FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Indigo dye
Jump to: navigation, search
Indigo dye
Indigo dye
indigo molecule
indigo molecule

Indigo dye is an important dyestuff with a distinctive blue color (see indigo). The natural dye comes from several species of plant, but nearly all indigo produced today is synthetic. Among other uses, it is used in the production of denim cloth for blue jeans. Extract of Indigo plant applied to paper, prepared by Palladian This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Extract of Indigo plant applied to paper, prepared by Palladian This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Jump to: navigation, search Image File history File links Indigo. ... Jump to: navigation, search Yarn drying after being dyed in the early American tradition, at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Jump to: navigation, search This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Jump to: navigation, search Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants... Generally, synthetic means pertaining to synthesis, i. ... Part of a pair of denim blue jeans Denim closeup Denim, in American usage since the late 18th century, denotes a rugged cotton twill textile, in which the weft passes under two (twi- double) or more warp fibers, producing the familiar diagonal ribbing identifiable on the reverse of the fabric... Jump to: navigation, search A variety of fabric. ... Jump to: navigation, search Blue Jeans Jeans are trousers made from denim. ...

Contents


Sources and uses

A variety of plants, including woad, have provided indigo throughout history, but most natural indigo is obtained from those in the genus Indigofera, which are native to the tropics. In temperate climates indigo can also be obtained from woad (Isatis tinctoria) and dyer's knotweed (Polygonum tinctorum), although the Indigofera species yield more dye. The primary commercial indigo species in Asia was true indigo (Indigofera tinctoria, also known as Indigofera sumatrana). In Central and South America the two species Indigofera suffructicosa and Indigofera arrecta (Natal indigo) were the most important. Binomial name Isatis tinctoria L. Woad (or glastum) is the common name of the flowering plant Isatis tinctoria in the family Brassicaceae. ... Jump to: navigation, search Categories: Faboideae | Plant stubs ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Binomial name Isatis tinctoria L. Woad (or glastum) is the common name of the flowering plant Isatis tinctoria in the family Brassicaceae. ... Jump to: navigation, search World map showing Asia (geographically) Asia is the central and eastern part of Eurasia and worlds largest continent. ... Jump to: navigation, search Binomial name Indigofera tinctoria L. Indigofera tinctoria bears the common name true indigo. ... Jump to: navigation, search Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Natural indigo was the only source of the dye until about 1900. Within a short time, however, synthetic indigo had almost completely superseded natural indigo, and today nearly all indigo produced is synthetic. 1900 is a common year starting on Monday. ...


In the United States, the primary use for indigo is as a dye for cotton work clothes and blue jeans. Over one billion pairs of jeans around the world are dyed blue with indigo. For many years indigo was used to produce deep navy blue colors on wool.


Indigo does not bond strongly to the fiber, and wear and repeated washing may slowly remove the dye.


History

Indigo is among the oldest dyes to be used for textile dyeing and printing. Many Asian countries, such as India, China, and Japan, have used indigo as a dye for centuries. The dye was also known to ancient civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, Rome, Britain, Peru, and Africa. Jump to: navigation, search Media:Example. ... Jump to: navigation, search Ancient Rome was a civilization that existed in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East between 753 BC and its downfall in AD 476. ... // Etymology World map showing Africa (geographically) The name Africa came into Western use through the Romans, who used the name Africa terra — land of the Afri (plural, or Afer singular) — for the northern part of the continent, as the province of Africa with its capital Carthage, corresponding to modern-day...


India is believed to be the oldest center of indigo dyeing in the Old World. It was a primary supplier of indigo to Europe as early as the Greco-Roman era. The association of India with indigo is reflected in the Greek word for the dye, which was indikon. The Romans used the term indicum, which passed into Italian dialect and eventually into English as the word indigo.


In Mesopotamia, a Neo-Babylonian cuneiform tablet of the 7th century BCE gives a recipe for the dyeing of wool, where lapis-coloured wool (uqnatu) is produced by repeated immersion and airing of the cloth. Indigo was most probably imported from India. Cuneiform (from the Latin word for wedge-shaped) can refer to: Mesopotamian clay tablet 492 BCE, Field Museum of Natural History,Chicago, Illinois. ...


The Romans used indigo as a pigment for painting and for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. It was a luxury item imported to the Mediterranean from India by Arab merchants.


Indigo remained a rare commodity in Europe throughout the Middle Ages; woad, a dye derived from a related plant species, was used instead. Binomial name Isatis tinctoria L. Woad (or glastum) is the common name of the flowering plant Isatis tinctoria in the family Brassicaceae. ...


In the late fifteenth century, the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama discovered a sea route to India. This led to the establishment of direct trade with India, the Spice Islands, China, and Japan. Importers could now avoid the heavy duties imposed by Persian, Levantine, and Greek middlemen and the lengthy and dangerous land routes which had previously been used. Consequently, the importation and use of indigo in Europe rose significantly. Much European indigo from Asia arrived through ports in Portugal, the Netherlands, and England. Spain imported the dye from its colonies in South America. Many indigo plantations were established by European powers in tropical climates; it was a major crop in Jamaica and South Carolina. Indigo plantations also thrived in the Virgin Islands. However, France and Germany outlawed imported indigo in the 1500s to protect the local woad dye industry. Jump to: navigation, search Vasco da Gama Vasco da Gama (born c. ... Jump to: navigation, search Spice Islands most commonly refers to the Maluku Islands (formerly the Moluccas), which lie on the equator, between the Celebes and the New Guinea islands in what is now Indonesia. ... Official Government Links The following websites belong to the various branches of government, or are directly operated by the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran: Official site of the Supreme Leader, (Qom office) Presidency of the Islamic Republic of Iran - Official website. ... The Levant or Sham (Arabic root word related to the term Semite) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in Southwest Asia south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, and the north Arabian Desert and Mesopotamia to the east. ... Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: Palmetto State Other U.S. States Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Governor Mark Sanford (R) Senators Lindsey Graham (R) Jim DeMint (R) Official languages English Area 82,965 km² (40th)  - Land 78,051 km²  - Water 4,915 km² (6%) Population (2000)  - Population 4,012...


Indigo was the foundation of centuries-old textile traditions throughout West Africa. The use of indigo here pre-dated synthetics. From the Tuareg nomads of the Sahara to Cameroon, clothes dyed with indigo signified wealth. Women dyed the cloth in most areas, with the Yoruba of Nigeria and the Manding of Mali particularly well known for their expertise. Among the Hausa male dyers working at communal dye pits were the basis of the wealth of the ancient city of Kano, and can still be seen plying their trade today at the same pits. West Africa is the region of western Africa that is generally considered to include the countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte dIvoire, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Yorùbá are estimated to be the second largest ethnic group in Nigeria, after the combined Hausa and Fulani. ... The Hausa are a people of northern Nigeria and southeastern Niger. ... For other uses of the word Kano see Kano (disambiguation). ...


In Japan, indigo became especially important in the Edo period when it was forbidden to use silk, so the Japanese began to import and plant cotton. It was difficult to dye the cotton fiber except with indigo. Many years later the use of indigo is very much appreciated as a color for the summer Kimono Yukata, as the blue sea and the nature are recalled on this traditional clothing. Edo (Japanese: 江戸, literally: bay-door, estuary), once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo. ... Jump to: navigation, search Kimono on a Japanese Postage Stamp Kimono (Japanese: 着物 literally something one wears) are the traditional garments of Japan. ...


In 1865 the German chemist Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer began working with indigo. His work culminated in the first synthesis of indigo in 1880 and the announcement of its chemical structure three years later. BASF developed a commercially feasible manufacturing process that was in use by 1897, and by 1913 natural indigo had been almost entirely replaced by synthetic indigo. In 2002, 17,000 tons of synthetic indigo were produced worldwide. Jump to: navigation, search 1865 is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer (October 31, 1835 - August 20, 1917) was a German chemist who synthesized indigo, and was the 1905 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1880 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search BASF-Hochhaus Position in Germany BASF AG (NYSE: BF) is a German chemical company. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1897 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the nineteenth century, the British obtained much indigo from India. With the coming of the synthetic substitute, these farmers lost their livelihood.


Developments in dyeing technology

Indigo is a challenging dye to use because it is not soluble in water; to be dissolved, it must undergo a chemical change. When a submerged fabric is removed from the dyebath, the indigo quickly combines with oxygen in the air and reverts to its insoluble form. When it first became widely available in Europe in the sixteenth century, European dyers and printers struggled with indigo because of this distinctive property. It was also a toxic substance that, by requiring many chemical processes, had many opportunities to injure many workers. Jump to: navigation, search It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... Jump to: navigation, search Water (from the Old English word wæter; c. ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ...


A preindustrial process for dyeing with indigo, used in Europe, was to dissolve the indigo in stale urine. Urine reduces the water-insoluble indigo to a soluble substance known as indigo white or leucoindigo, which produces a yellow-green solution. Fabric dyed in the solution turns blue after the indigo white oxidizes and returns to indigo. Synthetic urea to replace urine became available in the 1800s. Urea is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, with the formula CON2H4 or (NH2)2CO and the structure shown right: Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Non-proprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ...


Another preindustrial method, used in Japan, was to dissolve the indigo in a heated vat in which a culture of thermophilic, anaerobic bacteria was maintained. Some species of such bacteria generate hydrogen as a metabolic product, which can convert insoluble indigo into soluble indigo white. Cloth dyed in such a vat was decorated with the techniques of shibori (tie-dye), kasuri, katazome, and tsutsugaki. Examples of clothing and banners dyed with these techniques can be seen in the works of Hokusai and other artists. Thermophiles produce some of the bright colors of Grand Prismatic Spring, Yellowstone National Park A thermophile is an organism – a type of extremophile – which thrives at relatively high temperatures, up to about 60 °C. Many thermophiles are archaea. ... Anaerobic is a technical word which literally means without air. ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Shibori is a Japanese term for several methods of dyeing cloth with a pattern by binding, stitching, folding, twisting, or compressing it. ... Katazome is a Japanese method of dyeing fabrics using a resist paste applied through a stencil. ... Tsutsugaki is a Japanese term for the practice of drawing designs in rice paste on cloth, dyeing the cloth, and then washing the paste off. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Great Wave at Kanagawa (from a Series of Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji) by Katsushika Hokusai. ...


Two different methods for the direct application of indigo were developed in England in the eighteenth century and remained in use well into the nineteenth century. The first method, known as pencil blue because it was most often applied by pencil or brush, could be used to achieve dark hues. Arsenic trisulfide and a thickener were added to the indigo vat. The arsenic compound delayed the oxidation of the indigo long enough to paint the dye onto fabrics.


The second method was known as china blue due to its resemblance to Chinese blue-and-white porcelain. Instead of using an indigo solution directly, the process involved printing the insoluble form of indigo onto the fabric. The indigo was then oxidized in a sequence of baths of Iron(II) sulfate. The china blue process could make sharp designs, but it could not produce the dark hues possible with the pencil blue method. Jump to: navigation, search Iron(II) sulfate, also known as ferrous sulfate and as copperas (FeSO4) is an example of an ionic compound. ...


Around 1880 the glucose process was developed. It finally enabled the direct printing of indigo onto fabric and could produce inexpensive dark indigo prints unattainable with the china blue method. Jump to: navigation, search 1880 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Chemical properties

indigo carmine
indigo carmine

Indigo is a dark blue crystalline powder that melts at 390°–392°C. It is insoluble in water, alcohol, or ether but soluble in chloroform, nitrobenzene, or concentrated sulfuric acid. The chemical structure of indigo corresponds to the formula C16H10N2O2. Jump to: navigation, search Image File history File links Indigotine. ... Jump to: navigation, search In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al-ghawl الغول) refers almost always to ethanol, also known as grain alcohol, and often to any beverage that contains ethanol (see alcoholic beverage). ... Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl groups. ... PEL-TWA (OSHA) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) IDLH (NIOSH) 500 ppm Flash point non-flammable RTECS number FS9100000 Supplementary data page Structure & properties n, εr, etc. ... Jump to: navigation, search Nitrobenzene, also known as nitrobenzol or oil of mirbane, is a poisonous organic compound with an almond odor and chemical formula C6H5NO2. ... Jump to: navigation, search Sulfuric acid (British English: sulphuric acid), H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ...


The naturally occurring substance is indican, which is colorless and soluble in water. Indican can easily be hydrolyzed to glucose and indoxyl. Mild oxidation, such as by exposure to air, converts indoxyl to indigo. Jump to: navigation, search Indican Indican is a colourless organic compound, soluble in water, naturally occurring in Indigofera plants. ... Jump to: navigation, search Hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule is cleaved into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water. ... Jump to: navigation, search Glucose (Glc), a simple monosaccharide sugar, is one of the most important carbohydrates and is used as a source of energy in animals and plants. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ...


The manufacturing process developed in the late 1800s is still in use throughout the world. In this process, indoxyl is synthesized by the fusion of sodium phenylglycinate in a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodamide. Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... Jump to: navigation, search Flash point non flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Several simpler compounds can be produced by decomposing indigo; these compounds include aniline and picric acid. The only chemical reaction of practical importance is its reduction by urea to indigo white. The indigo white is reoxidized to indigo after it has been applied to the fabric. Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jump to: navigation, search Picric acid is the common term for the chemical compound 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, also known as TNP; the material is a yellow crystalline solid. ... Urea is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, with the formula CON2H4 or (NH2)2CO and the structure shown right: Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Non-proprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ...


Indigo treated with sulfuric acid produces a blue-green color. It became available in the mid-1700s. Sulfonated indigo is also referred to as Saxon blue or indigo carmine.


Tyrian purple was a valuable purple dye in antiquity. It was made from excretions of a common Mediterranean Sea snail. In 1909 its structure was shown to be 6,6′-dibromoindigo. It has never been produced synthetically on a commercial basis. Tyrian purple is a purple dye first made in the ancient Phoenician city of Tyre. ... Jump to: navigation, search Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... 1909 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


The SMILES structure of indigo is O=c3c(=c2[nH]c1ccccc1c2=O)[nH]c4ccccc34 and its CAS number is 12626-73-2[1]. The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII alpha-numeric strings. ...


External link

  • The Indigo Dye Pits at Kofar Mata
  • Indigo Dye used for body art. As used in Ancient Britain

Further reading

  • Jenny Balfour-Paul, Indigo (London, British Museum 1998).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Process for inhibiting crust formation in reduced dye baths - Patent 4285695 (2327 words)
In a process for reducing indigo dye in an aqueous dye bath solution with a sodium hydrosulfite composition, the improvement characterized by employing as the sodium hydrosulfite composition the composition of claim 7.
Indigo dye is commonly reduced in aqueous solution with a reducing agent such as an aqueous solution of sodium hydrosulfite.
The effective amount of anionic surfactant may be added individually to the indigo dye bath as it is being prepared, or, preferably, the surfactant is pre-mixed in an effective proportion with the sodium hydrosulfite reducing solution prior to dye bath preparation and it then is added as a unitary sodium hydrosulfite composition.
Indigo dye definition for the clothing and textile (1417 words)
Indigo is among the oldest dyes to be used for textile dyeing and printing.
Indigo is a challenging dye to use because it is not soluble in water; to be dissolved, it must undergo a chemical change.
Indigo is a dark blue crystalline powder that melts at 390°–392°C. It is insoluble in water, alcohol, or ether but soluble in chloroform, nitrobenzene, or concentrated sulfuric acid.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m