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Encyclopedia > Indonesian Revolution of 1998
This article is part of
the History of Indonesia series
Pre-colonial Indonesia (before 1602)
Sailendra
Srivijaya (3rd century -1400)
Kingdom of Mataram
Kediri (1045-1221)
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Padri War (1821-1837)
Java War (1825-1830)
Dutch Ethical Policy and Indonesian National Revival (1899-1942)
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Declaration of Independence (August 17, 1945)
National Revolution (1945-1949)
Bandung Conference (1955)
Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation (1962-1965)
New Order (1965-1998)
Indonesian Civil War (1965-1966)
Act of Free Choice (1969)
Dili massacre (1991)
Reformation (1998-present)
Revolution of 1998 (1996-1998)
Earthquake & Tsunami of 2004 (2004-present)
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The Indonesian 1998 Revolution is the term given to a series of protests and political manoeuverings that brought about the end of the rule of the three-decade long New Order government of the autocratic President Suharto of Indonesia. Though Suharto actually resigned in 1998 (hence giving the revolution its name), the wave of protests and political manoevuerings that forced his resignation spanned over several years, with most placing the beginning in 1996. The nation-state known in modern times as Indonesia encompasses an archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the Equator. ... Image File history File links Historyofindonesia. ... At a point in time when Sri Vijaya had been the established leader in the Southeast Asian region for about 100 years, the Sailendra Kingdom of Java emerged. ... Srivijaya (200s-1400) was an ancient Malay kingdom on the island of Sumatra which influenced much of the Malay Archipelago. ... Mataram was an Indianized kingdom based in Central Java between the 8th and 10th centuries CE. The centre of the kingdom was moved from Central Java to East Java by Mpu Sindok. ... Kediri was a Hindu kingdom based in East Java from 1045 to 1221. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands-Indië) was the name of the colonies set up by the Dutch East India Company, which came under administration of the Netherlands during the 19th century (see Indonesia). ... Anglo-Dutch Java War in 1810-1811 was a war between Great Britain and Netherlands fought entirely on Island of Java in colonial Indonesia The governor-general of the Dutch East Indies, Herman Willem Daendels (1762_1818), fortified the island of Java against possible British attack. ... The Padri War also called Minangkabau War is the name given to the skirmishes fought by Dutch troops from 1821 to 1837 in West Sumatra, Indonesia. ... The Java War was fought in Java between 1825 and 1830. ... The period of the Dutch Ethical Policy and Indonesian National Revival was a period in Indonesian history spanning from 1899 until the Japanese Invasion in 1942. ... The Indonesian Declaration of Independence was officially read at exactly 10. ... The Indonesian National Revolution or Indonesian War of Independence is the name of the four-year conflict between Indonesia and the Netherlands leading to Indonesia achieving its independence in 1949. ... The Bandung Conference was a meeting of Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent, organized by Egypt, Indonesia, Burma, Ceylon(Sri Lanka), India, and Pakistan. ... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962-1966. ... New Order or Orde Baru is the term coined by Indonesian former president and dictator Suharto to refer to the years of his regime, 1966 - 1998. ... The Indonesian Civil War was a conflict in Indonesia from 1965 to 1966 between forces loyal to then-President Sukarno and the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) and forces loyal to a right-wing military faction led by to General Abdul Haris Nasution and Maj. ... Act of Free Choice (Indonesian: Penentuan Pendapat Rakyat [PEPERA]) was the title of a 1969 referendum in the former Dutch territory of Western New Guinea, to determine whether the territory would become part of Indonesia or maintain independence. ... The Dili Massacre was the shooting of East Timorese protesters, in the Santa Cruz cemetery in the capital, Dili, on 12th November, 1991. ... The Reformation (in bahasa Indonesia Reformasi) is the name commonly used for the present era in the history of Indonesia. ... Part of Banda Aceh shore before and after the tsunami, see also larger versions: before, after (Credit: DigitalGlobe). ... New Order or Orde Baru is the term coined by Indonesian former president and dictator Suharto to refer to the years of his regime, 1966 - 1998. ... Autocracy is a form of government where unlimited power is held by a single individual. ... Haji Mohammad Soeharto (born June 8, 1921), more commonly referred to as simply Soeharto (Suharto in the Anglophone world), is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...

Contents


Dissent under the New Order

Coming to power in 1966 on the heels of an alleged coup by the Indonesian Communist Party, the government of the former general Suharto adopted policies that severely restricted civil liberties and instituted a system of rule that effectively split power within his own Golkar Party and the military. 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Haji Mohammad Soeharto (born June 8, 1921), more commonly referred to as simply Soeharto (Suharto in the Anglophone world), is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


In 1970, corruption prompted student protests and an investigation by a government commission. Suharto responded by banning student protest, forcing the activists underground. Only token prosecution of cases recommended by the commission was pursued. The pattern of co-opting a few of his more powerful opponents while criminalising the rest became a hallmark of Suharto's rule. 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ...


In order to maintain a veneer of democracy, Suharto made a number of electoral reforms. He stood for election before electoral college votes every five years, beginning in 1973. According to his electoral rules, however, only three parties were allowed to participate in the election: his own Golkar party; the Islamist United Development Party (PPP), and the Democratic Party of Indonesia (PDI). All the previously existing political parties were forced to be part of either the PPP and PDI, with public servants under pressure to join the membership of Golkar. In a political compromise with the powerful military, he banned its members from voting in elections, but set aside 100 seats in the electoral college for their representatives. As a result, he won every election in which he stood, in 1978, 1983, 1988, 1993, and 1998. 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... The Party of the Functional Groups (Indonesian: Partai Golongan Karya) is a political party in Indonesia, also known as Golkar (Sekretariat Bersama Golongan Karya, or Joint Secretariat of Functional Groups). ... The United Development Party (PPP) (Indonesian: Partai Persatuan Pembangunan; also sometimes translated as Development Unity Party) is a political party in Indonesia. ... The Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI) was created from a fusion of the three secular parties: the Indonesian Nationalist Party (PNI), the League of the Supporters of Indonesian Independence (IPKI), and the Party of the Masses (Partai Murba)and two Christian parties: the Indonesian Christian Party (Partindo) and the Catholic Party... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


This authoritarianism became an issue in the 1980s. On May 5, 1980 a group Petition of Fifty (Petisi 50) demanded greater political freedoms. It was composed of former military men, politicians, academics and students. The Indonesian media suppressed the news and the government placed restrictions on the signatories. After the group's 1984 accusation that Suharto was creating a one-party state, some of its leaders were jailed. MacGyver is one of the symbols of the 1980s in America The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ...


In the same decade, it is believed by many scholars that the Indonesian military split between a nationalist "red and white faction" and an Islamist "green faction." As the 1980s closed, Suharto is said to have been forced to shift his alliances from the former to the latter, leading to the rise of Jusuf Habibie in the 1990s. MacGyver is one of the symbols of the 1980s in America The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie (born June 25, 1936), more commonly known simply as Rudy Habibie or B J Habibie, was the third President of Indonesia, holding office from 1998 to 1999. ... The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ...


After the 1990s brought end of the Cold War, Western concern over communism waned, and Suharto's human rights record came under greater international scrutiny. In 1991, the murder of East Timorese civilians in a Dili cemetery, also known as the "Santa Cruz Massacre" , caused American attention to focus on its military relations with the Suharto regime and the question of Indonesia's occupation of East Timor. In 1992, this attention resulted in the Congress of the United States passing limitations on IMET assistance to the Indonesian military, over the objections of President George H.W. Bush. In 1993, under President Bill Clinton, the U.S. delegation to the UN Human Rights Commission helped pass a resolution expressing deep concern over Indonesian human rights violations in East Timor. The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dili, also spelled Díli, Dilli or Dilly, is the capital of East Timor. ... The Dili Massacre was the shooting of East Timorese protesters, in the Santa Cruz cemetery in the capital, Dili, on 12th November, 1991. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... The arms industry is a massive global industry. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born June... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... William Jefferson Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The United Nations Commission on Human Rights, a commission supervised by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, is composed of representatives from 53 member states, and meets each year in regular session in March/April for six weeks in Geneva. ...


Cracks emerge

In 1996 the Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI), a legal party that had traditionally propped up the regime changed direction, and began to assert its independence under the daughter of the popular father of the nation Sukarno, Megawati Sukarnoputri. In response, Suharto attempted to foster a split over the leadership of PDI, backing a co-opted faction loyal to deputy speaker of Parliament Suryadi against supporters of "Mega." 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... The Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI) was created from a fusion of the three secular parties: the Indonesian Nationalist Party (PNI), the League of the Supporters of Indonesian Independence (IPKI), and the Party of the Masses (Partai Murba)and two Christian parties: the Indonesian Christian Party (Partindo) and the Catholic Party... Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... Megawati Sukarnoputri Diah Permata Megawati Setiawati Sukarnoputri (born 23 January 1947), was President of Indonesia from July 2001 to 20 October 2004. ...


After the Suryadi faction announced a party congress to sack Megawati would be held in Medan June 20 - 22, Megawati proclaimed that her supporters would hold demonstrations in protest. The Suryadi faction went through with its sacking of Megawati, and the demonstrations manifested themselves throughout Indonesia. This led to several confrontations on the streets between protesters and security forces, and recriminations over the violence. The protests culminated in the military allowing Megawati's supporters to take over PDI headquarters in Jakarta, with a pledge of no further demonstrations. Location of Medan in Indonesia. ... June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ...


Suharto allowed the occupation of PDI headquarters to go on for almost a month, as attentions were also on Jakarta due to a set of high-profile ASEAN meetings scheduled to take place there. Capitalizing on this, Megawati supporters organized "democracy forums" with several speakers at the site. On July 26, officers of the military, Suryadi, and Suharto openly aired their disgust with the forums. (Aspinall 1996) Motto: Jaya Raya (Indonesian): Prosper and Great Founded 22 June 1527 Governor Sutiyoso Area 661. ... Main languages See Languages of ASEAN Secretary General Ong Keng Yong of Singapore Area  - Total 4,480,000 km2 Population  - Total (2004)  - Density 550,000,000 122. ... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 158 days remaining. ...


On July 27, police, soldiers, and persons claiming to be Suryadi supporters stormed the headquarters. Several Megawati supporters were killed, and over two-hundred arrested and tried under the Anti-Subversion and Hate-spreading laws. The day would become known as "Black Saturday" and mark the beginning of a renewed crackdown by the New Order government against supporters of democracy, now called the "Reformasi" or Reformation. (Amnesty International 1996) July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ...


Demonstrations and riots

In 1997 and 1998 there were riots in various parts of Indonesia. Sometimes these riots were aimed against the Chinese-Indonesians. Some riots looked spontaneous and some looked as if they had been planned. One theory was that pro-Suharto generals were trying to weaken the forces of democracy by increasing the divisions between the orthodox and the non-orthodox Muslims, between the Muslims and the Christians and between the Chinese and the non-Chinese. Another theory was that certain generals were trying to topple Suharto. [1] Jakarta Riots of May 1998 were riots that occurred in several parts of Indonesia, notably Jakarta during May 1998. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


Student demonstrations

At the start of May 1998, students were holding peaceful demonstrations on university campuses across the country. They were protesting against massive price rises for fuel and energy, and they were demanding that President Suharto should step down.


On May 12th, students at Jakarta's Trisakti University, many of them the children of the elite, planned to march to parliament to present the government with their demands for reform. The police prevented the students from marching. Some time after 5pm, uniformed men on motorcycles appeared on the flyover which overlooks Trisakti. Shots rang out. Four students were killed. Founded November 29, 1965 Rector Prof. ...


Riots of May 13-14

On the 13th of May there were reports of rioting in the area around Trisakti. President Suharto was attending a conference in Egypt and the military top brass went off to Malang in East Java to attend a ceremony. On the 14th of May, serious rioting took place in the Jakarta area. There were no signs of any uniformed soldiers on the streets.


Indonesian ethnic Chinese were the main target of the bloody riot, where allegedly Indonesian military members posed as ordinary people attacked their homes and allegedly mass raped the women. In the end, over 1,000 people died during these Jakarta riots, most having been burnt in malls and supermarkets but some having been shot or beaten. A government minister spoke of the damage or destruction of 2,479 shop-houses, 1,026 ordinary houses, 1,604 shops, 383 private offices, 65 bank offices, 45 workshops, 40 shopping malls, 13 markets, and 12 hotels. It has been suggested that The Indonesian Ethnic Chinese and the view of nationhood be merged into this article or section. ...


Alleged involvement of the military in planning the riots

Father Sandyawan Sumardi, a 40-year-old Jesuit priest and son of a police chief, led an independent investigation into the events of May 1998. As a member of the Team of Volunteers for Humanitarian Causes he interviewed people who had witnessed the alleged involvement of the military in organising the riots and rapes. SANDYAWAN SUMARDI His name is closely linked to humanitarian activities in Indonesia after the Indonesian Revolution 1998, even though in Indonesia his figure has become the focus of attention since the incident of 27 July 1996. ...


A security officer alleged that Kopassus (special forces) officers had ordered the burning down of a bank; a taxi driver reported hearing a man in a military helicopter encouraging people on the ground to carry out looting; shop-owners at a Plaza claimed that, before the riots, military officers tried to extract protection money; a teenager claimed he and thousands of others had been trained as protesters; a street child alleged that Kopassus officers ordered him and his friends to become rioters; there was a report of soldiers being dressed up as students and then taking part in rioting; eyewitnesses spoke of muscular men with short haircuts arriving in military-style trucks and directing attacks on Chinese homes and businesses. Kopassus (abbreviation for Komando Pasukan Khusus) is an Indonesian special forces group that conducts special operations missions for the Indonesian government, such as direct action, unconventional warfare, sabotage, counter-terrorism, and intelligence. ...


There were reports of children being encouraged to enter malls and then of the malls being set on fire; there were allegations that muscular men with short haircuts had gang-raped little Chinese girls and then murdered some of them.


American Defence Secretary William Cohen was in Jakarta in January 1998, where he visited both Prabowo and Wiranto. The CIA chief had also been a recent visitor to Jakarta. The CIA and the Pentagon were close to both Prabowo and Wiranto. William Cohen William Sebastian Cohen (born August 28, 1940) is a Republican politician from Maine who served as a United States Secretary of Defense under President Clinton. ...


Wiranto and Prabowo

Reportedly the military was split. There was said to be a power struggle between General Wiranto and General Prabowo. There were fears of a civil war. Both generals claimed to be loyal to Suharto. [2] Categories: People stubs ... Gen. ...


Some of Suharto's former allies deserted him. Wiranto allowed students to occupy Parliament. Reportedly Wiranto reported to Suharto on May 20th that Suharto no longer had the support of the army. Suharto was forced to resign on May 21 and was replaced by Habibie, his Vice President. Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie (born June 25, 1936), more commonly known simply as Rudy Habibie or B J Habibie, was the third President of Indonesia, holding office from 1998 to 1999. ...


In 1998 one of the key generals was Prabowo, son of Dr. Sumitro Djojohadikusumo, a former Finance Minister, said to have once worked with the British and the Americans against Sukarno. Prabowo had learnt about terrorism at Fort Bragg and Fort Benning in the US. [3] In May 1998, Prabowo was commander of Kostrad, the strategic reserve, the regiment Suharto commanded when he took power in 1965. Prabowo's friend Muchdi ran Kopassus (special forces) and his friend Sjafrie ran the Jakarta Area Command. General Wiranto, the overall head of the military, was seen as a rival to Prabowo. Fort Bragg is a census-designated place and United States Army base, or post, in Cumberland County, North Carolina, near Fayetteville. ... Fort Benning is a military base facility of the United States military southwest of Columbus, Georgia. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Kopassus (abbreviation for Komando Pasukan Khusus) is an Indonesian special forces group that conducts special operations missions for the Indonesian government, such as direct action, unconventional warfare, sabotage, counter-terrorism, and intelligence. ...


Allegedly, late on the evening on May 21st. Prabowo arrived at the presidential palace and demanded that he be made chief of the armed forces. Reportedly, Habibie escaped from the palace. On May 22nd, Prabowo was sacked as head of Kostrad. Wiranto remained as chief of the armed forces. Wiranto's troops began removing the students from the parliament building.President Habibie and General Prabowo


Continued Military Influence

One result of the May riots was that the military appeared to remain the power behind the throne. In 2004, General Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono became president.-1...


The Aftermath

Not so often reported were the silent departure of families and wealth from the country. The emigrants were not exclusively of Chinese descents but also include wealthy natives or pribumis and Soeharto’s cronies. The immediate destination has been Singapore, where some stayed permanently while others moved on to Australia, USA and Canada. No specific statistics has been collected, but anecdotal evidences came in as a sudden upsurge of Indonesian restaurants and food stores in cities like Sydney, Melbourne, Los Angeles and Toronto among others. General Suharto (born June 8, 1921) was an Indonesian dictator and military strongman. ...


The physical scars have long healed but all involved were never the same psychologically. The most shocking to the population was the fact that such brutal riots happened in this modern, supposedly civilised nation such as the 20th century Republic of Indonesia. It will be another generation before collective memory fades and mental pains ease.


The lack of legal resolution and the apparent impunity of perpetrators and the dalang remain one of the most difficult challenges (along with corruptions) the government and the nation is facing. A dalang manipulating puppets - The Indonesian Embassy in Australia The dalang (Javanese: dhalang) is the puppeteer in wayang kulit performance of Indonesia. ...


See also

Jakarta Riots of May 1998 were riots that occurred in several parts of Indonesia, notably Jakarta during May 1998. ...

External links


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