can lead to an understanding of the sources of the contaminants and ultimately to strategies for removing the unwanted elements from the air.

Contents

Risk Assessment

Radon

Radon is the invisible, radioactive atomic gas that results from radioactive decay of some forms of uranium that may be found in rock formations beneath buildings or in certain building materials themselves. Radon is probably the most pervasive serious hazard for indoor air in the United States and Europe, probably responsible for tens of thousands of lung cancer deaths per annum. There are relatively simple tests for radon gas, but these tests are not commonly done, even in areas of known systematic hazards. Radon is a very heavy gas and thus will tend to accumulate at the floor level. Building materials can actually be a significant source of radon, but very little testing is done for stone, rock or tile products brought into building sites. The half life for radon is 3.8 days indicating that once the source is removed, the hazard will be greatly reduced within a few weeks. General Name, Symbol, Number radon, Rn, 86 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 6, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass (222) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8 Physical properties Phase gas Density (0 °C, 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ...


Molds and other Allergens

These biological agents can arise from a host of means, but there are two common classes: (a) moisture induced growth of mold colonies and (b) natural substances released into the air such as animal dander and plant pollen. Moisture buildup inside buildings may arise from water penetrating compromised areas of the building skin, from plumbing leaks or from ground moisture penetrating a building slab. Especially in the absence of light and with a lack of air circulation, mold colonies can propagate and release mycotoxins into the air. In a situation where there is visible mold and the indoor air quality may have been compromised a mold inspection and/ or mold remediation may be needed. Through an inspection one should be able to determine the presence or absence of mold, which can cause allergic reactions and respiratory effects; there are some varieties of mold that are toxic in nature. Indoors, mold growth can be inhibited by keeping humidity levels between forty and sixty percent and by eliminating leaks or moisture condensation and accumulation It has been suggested that Toxic mold be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Toxic mold be merged into this article or section. ... Mycotoxin is a toxin produced by a fungus under special conditions of moisture and temperature. ... Mold Remediation is the process by which a certified and or trained professional performs a the removal and or clean up of mold from an indoor environment. ...


Carbon Monoxide

One of the most acutely toxic indoor air contaminants is carbon monoxide (CO), a colorless, odorless gas that is a byproduct of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Common sources of carbon monoxide are tobacco smoke, space heaters using fossil fuels, defective central heating furnaces and automobile exhaust. Improvements in indoor levels of CO are systematically improving from increasing numbers of smoke-free restaurants and other legislated non-smoking buildings. By depriving the brain of oxygen, high levels of carbon monoxide can lead to nausea, unconsciousness and death. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. ... A smoke-free restaurant is a dining establishment in which the act of smoking is specifically barred. ...


Legionella

Legionellosis or Legionnaire's Disease is caused by a waterborne bacterium, which is probably the most common serious health threat to building interiors, since mortality is high in infected patients. The number of instances of this disease is higher than commonly understood. The bacterium itself thrives on warm moist substrates and hence is usually associated with a plumbing misdesign or malfunction. Legionellosis is an infection caused by the genus of Gram negative bacteria Legionella, notably Legionella pneumophila. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ...


Asbestos Fibers

The U.S.Federal Government and some states have set standards for acceptable levels of asbestos fibers in indoor air. Many common building materials used before 1975 contain asbestos, such as some floor tiles, ceiling tiles, taping muds, pipe wrap, mastics and other insulation materials. Normally significant releases of asbestos fiber do not occur unless the building materials are disturbed, especially by sanding, drilling or building remodelling. There are particularly stringent regulations applicable to schools and residences. Inhalation of asbestos fibers over long exposure times is associated with increased incidence of lung cancer. Fibrous asbestos on muscovite Asbestos Asbestos Asbestos (a misapplication of Latin: asbestos quicklime from Greek : a, not and sbestos, extinguishable) describes any of a group of minerals that can be fibrous, many of which are metamorphic and are hydrous magnesium silicates. ... Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue, and is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for 1. ...


Carbon Dioxide

Carbon dioxide is a surrogate for indoor pollutants emitted by humans and correlates with human metabolic activity. Carbon dioxide at levels that are unusually high indoors may cause occupants to grow drowsy, get headaches, or function at lower activity levels. Humans are the main indoor source of carbon dioxide. Indoor levels are an indicator of the adequacy of outdoor air ventilation relative to indoor occupant density and metabolic activity. To eliminate most Indoor Air Quality complaints, total indoor carbon dioxide should be reduced to below 600 ppm above outdoor levels. NIOSH considers that indoor air concentrations of carbon dioxide that exceed 1,000 ppm are a marker suggesting inadequate ventilation (1,000 ppm equals 0.1%). ASHRAE recommends that carbon dioxide levels not exceed 700 ppm above outdoor ambient levels. The UK standards for schools say that carbon dioxide in all teaching and learning spaces, when measured at seated head height and averaged over the whole day should not exceed 1,500 ppm. The whole day refers to normal school hours (i.e. 9.00am to 3.30pm) and includes unoccupied periods such as lunch breaks. Canadian standards limit carbon dioxide to 3500 ppm. OSHA limits carbon dioxide concentration in the workplace to 5,000 ppm for prolonged periods, and 35,000 ppm for 15 minutes. Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) deals with the content of interior air that could affect health and comfort of building occupants. ... The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness. ... The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is an international voluntary organization for people involved in heating, ventilation, air conditioning, or refrigeration (HVAC&R). ... If you are searching for the organization, click OSHA. Osha (Ligusticum porteri) is a perennial herb used for its medicinal properties. ...


Debating the Definition of Indoor Air Quality in HVAC Design

There is a movement in the commercial and residential HVAC industry to pay more attention to the issue of indoor air quality (IAQ) throughout the design and construction stages of a buildings life. The "Green Design" movement also places emphasis on IAQ. Indoor air quality must be understood in order to discuss ventilation as a method of maintaining high IAQ, and ways to introduce demand controlled ventilation (DCV).


For the past several years, there have been many debates among indoor air quality specialists about the proper definition of indoor air quality and specifically what constitutes "acceptable" indoor air quality. Consequently, it is probably best to reference the currently accepted definition shown in the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) ventilation standard.


HVAC engineering issues

A basic way of measuring the health of indoor air is by the frequency of effective turnover of interior air by replacement with outside air. In the UK, for example, classrooms are required to have 2.5 outdoor air changes per hour. In halls, gym, dining, and physiotherapy spaces, the ventilation should be sufficient to limit carbon dioxide to 1,500 ppm. Return inlet (left)Supply outlet (right). ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ...


The use of air filters can trap some of the air pollutants. The Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy section wrote "[Air] Filtration should have a Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV) of 13 as determined by ASHRAE 52.2-1999."[1] Air filters are used to reduce the amount of dust that reaches the wet coils. Dust can serve as food to grow molds on the wet coils and ducts and can reduce the efficiency of the coils. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with air cleaner. ...


Moisture management and humidity control requires operating HVAC systems as designed. Moisture management and humidity control may conflict with efforts to try to optimize the operation to conserve energy. For example, Moisture management and humidity control requires systems to be set to supply Make Up Air at lower temperatures (design levels), instead of the higher temperatures sometimes used to conserve energy in cooling-dominated climate conditions. However, for most of the US and many parts of Europe and Japan, during the majority of hours of the year, outdoor air temperatures are cool enough that the air does not need further cooling to provide thermal comfort indoors. However, high humidity outdoors creates the need for careful attention to humidity levels indoors. High humidities give rise to mold growth and moisture indoors is associated with a higher prevalence of occupant respiratory problems.


The "dew point temperature" is an absolute measure of the moisture in air. Some facilities are being designed with the design dew points in the lower 50's °F, and some in the upper and lower 40's °F. Some facilities are being designed using desiccant wheels with gas fired heater to dry out the wheel enough to get the required dew points. On those systems, after the moisture is removed from the make up air, a cooling coil is used to lower the temperature to the desired level.


Commercial buildings, and sometimes residential, are often kept under slightly-positive air pressure relative to the outdoors to reduce infiltration. Limiting infiltration helps with moisture management and humidity control. Infiltration is the unintentional or accidential introduction of outside air into a building, typically through cracks in the building envelope and through use of doors for passage. ...


Dilution of indoor pollutants with outdoor air is effective to the extent that outdoor air is free of harmful pollutants. Ozone in outdoor air occurs indoors at reduced concentrations because ozone is highly reactive with many chemicals found indoors. The products of the reactions between ozone and many common indoor pollutants include organic compounds that may be more odorous, irritating, or toxic than those from which they are formed. These products of ozone chemistry include formaldehyde, higher molecular weight aldehydes, acidic aerosols, and fine and ultrafine particles, among others. The higher the outdoor ventilation rate, the higher the indoor ozone concentration and the more likely the reactions will occur, but even at low levels, the reactions will take place. This suggests that ozone should be removed from ventilation air, especially in areas where outdoor ozone levels are frequently high. Recent research has shown that mortality and morbidity increase in the general population during periods of higher outdoor ozone and that the threshold for this effect is around 20 parts per billion (ppb).


Institutional Roles

The topic of IAQ has become popular due to the greater awareness of health problems caused by mold and triggers to asthma and allergies. Awareness has also been increased by the involvement of the Environmental Protection Agency. They have developed an "IAQ Tools for Schools" program to help improve the indoor environmental conditions in educational institutions (see external link below). This article needs cleanup. ... EPA redirects here. ...


A variety of scientists work in the field of indoor air quality including chemists, physicists, mechanical engineers, biologists, bacteriologists and computer scientists. Some of these professionals are certified by organizations such as the American Industrial Hygiene Association and the American Indoor Air Quality Council. AIHA and A2LA both offer laboratory accreditation programs that relate to indoor air quality.


How To Improve Indoor Air Quality

According to the National Safety Council, Americans spend about 90 percent of their time indoors, and 65 percent of that time at home. Thus poor indoor air quality can have a significant impact on people’s lives, especially those who are most vulnerable: infants and children, pregnant women, the elderly, and those who have chronic illnesses.


Steps can be taken to help improve indoor air quality at home, the workplace, and in other indoor environments. Some of those steps include the following:

  • Install an air purifier, or an air purification system.
  • Introduce toxin-consuming plants to your home, office, and other indoor environments. Certain plants, including philodendron, spider plants, golden pothos, peace lilies, bamboo palms, mums, and english ivy remove dangerous toxins (e.g., formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, benzene, and others) from the air, according to research. However, the amount of these pollutants removed by plants is actually minuscule compared with the removal that occurs even at very low rates of outdoor air ventilation. There is also a risk of increasing indoor humidity levels and of promoting mold growth when indoor plants are not properly maintained. See: List of air filtering plants
  • Use natural pest control techniques indoors whenever possible. Banish pesticides from your garden and lawn as well, as these toxins can easily be transported into the house on shoes and clothing and by air.
  • Keep your plumbing traps filled with water to help prevent sewer gas from entering the building.
  • Regularly clean the vents in your kitchen, bathroom, and dryer, and make sure they operate properly.
  • Do not smoke or allow smoking in your home, and avoid indoor areas where smoking takes place.
  • Avoid or reduce biological contaminants by maintaining humidifiers, dehumidifiers, and air conditioners; emptying water trays in dehumidifiers, air conditioners, and refrigerators frequently; drying or removing any water-damaged carpets or furniture; and routinely cleaning bedding and items used by pets.
  • Prevent carbon monoxide exposure by keeping gas appliances properly serviced, having your central heating system inspected and cleaned yearly, and never idling your car inside an attached garage.
  • Change filters on central cooling and heating systems and air cleaners according to the manufacturer’s directions.
  • Test your home for radon. Radon can seep into the house from contaminated earth and rock under the home, or from well water and/or building materials. Easy, do-it-yourself kits can be purchased at hardware and other retail outlets.
  • Install an energy recovery or heat recovery ventilator, which also acts as an energy saving device. They work by transferring the energy of conditioned air being exhausted to unconditioned incoming outdoor air being introduced for dilution purposes. Some available models can achieve up to 80% efficiency levels.

Green cleaning has been coined to describe a trend away from chemically-reactive and toxic cleaning products which emit volatile organic compounds [VOCs]. It can also describe the way residential and commercial cleaning products are manufactured. ... {{Taxobox | color = lightgreen | name = Philodendrons | image = Philodendron01. ... Categories: Plant stubs ... Look up mum, mums the word in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... English Ivy, (hedera helix), is an extremely invasive species of ivy native to England, but now has taken root in many places such as the U.S., often wiping out native grasses and undergrowth. ... This List of air filtering plants was compiled by NASA while researching ways to clean air in space stations. ... Sewer gas is gases produced in sewers by decomposing sewage and other decomposing organic matter. ...

References

  • Salthammer, T.(ed.)1999. "Organic Indoor Air Pollutants — Occurrence, Measurement, Evaluation". Wiley-VCH, Germany.
  • Spengler, J.D. and Samet, J.M. (1991). "Indoor air pollution: A health perspective". Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
  • Spengler, J.D., Samet, J.M. & McCarthy, J.F (2001). "Indoor Air Quality Handbook". McGraw–Hill, NY. ISBN 0-07-445549-4.
  1. ^ [1] DOE EERE Indoor Air Quality - MERV 13 Air Filters

See also

Any piece of real estate can be the subject of a Phase I ESA. A Phase I Environmental Site Assessment is a report prepared for a real estate holding which identifies potential or existing environmental contamination liabilities. ... Human thermal comfort is the state of mind that expresses satisfaction with the surrounding environment, according to ASHRAE Standard 55. ... Characterizing how air is introduced to, flows through, and is removed from spaces is called room air distribution. ... Mold Remediation is the process by which a certified and or trained professional performs a the removal and or clean up of mold from an indoor environment. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Anosmia. ... This List of air filtering plants was compiled by NASA while researching ways to clean air in space stations. ... Green cleaning has been coined to describe a trend away from chemically-reactive and toxic cleaning products which emit volatile organic compounds [VOCs]. It can also describe the way residential and commercial cleaning products are manufactured. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Indoor Air Quality | Air | US EPA (894 words)
Indoor air pollution is one risk that you can do something about.
Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a critically important aspect of creating and maintaining school facilities.
The mission of the Partnership is to improve health, livelihood, and quality of life by reducing exposure to air pollution, primarily among women and children, from household energy use.
Indoor air quality - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2116 words)
One of the most acutely toxic indoor air contaminants is carbon monoxide (CO), a colorless, odorless gas that is a byproduct of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels.
Indoor levels are an indicator of the adequacy of outdoor air ventilation relative to indoor occupant density.
NIOSH considers that indoor air concentrations of carbon dioxide that exceed 1,000 ppm are a marker suggesting inadequate ventilation (1,000 ppm equals 0.1%).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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