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Encyclopedia > Indoor Cannabis cultivation

This article is about the method of cultivating Cannabis indoors traditionally, growing the plants in a soil-like medium and adding fertilizer when the plants are given water. Cultivating marijuana indoors is more complicated and expensive than growing outdoors, but it allows the cultivator complete control over the growing environment. Cannabis grown outdoors can be just as potent as its indoor counterpart if tended to properly.

Further information: Outdoor Cannabis cultivation

Contents

Lighting

Cannabis being cultivated under metal halide lamps. Depicted is vegetative growth and an extensive hydroponics setup.
Cannabis being cultivated under metal halide lamps. Depicted is vegetative growth and an extensive hydroponics setup.

The single most important factor for the indoor cultivator to consider is lighting. Since cultivation of cannabis is harshly punished in some areas, many cultivators must set up a hidden indoor grow room and provide artificial light. Additionally, outdoor cultivators usually start their clones or seedlings indoors, under artificial light. Lighting types include fluorescent, high-intensity discharge (HID) including metal halide(MH), high pressure sodium (HPS), and LED[citation needed]. Fluorescent lights have the advantage of coolness, and are gentle enough to use on seedlings and rooting clones. HID lamps are the most efficient, and are usually used between 250-1000 watts.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 40 KB) Marijuana being grown under mh lights for vegetative growth in hyrdoponics File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 40 KB) Marijuana being grown under mh lights for vegetative growth in hyrdoponics File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ... High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps include the groups of lamps commonly known as mercury vapor, metal halide, and high-pressure sodium. ...


While cannabis will grow under most light spectra, all plants prefer a full spectrum light. A test done by Ed Rosenthal[citation needed] found that when a room was set up using both HPS and MH lamps the plants in between the two lights did better than those under MH alone but not as well as those under HPS. However, Cannabis can be grown successfully under both types of light. Metal halide is used for vegetative phase of growth, as it encourages short internodes (distance between sets of leaves), and inhibits cell elongation, creating a shorter, stockier plant. Unlike high pressure sodium lamps, metal halide lamps also produce ultraviolet radiation, which may play a role in increasing the amount of THC produced by the plant. High pressure sodium lamps are the choice of most growers who have only one lamp.[citation needed] HPS lamps are an used for the reproductive phase of growth, as they trigger a greater flowering response in the plant. If high pressure sodium is used for vegetative phase, plants will usually grow slightly more quickly, but will also have longer internodes, and may be taller.[citation needed] Legend: γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme ultraviolet NUV = Near ultraviolet Visible light NIR = Near infrared MIR = Moderate infrared FIR = Far infrared Radio waves: EHF = Extremely high frequency (Microwaves) SHF = Super high frequency (Microwaves) UHF = Ultra high frequency VHF = Very high frequency HF = High... Ed Rosenthal (born Bronx, New York, 1944) is a California horticulturist, author, publisher, and cannabis grower. ...

Cannabis cultivated for Marijuana under sodium lights.
Cannabis cultivated for Marijuana under sodium lights.

Recent advancements in LEDs have allowed for the production of relatively cheap, bright and long lasting grow lights that emit only the colors of light required for plant growth. These lights are attractive to indoor-growers since they do not consume as much power, do not require ballasts, and produce a fraction of the heat of HID lamps. The lamps consist of arrays of many wide-spectrum red and a few narrow-spectrum blue LEDs of specific wavelengths. Although LED grow lights have shown promise through plant research by NASA and many universities, it is unknown whether the results are applicable to Cannabis cultivation.[citation needed] Image File history File links more photos of marijuana being grown, this time under sodium lights, from the DOJ. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links more photos of marijuana being grown, this time under sodium lights, from the DOJ. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Led is also the past tense of the verb to lead Blue, green and red LEDs. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States Government, responsible for that nations public space program. ...

LED panel light source used in an experiment on plant growth by NASA. Pictured plant is a potato plant.
LED panel light source used in an experiment on plant growth by NASA. Pictured plant is a potato plant.

According to the inverse square law, the intensity of light radiating from a point source (in this case a bulb) is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source. So if an object is twice as far away, it receives only 1/4 the light. This is a serious hurdle for indoor marijuana growers, and many techniques are employed to use light as efficiently as possible. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x696, 701 KB)A panel of red LEDs used for illumination for a plant growth experiment with possible future application to food growing in space. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x696, 701 KB)A panel of red LEDs used for illumination for a plant growth experiment with possible future application to food growing in space. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States Government, responsible for that nations public space program. ...


Reflectors are often used to maximize light efficiency. Plants or lights are moved so that they receive equal lighting. Some marijuana cultivators cover the walls of their grow-room with some type of reflective material.


The most commonly used covering is 6 mil (150 µm) PVC plastic sheeting that is white on one side and black on the other. The plastic is installed with the white side facing in to the room to reflect light, and the black facing the wall, to reduce fungus and mold growth. Another common covering is flat white paint, with a high titanium dioxide content to maximize reflectivity. Mylar sheeting is also sometimes used, along with Astrofoil (which also reflects heat), and Foylon (a foil-laminated, reinforced fabric).

A young cannabis plant
A young cannabis plant

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 1812 KB) Summary Male cannabis plant growing wild, about . ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 1812 KB) Summary Male cannabis plant growing wild, about . ...

Atmosphere

When growing indoors, the cultivator must maintain an ideal atmosphere inside the grow-room. The air temperature must be maintained within an ideal range, with a cooler night and warmer day, and adequate levels of CO2 must be maintained in order for the plants to grow most efficiently. It is also important to promote vigorous air circulation within the grow room, which is usually accomplished by mounting one or more oscillating fans in the room, depending on its size. Using an air extraction fan, sometimes with a smaller fan, ensures air exchange.


Assuming that adequate amount of light and nutrients are available to plants, the limiting factor in plant growth is the level of carbon dioxide (CO2). Plants grown with supplemental carbon dioxide will grow more quickly, have larger stomata, and can utilize more light. Ways of increasing carbon dioxide levels in the grow-room include: bottled carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide generators, a milk jug and yeast solution, in which yeast grows in a container, emitting CO2, a baking soda and vinegar mixture in a container, or dry ice.[1] Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... SEM photo of stomata, 350x, colorized In botany, a stoma (also stomate; plural stomata) is a tiny opening or pore, found mostly on the under-surface (epidermis) of a plant leaf, and used for gas exchange. ...


Most strains of marijuana emit a distinctive odor during their reproductive phase. This presents difficulties to those who are cultivating in places where it is illegal. The most common way of eliminating odor is by forcing odorous air through a carbon filter. Many cultivators simply attach a large carbon filter to their air extraction system, thereby filtering any smell before the air is expelled from the grow-room. Another way of eliminating odor is by installing an ozone generator in the extraction ducting. The air is forced past the ozone generator by the extraction fan, and the odorous air is neutralized as it mixes with the ozone. Cultivators must be sure that the air is thoroughly mixed before it is expelled outside, lest some odor escape. Ozone itself has a distinctive smell. Activated carbon from a water filter used for Carbon filtering in powder and block form Carbon filtering is a method of water purification that uses a piece of activated carbon to remove contaminants and impurities, utilizing chemical adsorption. ... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ...


Germination

Seeds may be germinated by soaking in paper towels, or a cup of water at room temperature, or in wet Jiffy pellets. Regardless of which method used distilled water should be used as it has the proper pH. Jiffy pellets are often used because they make unnecessary the transplanting of fragile seedlings, as the saturated pellets with their seedlings can be planted directly in the intended growing medium with a minimum of trouble and effort. It has been suggested that Germination rate be merged into this article or section. ... Distilled water is water that has virtually all of its impurities removed through distillation (boiling the water and re-condensing the steam into a clean container, leaving contaminants behind). ...


When germinating the seeds must be kept in a dark, moist and warm environment. Germination occurs once water has soaked into the seed and initiates metabolic processes. The seed soon splits and the embryonic root emerges and begins growing downwards due to gravity. Once anchored the root will push the entire seed out above the soil were the seed shell will be lost to expose two circular embryonic leaves (or cotyledons). Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... For the genus of Crassulaceae, see Cotyledon. ...


This marks the beginning of the seedling stage.


Seedling Phase of Growth

The seedling stage of growth begins when the seed breaks the soil and exposes its round “seed leafs” or cotyledon. This is the most fragile time during the entire life cycle of the cannabis plant. It is important to keep a constant atmosphere with a high humidity level and medium to high light intensity. Most growers use compact fluorescents or T5 fluorescents during this stage as they give off little heat. HPS and MH lights give off large amounts of radiant heat and increase the rate of transpiration in the plant. Seedlings have small root systems and can dry out very quickly, thus keeping soil moist is important at this stage. During the seedling stage fertilizers are not necessary and should not be given to the plant. The plant often sexes during this stage but will not preflower. This seedling germinated producing two plain-looking cotyledons later followed by two normal-looking leaves that are small copies of the adult leaves. ...


Vegetative Phase of Growth

When the plant possesses 4 sets of true leafs and the 5th is barely visible in the center of the growth tip, the plant has entered the vegetative phase of growth. During the vegetative phase of growth, the plant directs its energy resources primarily to the growth of leaves, stems, and roots. A strong root system is imperative, as it is required for strong floral development. A plant needs 1 or 2 months to mature before blooming. The plant is ready when it has revealed its sex. The males are then culled when they are identified, because they don't produce buds or flowers. If males are allowed to pollinate the females their potency will be greatly reduced, as energy that would have been used to make large, potent buds instead goes to making seeds.


During the vegetative phase of growth, cultivators generally employ an 18 to 24 hour photoperiod, as the plants grow more quickly if they receive more light, although a warmer and cooler period are required for optimal health. While no dark period is required, there is debate among cultivators as to whether a dark period is beneficial, and many continue to employ a dark period.


Marijuana cultivators employ fertilizers high in nitrogen and potassium during this stage, as well as a complete micronutrient fertilizer. The strength of the fertilizer is gradually increased as the plants grow and become more hardy.


The modification of a plant's growth habit is called training. Indoor cultivators employ many training techniques in order to encourage shorter plants and more dense canopy growth. For example, unless the crop is too large to be extensively pruned, cultivators will remove adventitious growth shoots, often called suckers, that are near the bottom of the plant and/or receive little light and will produce poor quality buds.


Many cultivators also employ other techniques:


Topping is done by removing the top of the apical meristem (dominant central stem), called the apex or terminal bud, in order to transfer apical dominance (the tendency for the apex to grow more rapidly than the rest of the plant) to the shoots emanating from the two nodes immediately beneath the pruning cut. This process can be repeated on one or both of the two new meristems, when they become apically dominant, with the same results. This process can actually be repeated almost infinitely, but over-diffusion of apical dominance will produce smaller, lower quality buds, so it is usually done no more than a few times. Topping also causes more rapid growth of all of the branches below the cut while the plant heals.


Pinching is similar to topping in that it causes the lower branches to grow more rapidly, but the apical meristem will maintain apical dominance, which is especially useful if the plant has already been topped. Pinching is performed by firmly pinching the apical meristem(s) so as to substantially damage vascular and structural cells but without totally breaking the stem. This will cause the lower limbs to grow more rapidly while the pinched tissue heals, after which time the stem will resume apical dominance.


LSTing LST stands for Low Stress Training. This technique involves bending and tying the plants branches to manipulate the plant into a more preferred growth shape. This method of training works very well for indoor growers who need to illuminate their plants using overhead lights. Since light intensity greatly diminishes with increased distance (Inverse-square law) LSTing can be used to keep all growth tips (meristem) at the same distance from the light and can achieve optimal light exposure. LSTing is often used in conjunction with topping, since topping increases axial growth (side shoots), topping is often done a few weeks before beginning LSTing. LSTing works by changing the distribution of hormones, more specifically Auxins, in the plant. This diagram shows how the law works. ... Auxins are a group of plant growth substances (often called phytohormones or plant hormones), the most common example being indoleacetic acid (IAA), responsible for raising the pH around cells, making the cell wall less rigid and allowing elongation. ...


Reproductive/Flowering Phase of Growth

Cannabis is induced into flowering by decreasing its photoperiod to at least 10 hours of darkness per day. Traditionally most growers change their plants lighting cycle to 12 hours on and 12 hours off. This change in photoperiod mimics the plant's natural outdoor cycle; with up to 18 hours of light per day in the summer and down to less than 12 hours of light come fall and winter. Wildflowers A flower is the reproductive organ of those plants classified as angiosperms (flowering plants; Division Magnoliophyta). ...


While the flowering hormone in the Cannabis plant is present during all phases of growth, it is inhibited by exposure to light. To induce flowering, the plant must be subject to at least 8 hours of darkness per day; this number is very strain-specific and most growers flower with 12 hours of darkness to be safe. The flowering hormone is very quickly inhibited, taking less than two minutes of exposure.


Flowering generally lasts from 45 to 90 days indoors. If growing outdoors it may take somewhat longer, depending on the natural onset of the colder seasons. The flowering length is mainly genetically determined with some pure Indica strains flowering in as low as 45 days, while sativa strains can take up to 4 months to finish and the harvest yields significantly less. This is the main reason Indica strains are usually grown indoors.


Some plants, specifically members of the subspecies Ruderalis, will begin the flowering cycle without a significant reduction in their photoperiod; this is called autoflowering, and it is because these strains originate near the equator which does not have the threshold darkness levels in fall.


The Cannabis flowers are called Calyx, the most prized part of the plant. In late flowering the calyx are easily visible to the naked eye. Calyx development begins approximately 1-2 weeks after the photoperiod is reduced. In the first weeks of flowering a plant usually doubles in size and can triple. Calyx development ends around 5 weeks into flowering and is proceeded by a period of Calyx “swelling”. During this time the buds greatly increase in weight and size.


Indoors

European laws on cannabis possession (small amount). Data is from multiple sources detailed on the full source list. This map is a work in progress, please give corrections and additions here.
European laws on cannabis possession (small amount). Data is from multiple sources detailed on the full source list. This map is a work in progress, please give corrections and additions here.

Indoor growing has become increasingly common over the past decade, in part due to increased availability of equipment, seeds and instructions on how to cultivate. So-called grow-ops (growing operations) are seen by many marijuana enthusiasts as a much cheaper way in which to gain a steady, higher-quality supply of cannabis. On a larger scale they have proven a viable commercial venture, with some law enforcement agencies finding grow-ops large enough to yield several kilograms of marijuana. More expansive grow-ops, however, are generally more susceptible to detection than smaller operations. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1236x1245, 69 KB) European laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1236x1245, 69 KB) European laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ... Cannabis sativa Look up marijuana in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Cannabis sativa plant The drug cannabis, also called marijuana, is produced from parts of the cannabis plant, primarily the cured flowers and gathered trichomes of the female plant. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Since individual grow light power generally ranges from 250 watts to in excess of 1000 watts and remain lit for a long time each day, differences in utility bill costs are a significant security issue. It is not uncommon for power companies to work with law enforcement if they witness significant increases in power usage relative to a household's previous electricity costs. Employing energy saving methods is a common way to alleviate this, for instance; switching off light bulbs when leaving rooms, purchasing energy efficient appliances, using TVs or computers less, buying lower power light bulbs and so forth. See TV (disambiguation) for other uses and Television (band) for the rock band European networks National In much of Europe television broadcasting has historically been state dominated, rather than commercially organised, although commercial stations have grown in number recently. ... A BlueGene supercomputer cabinet. ... The light bulb is one of the most significant inventions in the history of the human race, illuminating the darkness of the evening and bringing light indoors at all times in order focus on the task at hand. ...


Some strains, especially cultivars of C. sativa subsp. indica, can give off strong odors as they grow, resulting in detection. Growers frequently use carbon scrubbers in conjunction with ventilation in order to control odors. This typically involves forcing air from the grow room through a device containing activated carbon, before being vented outdoors. Others use an ozone generator. Ozone reacts with odor molecules in the air, permanently eliminating them. However, ozone can build up to levels that may be hazardous both for the grower and the plant. As a last resort, strong air fresheners are used to control smells as well as keeping windows firmly shut. This is a risky method, as the smell of air fresheners may often arouse suspicion by police officers. Checking outside to see if any smells are emanating from indoors is often a necessary precaution, as many growers become acclimated to the smell, and fail to realize just how pervasive the odor may be. Many store plants in more isolated areas such as a basement or attic to prevent smell detection. Another less common solution is to simply grow a strain which possesses a weaker odor. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A townhouse with basement windows showing A basement is one or more floors of a building that are either completely or partially below the ground floor. ... A typical attic. ...


Storing plants and lights away from windows and areas which may be seen by visitors is also a common practice, as is keeping the entire grow op in an attic or basement. Some growers, finding this impractical, may cover their windows with light-resistant materials. This can solve the problem of escaping bright light but may arouse suspicion amongst neighbours and local residents. Neighbourhood is also a term in topology. ...


Many cultivators face detection by fire. Fires normally originate from faulty electrical equipment or wiring. Shoddy fixtures and sockets, improperly grounded equipment, and faulty circuit breakers are some of the most prevalent causes. Due to the large amount of electricity needed for large-scale cultivation, old or damaged wiring is prone to melt and short. Some commercial growers resort to power theft in order to hide electricity usage and many do not take precautions to ensure that their connections are safe. Many growers adapt light cycles so that the lights are on when they are home and off when they are away.


Another fire hazard is plants making contact with hot HID bulbs. Growers using fluorescent bulbs with reasonable air circulation do not have this problem.


Word of mouth can of course be as much a threat to growers as any of the above issues. Often, a few sentences of conversation overheard can result in a tip-off and thus speedy detection. It is for this reason many growers are reticent about their cultivation. For the Ludacris album, see Word of Mouf. ...

Cannabis Resources
General: Recreational | Pharmaceutical | Spiritual | Culture | Health | Legal | Cultivation (Outdoor | Indoor | Alternative methods)
Preparations: Bhang | Hashish | Kief | Shake | Hash oil | Hemp
Use: Vaporizer | Smoking | 420 | Blunt | Bong | Bowl | Chillum | Dugout | Gravity bong | Hot knife | Hookah | Joint | Shotgun | Smoking pipe | Steamroller | Rolling papers
Food: Cannabutter | Dope cake | Ganja goo ball | Hash cookie | Green Dragon | Leary biscuit | Brownie | tea

Look up Cannabis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cannabis sativa Look up marijuana in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A catalog page offering Cannabis sativa extract. ... Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual usage as a trance inducing drug and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. ... Bob Marley on the cover of The Wailers 1973 album Catch a Fire. ... World laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... There are many alternative Cannabis cultivation techniques. ... A bhang shop in India Bhang (Siddhi) is a derivative of the leaf and flower of a female cannabis plant. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In cannabis culture, shake refers to the small, leafy fragments of cannabis that gather at the bottom of a bag, which are said to result, putatively, of it having been shaken in handling. ... Hash oil is a solution of tetrahydrocannabinol, but is a misnomer in suggesting any resemblance to hashish. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A conduction-style vaporizer. ... A: A cigarette rolling machine. ... Image:4:20 Grafitti. ... A blunt made from a Dutch Master cigarillo A blunt is a cigar which is wider than a cigarillo and not quite as wide as a traditional cigar. ... A bong, also commonly known as a water pipe, is a smoking device, generally used to smoke tobacco, but also other substances[1][2][3]. It is sometimes confused with a hookah pipe. ... Bowl used for smoking marijuana Bowl is used by smokers of cannabis to indicate one of two different things: The bowl-shaped receptacle in which marijuana is placed prior to smoking which forms part of a marijuana pipe or bong. ... There is also a Chillum, Maryland, a suburb North of Washington, D.C. Two small glass chillums, with bottle cap for size comparison. ... A dugout, sometimes called a one-hitter, is a device used to facilitate discreet personal use of marijuana. ... In cannabis culture, gravity bong is a term that can refer to either of two devices used for smoking cannabis that use the gravitational force of water to create a vacuum whereby the suction created draws air through a bowl to fill the container with smoke. ... A hot knife is a blade of heated metal, used to smoke Hashish, marijuana buds or hash oil. ... Man holding a water pipe (hookah) This article is about a traditional smoking pipe. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In the slang of consumers of cannabis, shotgun can have one of a number of meanings. ... Metal Metal pipes are more generally associated with cannabis and other drugs than tobacco use. ... A common glass steamroller. ... George Washington Rolling Papers Rolling papers are small sheets, rolls, or leaves of paper which are sold for rolling ones own cigarettes either by hand or with a rolling machine. ... Cannabutter is an oil/fat/butter based solution which has been infused with cannabinoids. ... A Dope Cake is method of taking cannabis without smoking it. ... Ganja goo ball is a catch-all term for any gooey or sticky sweet ball-shaped dessert containing cannabis; this is usually referring to desserts that do not need to be baked, and are made out of either powdered cannabis or cannabutter. ... Hash cookies, Space Cookie, hash cakes or space cakes are relatively common in regions with liberal drugs policies, including much of Europe (particularly the Netherlands). ... This article is about the drink. ... A Leary biscuit is a snack consisting of a cracker, cheese, and ground up marijuana bud. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Magic Brownie Cannabis or hashish can be cooked into a sweet cake, cookie, brownie, or other baked product to produce a psychoactive food. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cannabis (drug). ...

References

  1. ^ The CO2 enrichment guide
  • Cervantes, Jorge. Indoor Marijuana Horticulture. Van Patten Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-878823-29-9
  • Clarke, Robert Connell. Marijuana Botany. Berkeley: Ronin Publishing, 1981. ISBN 0-914171-78-X
  • Green, Greg. The Cannabis Grow Bible. San Francisco: Green Candy Press, 2003. ISBN 1-931160-17-1.
  • Herer, Jack. The Emperor Wears No Clothes: The Authoritative Historical Record of Cannabis and the Conspiracy Against Marijuana. Ah Ha Publishing Company,2000. ISBN 1-878125-02-8
  • Starks, Michael. Marijuana Chemistry: Genetics, Processing & Potency. Ronin Publishing, 1990. IBSN 0914171399

External links

  • Seedbank Update - The authority for seedbank market research.

 
 

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