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Encyclopedia > Individual time trial

An individual time trial (ITT) is a road bicycle race in which cyclists race alone against the clock (in French: contre la montre - literally "against the watch"). There are also track-based time trials where riders compete in velodromes, and team time trials (TTT). ITT's are also referred to as "the race of truth", as winning depends only on each rider's strength, endurance and determination against the clock. Bicycle racers at the 2005 Rund um den Henninger-Turm in Germany Road bicycle racing is a popular bicycle racing sport held on roads (following the geography of the area), using racing bicycles. ... Cycling is the use of bicycles, or - less commonly - unicycles, tricycles, quadricycles and other similar wheeled human powered vehicles (HPVs) as a means of transport, a form of recreation or a sport. ... In the track time trial, a track cycling event, cyclists compete individually against the clock to record the fastest time over the specified distance from a standing start. ... Look up velodrome in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A team time trial (TTT) is a road-based bicycle race in which teams of cyclists race against the clock (see individual time trial for a more detailed description of ITT events). ...

Dave Zabriskie riding a time-trial bicycle with aerodynamic wheels and aero bars.
Dave Zabriskie riding a time-trial bicycle with aerodynamic wheels and aero bars.

Starting times are at equal intervals, usually one or two minutes apart. The starting sequence is usually based on the finishing times in preceding races (or preceding stages in the case of a multi-stage race) with the highest ranked cyclist starting last. Starting later gives the racer the advantage of knowing what time they need to beat (and also makes the event more interesting to spectators). Competitors are not permitted to draft (ride in the slipstream) behind each other. Any help between riders is forbidden. The rider with the fastest time is declared the winner. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 590 pixelsFull resolution (2192 × 1617 pixel, file size: 969 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 590 pixelsFull resolution (2192 × 1617 pixel, file size: 969 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... David Zabriskie, a professional cyclist, is the third American ever to wear the maillot jaune or yellow leaders jersey in the Tour de France bicycle race behind Greg Lemond and Lance Armstrong. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ... This article is about the racing technique. ... This article is about the physical phenomenon. ...

Contents

Events by terrain

An ITT event is typically held on a fairly flat course. The World Cycling Championship ITT event is always held in this type of course. However, there are also Uphill or Mountain ITT events, such as a stage of the 2004 Tour de France featuring the Alpe d'Huez climb. The UCI Road World Championships, often referred to as the World Cycling Championships, is the annual world championship for bicycle road racing organized by the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI). ... For other uses, see Tour de France (disambiguation). ... Alpe dHuez is a famous ski resort 1850 metres / 3330 metres (6,069 ft / 10,924 ft) high. ...


Professional time trialling

At the professional level, time trials (TTs) are frequently accompanied by motorcycles, some carrying video equipment or race officials, and riders may be followed by a team car carrying coaches and spare parts, but the cyclists are not permitted to draft behind the vehicles. Race regulations typically dictate a minimum distance behind the cyclist which the car must maintain and a minimum gap that must exist between two cyclists before the car may enter that gap. Image File history File links A cyclist in an individual time trial. ... Image File history File links A cyclist in an individual time trial. ... For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ...


Individual time trials are often used as stages in stage races such as the Grand Tours; these vary from short prologue time trials over just a few kilometres, to longer distance events over flat or rolling courses, to timed climbs up mountain roads. In the 1989 edition of the Tour de France eventual winner Greg LeMond made up a 50-second deficit to runner-up Laurent Fignon in the final stage individual time trial to win the race by 8 seconds, the smallest margin ever. The Vuelta a España often features a final individual time trial in Madrid in which the winner is often decided, providing much drama and excitement at the end of the stage race. In recent years, Óscar Sevilla and Roberto Heras have seen their lead evaporate in the time trial in Madrid. In road bicycle racing, a Grand Tour refers to one of the three major European professional cycling stage races: Tour de France - Tour of France Giro dItalia - Tour of Italy Vuelta a España - Tour of Spain Collectively they are termed the Grand Tours, and all three are similar... For other uses, see Tour de France (disambiguation). ... Gregory James Greg LeMond (born June 26, 1961 in Lakewood, California) is a former professional road bicycle racer from the United States and a three time winner of the Tour de France. ... Laurent Fignon (born August 12, 1960 in Paris) is a French cyclist, who won the Tour de France twice in 1983 and 1984, and missed winning it a third time, in 1989, by a very narrow margin. ... The Vuelta a España bicycle race is one of the three Grand Tours of Europe. ... Oscar Sevilla during the 2005 Vuelta a España. ... Roberto Heras Hernández (born 1 February 1974 in Béjar, Spain) is a professional cyclist who won the Vuelta a España (Tour of Spain) a record-tying three times. ...


The Grand Prix des Nations was a semi-Classic event; professionals may also compete in the annual World time trial championship. The individual time trial is also an Olympic event in which professionals are allowed to participate. The Grand Prix des Nations was an individual time trial (a race against the clock or contre la montre) for Europes leading professional racing cyclists. ... The Classic cycle races are the most prestigious one-day professional cycling road races in the international calendar. ... The UCI Road World Championships, often referred to as the World Cycling Championships, is the annual world championship for bicycle road racing organized by the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI). ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...


Many of the top stage racers are also top performers in the individual time trial, such as Jacques Anquetil, Bernard Hinault, Laurent Fignon, Greg LeMond, Miguel Indurain, Jan Ullrich, and Lance Armstrong. Almost all recent winners of the Tour de France have been good time-trialists, with the notable exception of Marco Pantani, winner of the 1998 Tour de France, who specialized only in climbing. Jacques Anquetil (January 8, 1934 - November 18, 1987), was a French cyclist and the first cyclist to win the Tour de France five times, in 1957 and from 1961 to 1964. ... Bernard Hinault (born 14 November 1954) is a French cyclist best known for his five victories in the Tour de France. ... Laurent Fignon (born August 12, 1960 in Paris) is a French cyclist, who won the Tour de France twice in 1983 and 1984, and missed winning it a third time, in 1989, by a very narrow margin. ... Gregory James Greg LeMond (born June 26, 1961 in Lakewood, California) is a former professional road bicycle racer from the United States and a three time winner of the Tour de France. ... Miguel Ángel Indurain Larraya (born July 16, 1964, Villava, Navarre) is a retired Spanish road bicycle racer. ... Jan Ullrich (born December 2, 1973 in Rostock, East Germany, now Germany) is a retired German professional road bicycle racer. ... Lance Armstrong (born Lance Edward Gunderson on September 18, 1971) is a retired American professional road racing cyclist. ... For other uses, see Tour de France (disambiguation). ... Marco Pantani (January 13, 1970, Cesena – February 14, 2004, Rimini) was an Italian cyclist widely regarded as being one of the best climbers of all times in professional road bicycle racing. ... The 1998 Tour de France was marred by doping scandals throughout, starting with the arrest of Willy Voet a soigneur in the French Festina team. ... A climbing specialist is a road bicycle racer who can ride especially well on highly inclined roads, such as those found among hills or mountains. ...


Performance and tactics

If a racer catches up to a competitor, the overtaken rider is required to fall back to a specified distance (about 50 metres) behind the other or maintain wide horizontal separation so that he receives no aerodynamic shelter or help from the other. For the Daft Punk song, see Aerodynamic (song). ...


To do well in an ITT, a cyclist must

  • maintain a steady power output for long periods
  • maintain a controlled heart rate for long periods
  • have a smooth, regular pedalling technique
  • position him or herself to be extremely aerodynamic
  • discipline him or herself to operate just below the anaerobic threshold until near the end of the course

Beginners are often criticized for putting in a J profile effort, meaning that they often go out too hard in the beginning, compensate by reducing their efforts in the middle, and then realize towards the end that they have not put out enough effort during the race. Heart rate is the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... Aerodynamics is a branch of fluid dynamics concerned with the study of gas flows, first analysed by George Cayley in the 1800s. ... Fox and Haskell formula Anaerobic exercise is used by athletes in non-endurance sports to build power and by body builders to build muscle mass. ... The aerobic threshold (AeT) is an exercise intensity at which lactate (lactic acid) starts to build in the blood stream. ...


Specialized light-weight and aerodynamic time trial bicycles, clothing, helmets, aerobars and other equipment are often used in ITT events. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Triathlon bars is a catch-all term referring to various styles of aerodynamic handlebars for racing bicycles. ...


UK time trial competition

The first UK individual time trial on public roads is reputed to have been held on 5 October 1895 over a 50-miles course just north of London, organised by Frederick Thomas Bidlake. For many years in the UK, time trials were the main road-based cycling competitions ('massed start' road racing only gained grudging approval after the Second World War), and remain popular today. Organised by Cycling Time Trials (formerly the Road Time Trials Council), the main season is from March to September. For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Frederick Thomas Bidlake (1867 – 17 September 1933) was a notable English racing cyclist of the late 19th century who subsequently became one of the most notable administrators of British road bicycle racing during the early years of the 20th century. ... Bicycle racers at the 2005 Rund um den Henninger-Turm in Germany Road bicycle racing is a popular bicycle racing sport held on roads (following the geography of the area), using racing bicycles. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Cycling Time Trials is the British bicycle racing organisation which supervises individual and team time trials in the UK. It took over the work of the Road Time Trials Council in 2002. ...


ITTs are usually held over a specified course of fixed distance, 10, 25, 50 and 100 miles being common. ITTs can also be held over a fixed time (12 and 24 hours being most common). Many events are held on courses consisting of fast flat roads to assist riders in achieving personal bests; events are normally timed to avoid periods when roads will be busy with cars and lorries, etc - so most take place early in the morning on Saturdays or Sundays.


Most time trials are run over 'straight-out' courses or circuits. In both cases, the locations of start and finish points are required to be within a short distance of each other to reduce the impact of gradients and weather. An exception is obviously made for hill-climb events.


In UK time trials, the starting sequences are calculated to minimise the chances of riders taking pace from each other. For example, the fastest riders are 'seeded' and would normally start at 10-minute intervals (in a 120-person event, say, they will be numbered 10, 20, 30, etc, with the event's fastest rider being the final rider to start, number 120); the next fastest riders will start with numbers 5, 15, etc. In some championship events, however, the ten fastest riders are the last to start, setting off at two-minute intervals (previous racers having started at one-minute intervals).


National and regional 'Best All-rounder' (BAR) competitions are also held. The British Best All-Rounder (BBAR) competition, organised by Cycling Time Trials, involves senior male riders recording their best times over 50 and 100 miles, plus their best distance in 12 hours (senior women BAR competitions are based on 25, 50 and 100 miles performances; there are also similar competitions for juniors and veterans). The winner is the rider with the highest average speed over all three events. The British Best All-Rounder (BBAR) competition, organised by Cycling Time Trials, is a British cycle racing competition. ...


In addition to the set distances (10, 25, etc), riders can also compete in 'sporting' events held over more challenging courses of more variable lengths, often with significant climbs, along more twisting routes. These are popular as early season events, as are team time trials. Towards the end of the main season, hill climb events are also held.


Time trials may also include competitions for riders on tandem bicycles, tricycles and tandem tricycles. The aggregate fastest times by three riders from the same cycling club may also win the team competition. A traditional tandem bicycle. ... Antique tricycle 19th century tricycle used in Iran A tricycle (often abbreviated to trike) is a three-wheeled vehicle. ...


Leading male British exponents at the shorter distances include Alf Engers, Chris Boardman, Graeme Obree, Stuart Dangerfield, Bradley Wiggins, David Millar and Michael Hutchinson. For many years, women's time trialling was dominated by Beryl Burton. Alfred Alf Robert Engers (born about April-June 1940) was an English racing cyclist who set national records and won national championships in the individual time trial discipline from 1959 to the late 1970s. ... Chris Boardman (born August 26, 1968) is a former English racing cyclist who won a gold medal at the 1992 Olympic Games. ... Graeme Obree (born 11 September 1965 in Nuneaton, Warwickshire, UK) is a Scottish racing cyclist. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub | Cyclists at the 2004 Summer Olympics | British cyclists ... Bradley Wiggins, OBE (born April 28, 1980) is a professional track and road bicycle racer. ... David Millar (born January 4, 1977 in Malta) is a Scottish road racing cyclist, currently racing for UCI ProTeam Saunier Duval-Prodir as a time-trial specialist. ... Michael Hutchinson (or Hutch) (born November 20, 1973[1] in Northern Ireland) is an British racing cyclist (and writer) who has represented Great Britain and Northern Ireland at various international cycling events including the Commonwealth Games. ... Beryl Burton (12 May 1937 – 8 May 1996) was an English racing cyclist and arguably one of Britains greatest ever sportspersons. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Individual time trial

In the track time trial, a track cycling event, cyclists compete individually against the clock to record the fastest time over the specified distance from a standing start. ... A time trialist is a road bicycle racer who can maintain high speeds for long periods of time, to maximize performance during individual or team time trials. ...

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