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Encyclopedia > Indonesian rupiah
Indonesian rupiah
rupiah Indonesia (Indonesian)
Rupiah banknotes, only the Rp 1000 and Rp 5000 notes are current
ISO 4217 Code IDR
User(s) Indonesia
Inflation 6.6%
Source Bank Indonesia, December 2006
Subunit
1/100 sen
Symbol Rp
Coins
Freq. used Rp 100, 200, 500
Rarely used Rp 25, 50, 1000
Banknotes
Freq. used Rp 1000, Rp 5000, Rp 10 000, Rp 20 000 Rp 50 000, Rp 100 000
Rarely used Rp 500
Central bank Bank Indonesia
Website www.bi.go.id

The rupiah (Rp) is the official currency of Indonesia. Issued and controlled by the Bank of Indonesia, the ISO 4217 currency code for the Indonesian rupiah is IDR. The symbol used on all banknotes and coins are Rp. The name derives from the Indian monetary unit rupee. Informally, Indonesians also use the word "perak" ('silver' in Indonesian) in referring to rupiah. The rupiah is subdivided into 100 sen, although inflation has rendered all coins and banknotes denominated in sen obsolete. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 712 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (976 × 822 pixel, file size: 678 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image depicts a unit of currency. ... Bank Indonesia is the central bank of Indonesia. ... Bank Indonesia is the central bank of Indonesia. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... It has been suggested that History of the rupee be merged into this article or section. ...


The Riau islands and the Indonesian half of New Guinea (Irian Barat) had their own variants of the rupiah, but these were subsumed into the national rupiah in 1964 and 1971 respectively (see Riau rupiah and West New Guinea rupiah). The Riau Islands (Kepulauan Riau (Kepri for short) or sometimes Riau Kepulauan in Bahasa Indonesia) are a province and a group of islands in Indonesia, located south of Singapore, off the eastern coast of Riau province on Sumatra island. ... The rupiah was a separate currency of Riau between 1963 and 1964. ... The rupiah was a separate currency in West New Guinea between 1963 and 1973. ...

Contents

First Rupiah, 1945-1965

The first rupiah was introduced in 1945. During the Indonesian War of Independence (1945-1949), the rupiah circulated alongside the Netherlands Indies gulden (including issues of the Japanese government, the Javanese Bank (Java rupiah) and the Dutch Government (NICA gulden)) and the Netherlands Indies roepiah, which had also been issued by the Japanese government. By the end of 1949, the Republic's rupiah had replaced the other currencies throughout Indonesia. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The gulden was the currency of the Netherlands Indies until 1949. ... The roepiah was the currency issued by the Japanese occupiers in the Netherlands Indies between 1944 and 1945. ...

First rupiahs
First rupiahs

Image File history File links Firstrupiahs. ... Image File history File links Firstrupiahs. ...

Coins

The early issues of the first rupiah were banknotes. Coins were introduced in 1951 and 1952, in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 sen. These were produced until 1961.


Banknotes

The government of the "Republik Indonesia" introduced the rupiah in 1945 with banknotes in denominations of 1 sen up to 100 rupiah. 250 rupiah notes were added in 1947. A series of notes issued in 1948 included the rather unusual denominations of 40, 75 and 400 rupiah. In 1950, the government of the "Republik Indonesia Serikat" issued 5 and 10 rupiah notes. These were followed between 1951 and 1961 by 1 and 2½ rupiah notes issued by the Republik Indonesia government. In 1952, the "Bank Indonesia" introduced notes in denominations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 rupiah. All notes except 5 rupiah were printed by Johan Enschede en Zonen. The 5 rupiah note was printed by Thomas De La Rue & Co. Ltd., England.


On 1957, Bank Indonesia issued new banknotes (animal series) in denominations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 500, 1000, 2500, and 5000 rupiah. 10 & 25 rupiah for this series were withdrawn after circulating for a few days and the 5000 rupiah, although had been printed, this note was never issued for circulation. All of these notes were printed by Thomas De La Rue & Co. Ltd., England. These notes circulated for a short period, as all notes above 100 rupiah were devalued by 1/10.


Banknotes from series 1958 were printed by P. T. Pertjetakan Kebajoran. 5,000 rupiah from this series has 2 varieties, brown & violet.


On 1959, Bank Indonesia issued new banknotes (flower series) in denominations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 500, 1000, and 2500 rupiah. These notes were printed by Thomas De La Rue & Co. Ltd., England. The 2,500 rupiah of this series was never issued for circulation, after a decision for discontinuing this denomination. Only a several specimens in different color exist in private hands.


Second Rupiah, 1965

Rampant inflation caused, on December 13, 1965, the new rupiah to be introduced at a rate of 1000 old rupiah to one new rupiah.[1] December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ...


The Asian financial crisis of 1997-1998 reduced the rupiah's value by 35% overnight and was a major factor in the overthrow of President Suharto's government. The rupiah had traded at about 2000-3000 rupiah per 1 USD, but reached a low of 16,800 rupiah per dollar in June 1998. The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... Haji Mohammad Soeharto (born June 8, 1921), more commonly referred to as simply Soeharto (Suharto in the English-speaking world), is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, Cambodia, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, Maldives the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ...


The rupiah is a freely convertible currency, but trades at a discount compared to its PPP-based valuation, due to continued high inflation. As of August 2006, 1 USD is worth approximately Rp 9100. Inside Indonesia the preferred currency for exchange is the US dollar. Other currencies are typically subject to a wide exchange spread. Convertibility is the quality of money which is officially backed by government reserves of a precious metal, probably the gold standard. ...


Coins

Coins were reintroduced in 1970, with 1, 2 and 5 rupiah denoiminations, to which 10, 25 and 50 rupiah pieces were added in 1971 and 100 rupiah coins in 1973. In 1991, a new coinage was introduced consisting of 25, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 rupiah coins. 200 rupiah pieces were introduced in 2003.


There are presently two series of coins in circulation: aluminium bronze and bi-metallic coins from 1991-1998 and light-weight aluminum coins from 2003 onwards. Due to the low value and general shortage of small denomination coins (below 100 rupiah), it is common to receive sweets in lieu of the last few rupiah of change in supermarkets and stores.

Indonesian rupiah coins [2]
Value Series Diameter Thickness Weight Material Obverse Reverse
Rp 1 1970 22mm 1.4mm 1.42g Aluminum Sikatan Bird "1" Image
Rp 2 1970  ?mm  ?mm  ?g  ? "2" Image
Rp 5 1970  ?mm  ?mm  ?g  ? "5" Image
1974  ?mm  ?mm  ?g Family Program Logo "5" Image
1979 23mm 1.7mm 1.38g Family Program Logo "5" Image
Rp 10 1971  ?mm  ?mm  ?g Copper/Nickel "10" Image  ?
1974  ?mm  ?mm  ?g Aluminum/Bronze Family Program Logo
1979  ?mm  ?mm  ?g Aluminum Family Program Logo
Rp 25 1971 20mm  ?mm  ?g Copper/Nickel ? Value
1991+ 18mm 1.98mm 1.22g Aluminium Garuda Pala Fruit
Rp 50 1971 24mm 1.58mm 3.18g Copper/Nickel  ? Value
1991 20mm  ?mm  ?g Aluminum/Bronze Garuda "50" Komodo dragon
1999+ 20mm 2mm 1.36g Aluminum "50" Image and Kepondang Bird
Rp 100 1973  ?mm  ?mm  ?g Copper/Nickel Dwelling Value
1978  ?mm  ?mm  ?g Dwelling Value
1991  ?mm  ?mm  ?g Copper/Nickel Garuda Cow racing
1999+ 26mm 2mm 8.6g Aluminium Kakatua raja
Rp 200 2003 23mm 2.3mm 2.38g Balinese Jalak Bird
Rp 500 1991 24mm 1.83mm 5.34g Aluminum/Bronze Garuda  ?
1994 24mm 1.83mm 5.34g Aluminum/Bronze Jasmine
2003 27mm 2.5mm 3.1g Aluminum Jasmine
Rp 1000 1993 26mm 2mm 8.6g` Nickel and Bronze "1000" Image and Oil Palm

Banknotes

5000 rupiahs
5000 rupiahs

The second rupiah initially consited of a series of notes issued by the Bank Indonesia (dated 1964) in denominations from 1 sen up to 10,000 rupiah. A second issue of banknotes, dated 1968, was of 1 up to 10,000 rupiah. After this issue, notes below 100 rupiah were replaced by coins. In 1992 and 1993, 20,000 and 50,000 rupiah notes were introduced, followed by 100,000 rupaih notes in 1999. Image File history File links 5000rupiah2001. ... Image File history File links 5000rupiah2001. ...


There are two series of banknotes currently in circulation, with the 2004–2005 series gradually replacing the 1998–2001 series. Pre-1997 notes are no longer legal tender but can be exchanged in Bank Indonesia offices. As the smallest current note is worth approximately US$0.10, even small transactions such as bus fares are typically conducted with notes, and the 1,000 rupiah note is far more common than the 1,000 rupiah coin. The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


Indonesian bank notes are typical paper notes, although polymer notes have been issued on two occasions. In 1993, five million polymer 50,000 rupiah notes were issued to commemorate "25 years of economic development", featuring Soeharto on the front and Soekarno-Hatta airport on the back, with a plane taking off to symbolise Indonesia's growth. The 1999 series 100,000 rupiah note was also plastic/polymer, issued because according to Bank Indonesia plastic would be harder to counterfeit and would last longer. However, the notes were not popular in banks as counting machines were unable to count them accurately and there have been issues with the money sticking to one another due to the heat of the machine. Therefore, the current (2004) series is now made from paper. Bank Indonesia is the central bank of Indonesia. ...

Indonesian rupiah banknotes [3]
Value Series Size Dominant color Obverse Reverse Watermark Value's First Year Availability
Rp 100 1992 136x68mm Red Phinisi Boat Krakatoa Ki Hajar Dewantara 1964 Rare
Rp 500 1992 140X68mm Green Orang Utan Traditional house of East Kalimantan H.O.S Cokroaminoto 1968
Rp 1000 2000 141x65mm Blue Captain Pattimura Mutiara and Tidore island Cut Nyak Meutia 1968 High
Rp 5,000 2001 143x65mm Brown Tuanku Imam Bonjol Woman weaving 1968
Rp 10,000 2005 148x72mm Purple Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II The traditional house of South Sumatera Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II 1964
Rp 20,000 152x72mm Green Otto Iskandardinata Tea plantation Otto Iskandardinata 1992
Rp 50,000 2005 152x72mm Blue I Gusti Ngurah Rai A Temple in Bali I Gusti Ngurah Rai 1993
Rp 100,000 151x65mm Red Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta People's Consultative Assembly building Garuda Pancasila 1999

Security features

  • The materials of the banknotes basically are long fibres from any kind of wood, or a mix of different types of wood. However, the preferable material is the Abaca fibre, which is naturally plentiful in Indonesia and is believe to increase the durability of the banknotes. The banknotes are made with the process of heating, to create a unique type of pulp.
  • The minimum security features for naked eyes are watermarks, electrotypes and security threads with color fibres. In addition to this, extra features may be included, such as holograms, Irisafe, irredescent stripes, clear windows, metameric windows and gold patches.
    • Watermark and Electrotype are made by controlling the gap of density of the fibres which create certain images for the banknotes. This is done to rise the quality of the notes from the aestethic view.
    • Security threads are put in the middle of the note's materials so horizontal and vertical lines are showns from top to bottom. The threads also can be made with many variations such as the materials, size, color and design.
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A £20 Ulster Bank banknote. ... For the meaning of fiber in nutrition, see dietary fiber. ... Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is a solid material derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... Binomial name Musa textilis Categories: Plant stubs | Liliopsida ... HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current HVAC is an initialism that stands for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning. This is sometimes referred to as climate control. ... Pulp can refer to: Soft shapeless substances in general. ... For other uses, see Security (disambiguation). ... This Crown & CA (for Crown Agent) watermark was standard for postage stamps of the British colonies from the 1880s to the 1920s. ... Holography (from the Greek, Όλος-holos whole + γραφή-graphe writing) is the science of producing holograms, an advanced form of photography that allows an image to be recorded in three dimensions. ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... Image of the Wikimedia Commons logo. ... Horizontal plane is used in radio to plot a antennas relative field strength (which directly affects a stations coverage area) on a polar graph. ...

See also

The gulden was the currency of the Netherlands Indies until 1949. ... The roepiah was the currency issued by the Japanese occupiers in the Netherlands Indies between 1944 and 1945. ... The gulden was the currency of West New Guinea until 1963. ... The rupiah was a separate currency in West New Guinea between 1963 and 1973. ... The rupiah was a separate currency of Riau between 1963 and 1964. ... Indonesia has a market-based economy in which the government plays a significant role. ...

References

  • Krause & Mishler, Standard Catalog of World Coins, Krause Publications
  • Pick, Standard Catalog of World Paper Money, Krause Publications

External links

Indonesia Portal

  Results from FactBites:
 
Indonesian rupiah - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (613 words)
The first rupiah was introduced in 1945 in those parts of the Netherlands Indies under the control of Republic of Indonesia.
The Riau islands and the Indonesian half of New Guinea (Irian Barat) had their own variants of the rupiah, but these were subsumed into the national rupiah in 1964 and 1971 respectively (see Riau rupiah and West New Guinea rupiah).
Rampant inflation caused, on December 13, 1965, the new rupiah to be introduced at a rate of 1000 old rupiah to one new rupiah.
Investment Climate (5007 words)
The Indonesian government turned to the International Monetary fund in October 1997 for assistance in surmounting its economic difficulties which included a substantial depreciation of the Indonesian Rupiah, rising inflation, and a collapsing banking system.
In July 1997, the Indonesian rupiah began to weaken and Indonesia was forced to widen its trading band to 12 from 8 percent.
The Indonesian government promulgated a new regulation in May 1998 which make it easier for labor organizations to register as trade unions, and several new unions have formed to join the Federation of All-Indonesian Trade Unions (FSPSI), which was the sole government-recognized union prior to 1998.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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