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Encyclopedia > Indigenous peoples of North America
A Hupa man, 1923
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A Hupa man, 1923

The scope of this indigenous peoples of the Americas article encompasses the definitions of indigenous peoples and the Americas as established in their respective articles. Download high resolution version (1476x2000, 1158 KB)TITLE: A smoky day at the Sugar Bowl--Hupa CALL NUMBER: LOT 12318-C [item] [P&P] Check for an online group record (may link to related items) REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USZ62-47020 (b&w film copy neg. ... Download high resolution version (1476x2000, 1158 KB)TITLE: A smoky day at the Sugar Bowl--Hupa CALL NUMBER: LOT 12318-C [item] [P&P] Check for an online group record (may link to related items) REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USZ62-47020 (b&w film copy neg. ... A smoky day at the Sugar Bowl Edward Curtis, photographer The Hupa are an Athabaskan tribe which inhabit northwestern California. ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition. ... The Americas (sometimes referred to as America) is the area including the land mass located between the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean, generally divided into North America and South America. ...

Contents


Early history

See also: Archeology of the Americas, Models of migration to the New World The Archeology of the Americas is the study of the archeology of North America, Central America (or Mesoamerica), South America and the Caribbean, which is to say, the pre-history and Pre-Columbian history of Native American peoples. ... When did people first enter the New World and how did they get there? This question has been debated for centuries and will probably continue to be for many more years to come in the anthropological community. ...


The Bering Strait Land Bridge Theory

Based on anthropological and genetic evidence, scientists generally agree that most indigenous peoples of the Americas descend from people who migrated from Siberia across the Bering Strait, between 17,000–11,000 years ago. Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος, humane) consists of the study of humankind (see genus Homo). ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Siberia Siberia (Russian: , common English transliterations: Sibir’, Sibir; from the Tatar for “sleeping land”) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Nautical chart of the Bering Strait The Bering Strait is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, the eastmost point of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, the westernmost point of the American continent, approximately 85 km (58 mi) in width, with a...


The exact epoch and route is still a matter of controversy, as is whether it happened at all. Until recently there was a consensus among anthropologists that the alleged migrants crossed the strait 12,000 years ago via the Bering Land Bridge which existed during the last ice age (which occurred 26,000 to 11,000 years ago), and that they followed an inland route through Alaska and Canada that had just been freed of its ice cover. There are a number of difficulties in this theory — in particular, growing evidence of human presence in Brazil and Chile 11,500 years ago or earlier [1]. Thus other possibilities, not necessarily exclusive, have been suggested: (Pleistocene, Paleolithic – 10th millennium BC – 9th millennium BC – other millennia) Beginning of the Mesolithic, or Epipaleolithic time period, which is the first part of the Holocene epoch. ... Nautical chart of Bering Strait, site of former land bridge between Asia and North America The Bering land bridge, also known as Beringia, was a land bridge roughly 1600 km (1000 miles) north to south at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at various times... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... Europe and surrounding areas in the 9th millennium BC. Blue areas are covered in ice. ...

  • The migrants may have crossed the land bridge several millennia earlier and followed a coastal route, thus avoiding the ice-covered interior.
  • They may have been seafaring people who moved along the coast, a theory disputed due to the relative lack of seafaring skills of peoples of this time period, but supported strongly with anecdotal evidence of sea migration to Australia at least 60,000 years ago over more than 250 kilometers of open ocean at that time period.
  • The crossing of the Bering Land Bridge may have occurred during the previous ice age, around 37,000 years ago. This is also supported by the archaeology dating of some sites in South America prior to the previously assumed date of 12–14,000 years ago.
An Inuit woman
An Inuit woman

Some mainstream anthropologists and archaeologists consider the genetic and cultural evidence for a primarily Siberian origin overwhelming. Genetic affinities between present-day indigenous American populations and Siberian peoples have been suggested by several studies. According to one such recent study by Ilya Zakharov, deputy director of Moscow's Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, the Northern Native Americans are related to the Tuvans, a Turkic group of people located in the Tuva Republic at the southwestern edge of Siberia. According to their theories, at least three separate migrations from Siberia to the Americas are highly likely to have occurred: The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (Greek παλαιός paleos=old and λίθος lithos=stone or the Old Stone Age) was the first period in the development of human technology of the Stone Age. ... Download high resolution version (531x640, 50 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Inuit Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (531x640, 50 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Inuit Categories: U.S. history images ... Siberia Siberia (Russian: , common English transliterations: Sibir’, Sibir; from the Tatar for “sleeping land”) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ... Tuvans (or Tuvinians) is a group of Turkic people, make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva. ... Turkic peoples are Northern and Central Eurasian peoples who speak languages belonging to the Turkic family, and who, in varying degrees, share certain cultural and historical traits. ... The Tuva Republic (Russian: ; Tuvan: Тыва Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ...

  • The first wave came into a land populated by the large mammals of the late Pleistocene, including mammoths, horses, giant sloths, and woolly rhinoceroses. The Clovis culture would be a manifestation of that migration, and the Folsom culture, based on the hunting of bison, would have developed from it. This wave eventually spread over the entire hemisphere, as far south as Tierra del Fuego.
  • The second migration brought the ancestors of the Na-Dene peoples. They lived in Alaska and western Canada, but some migrated as far south as the Pacific Northwestern U.S. and the American Southwest, and would be ancestral to the Dene, Apaches and Navajos.
  • The third wave brought the ancestors of the Eskimos and the Aleuts. They may have come by sea over the Bering Strait, after the land bridge had disappeared.
  • In recent years, molecular genetics studies have suggested as many as four distinct migrations from Asia. These studies also provide surprising evidence of smaller-scale, contemporaneous migrations from Europe, possibly by peoples who had adopted a lifestyle resembling that of Inuits and Yupiks during the last ice age.

One result of these successive waves of migration is that large groups of peoples with similar languages and perhaps physical characteristics as well, moved into various geographic areas of North, and then Central and South America. While these peoples have traditionally remained primarily loyal to their individual tribes, ethnologists have variously sought to group the myriad of tribes into larger entities which reflect common geographic origins, linguistic similarities, and life styles. (See Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas.) Orders Subclass Multituberculata (extinct) Plagiaulacida Cimolodonta Subclass Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Subclass Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Eutheria (includes extinct ancestors)/Placentalia (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata (extinct) Perissodactyla Pholidota Plesiadapiformes... The Pleistocene Epoch is part of the geologic timescale. ... Species Mammuthus columbi Columbian mammoth Mammuthus exilis Pygmy mammoth Mammuthus jeffersonii Jeffersonian mammoth Mammuthus meridionalis Mammuthus primigenius Woolly mammoth Mammuthus lamarmorae Sardinian Dwarf Mammoth A mammoth is any of a number of an extinct genus of elephant, often with long curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus) is a sizeable ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Families Rathymotheriidae Scelidotheriidae Mylodontidae Orophodontidae Megalonychidae Megatheriidae Ground sloths are extinct edentate (Order Xenarthra) mammals that are believed to be relatives of tree sloths and three-toed sloths. ... Binomial name Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach, 1807) The Woolly Rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) is an extinct species of rhinoceros that survived the last ice age. ... The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Native American culture that first appears in the archaeological record of North America around 13,500 years ago, at the end of the last ice age. ... The Folsom Tradition is a name given by archaeologists to a sequence of Paleo-Indian archaeological cultures of central North America. ... Binomial name Bison bison Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies B. b. ... This article is about the geographical area called Tierra del Fuego. For other meanings, see Tierra del Fuego (disambiguation). ... Na-Dené or Na-Dene is a Native American language family which includes the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 1st 663,267 mi² / 1,717,854 km² 808 mi / 1,300 km 1,479 mi / 2,380 km 13. ... Motto: E pluribus unum (1789 to 1956) (Latin: Out of Many, One) In God We Trust (1956 to present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at federal level; English de facto Government  â€¢ President  â€¢ Vice President Federal republic George... The Southwest region of the United States is drier than the adjoining Midwest in weather; the population is less dense and, with strong Spanish-American and Native American components, more ethnically varied than neighboring areas. ... The Dene are a group of First Nations that live in the Arctic regions of Canada. ... Group of Apaches Apache is the collective name for several culturally related tribes of Native Americans, aboriginal inhabitants of North America, who speak a Southern Athabaskan language. ... Navajo blanket Navajo Nation (Navajo: Naabeehó Dineé) is the name of a sovereign Native American nation established by the Diné. The Navajo Indian Reservation covers about 27,000 square miles (70,000 square kilometres) of land, occupying all of northeastern Arizona, and extending into Utah and New Mexico, and is... The Eskimos, or Esquimaux, are people who inhabit the circumpolar region (excluding Scandinavia and most of Russia, but including the easternmost portions of Russia). ... The Aleuts (self-denomination: Unangax) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, U.S.A. // Location For specific tribal village names, see List of Native Alaskan Tribal Entities. ... ur mom looks like a horse sucker hahahahqahahahahahahahahahah ... World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... It has been suggested that List of Native American tribes be merged into this article or section. ...


While many indigenous peoples of the Americas retained a nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyle through the time of European settlement of the New World, in some regions, specifically in Mexico, Central America, and the Andes of South America, they built advanced state level societies with monumental architecture and large-scale, organized cities. Elsewhere in the Americas, sophisticated sedentary chiefdom polities developed, including notable examples within the river valleys and coastal areas of the Eastern United States (see Mississippian Culture), the Northwest Coast, coastal California, Hawaii, and the Southwest United States. Commonly, Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... The Andes between Chile and Argentina Computer generated image of the Andes, made from a digital elevation model with a resolution of 30 arcseconds The Andes is a vast mountain system forming a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. ... The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece Table of architecture, Cyclopaedia, 1728 The following article focuses on built environment, the architecture of spaces designed for human habitation. ... Sydney, Australia at Night. ... A chiefdom is any community led by an individual known as a chief. ... The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States States]] from approximately 900 to 1500 A.D., varying a bit regionally. ... The Pacific States form one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States that are officially recognized by that countrys census bureau. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 3rd 410,000 km² 402. ... Official language(s) Hawaiian and English Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 43rd 28,337 km² n/a km 2,450 km 41. ... The Southwest region of the United States is drier than the adjoining Midwest in weather; the population is less dense and, with strong Spanish-American and Native American components, more ethnically varied than neighboring areas. ...


The Pre-Siberian Aborigines Theory

A more radical theory holds that a population of Pre-Siberian American Aborigines already occupied the Americas before the Siberian migrations. These earlier inhabitants could be migrants from Oceania, who arrived either by sailing across the Pacific Ocean or by following the land route through Beringia at a much earlier date. World map showing Oceania (geographically) Oceania is a geographical (often geopolitical) region consisting of numerous countries and territories – mostly islands – in the Pacific Ocean. ... The Bering land bridge, also known as Beringia, was a land bridge roughly 1600 km (1000 miles) north to south at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at various times during the ice ages. ...


Proponents of this theory claim that the oldest human remains in South America and in Baja California show distinctive non-Siberian traits, resembling those of Australian Aborigines or the so-called "negrito" peoples of South and Southeast Asia, such as the Andamanese of the Andaman Islands. These hypothetical Pre-Siberian aborigines would have been displaced by the Siberian migrants, and may have been ancestral to the distinctive Pericu indians of Baja California, and of the Fuegians, the indigenous peoples of the Tierra del Fuego. Baja California (highlighted) Alternative use: Baja California (state) Baja California or Lower California is a peninsula in the west of Mexico. ... Australian Aborigines are the main indigenous people of Australia. ... Semang, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago The Negritos include the Ati, the Aeta and at least 4 other tribes of the Philippines, the Semang of the Malay peninsula, and 12 Andamanese tribes of the Andaman Islands. ... Composite satellite image of South Asia Map of South Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Andamanese is a collective term to describe the peoples who are the aboriginal inhabitants of the Andaman Islands and Nicobar Islands, located in the Bay of Bengal. ... Satellite photo of the Andaman Islands The Andaman Islands are a group of islands in the Bay of Bengal, and are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India. ... The Perici or Pericu Indians of Baja California Sur were an indigenous people that inhabited western Mexico and the southwestern United States. ... Baja California is the northernmost state of Mexico. ... This article is about the geographical area called Tierra del Fuego. For other meanings, see Tierra del Fuego (disambiguation). ...



See also: Mississippian culture, Cahokia, Mesoamerica, Maya, Olmec, Zapotec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Aztec, Aymara, Inca, indigenous people of Brazil. The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States States]] from approximately 900 to 1500 A.D., varying a bit regionally. ... This article is about the Native American city. ... Mesoamerica is the region extending from central Mexico south to the northwestern border of Costa Rica that gave rise to a group of stratified, culturally related agrarian civilizations spanning an approximately 3,000-year period before the European discovery of the New World by Columbus. ... The word Maya or maya can refer to: The Maya – a Native American people of southern Mexico and northern Central America the modern Maya people the pre-Columbian Maya civilization the Maya language Maya – a concept in Hindu/Vedic philosophy a state of misperception of reality the inherent force of... The Olmec were an ancient people living in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, roughly in what are the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... Zapotec refers to a native people of Mexico, their language family consisting of more than 15 languages, and their historic culture and traditions. ... The Toltecs (or Toltec or Tolteca) were a Pre-Columbian Native American people who dominated much of central Mexico between the 10th and 12th century AD. Their language, Nahuatl, was also spoken by the Aztecs. ... Teotihuacan was the largest Pre-Columbian known city in the Americas, and the name Teotihuacan is used to refer to the civilization this city dominated, which at its greatest extent included most of Mesoamerica. ... The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ... Aymara is the name of a South-American people and of their language. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... The indigenous peoples of Brazil (povos indígenas in Portuguese) comprise a large number of distict ethnic groups who inhabited the countrys present territory prior its discovery by Europeans around 1500. ...


European colonization of the Americas

Language families of North American indigenous peoples
Language families of North American indigenous peoples

The European colonization of the Americas forever changed the lives and cultures of the indigenous peoples of the continent. In the 15th to 19th centuries, their populations were ravaged by the privations of displacement, by disease, and in many cases by warfare with European groups and enslavement by them. The first indigenous group encountered by Columbus were the 250,000 Arawaks of Hispaniola. They were enslaved. The culture was extinct before 1650, and only 500 survived by the year 1550, though the bloodlines continued through the modern populace. Download high resolution version (1005x912, 422 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1005x912, 422 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Arawakan languages are an indigenous language family of South America and the Caribbean. ... Early map of Hispaniola The Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest island of the Antilles, lying east of Cuba. ... // Events June 23 - Claimant King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland arrives in Scotland, the only of the three Kingdoms that has accepted him as ruler. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ...


In the 15th century Spaniards and other Europeans brought horses to the Americas. Some of these animals escaped and began to breed and increase their numbers in the wild. Ironically, the horse had originally evolved in the Americas, but the last American horses, (species Equus scotti and others [2]) died out at the end of the last ice age with other megafauna. The re-introduction of the horse had a profound impact on Native American and First Nations culture in the Great Plains of North America. This new mode of travel made it possible for some tribes to greatly expand their territories, exchange many goods with neighboring tribes, and more easily capture game. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus) is a sizeable ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Mustang can refer to: The word mustang, from Spanish animalia mixta, mesteño or mestengo, an ownerless beast: Mustang, a feral horse living on the western or southwestern plains of the US. P-51 Mustang, a World War II military aircraft. ... Equus scotti Equus scotti is an extinct species of horse. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Megafauna are the large animals of any particular region or time. ... The Great Plains is the broad expanse of prairie which lies east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States of America and Canada, covering all or parts of the U.S. states of New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota and North Dakota and the... Game is any animal hunted for food. ...


Europeans also brought diseases against which the indigenous peoples of the Americas had no immunity. Chicken pox and measles, though common and rarely fatal among Europeans, often proved fatal to the indigenous people, and more dangerous diseases such as smallpox were especially deadly to indigenous populations. It is difficult to estimate the total percentage of the indigenous population killed by these diseases. Epidemics often immediately followed European exploration, sometimes destroying entire villages. Some historians estimate that up to 80% of some indigenous populations may have died due to European diseases. For more information, see population history of American indigenous peoples. A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ... In a medical sense, immunity is a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. ... Chicken pox, also spelled chickenpox, is a common childhood disease caused by the varicella_zoster virus (VZV), also known as human herpes virus 3 (HHV_3), one of the eight herpesviruses known to affect humans. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from Greek epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during a... There were millions of people living in the Americas when Christopher Columbus arrived in 1492. ...


United States

Main articles: Native Americans in the United States, and [[]], and [[]], and [[]], and [[]]

Indigenous peoples in what is now the United States are commonly called "American Indians" but more recently have been referred to as "Native Americans". Such people make up 1.4% of the population, with 4.1 million people identifying themselves as Native Americans. A substantial proportion of US Native Americans live on Indian reservations. Assiniboin Boy, an Atsina Native Americans in the United States (also Indians, American Indians, First Americans, Indigenous Peoples, Aboriginal Peoples, Aboriginal Americans, Amerindians, Amerinds, or Original Americans) are those indigenous peoples within the territory that is now encompassed by the continental United States, and their descendants in modern times. ... Assiniboin Boy, an Atsina Native Americans in the United States (also Indians, American Indians, First Americans, Indigenous Peoples, Aboriginal Peoples, Aboriginal Americans, Amerindians, Amerinds, or Original Americans) are those indigenous peoples within the territory that is now encompassed by the continental United States, and their descendants in modern times. ... In the United States an Indian reservation is land which is managed by a Native American tribe under the United States Department of the Interiors Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...


Canada

Main articles: Aboriginal peoples in Canada, and [[]], and [[]], and [[]], and [[]]

In Canada, the most commonly preferred term for the indigenous peoples of what is now the country is Aboriginal peoples. Of these Aboriginal peoples who are not Inuit or Métis, "First Nations" is the most commonly preferred term of self-identification. First Nations peoples make up approximately 3% of the Canadian population. The official term for First Nations people — that is, the term used by both the Indian Act which regulates benefits received by members of First Nations, and the Indian Register which defines who is a member of a First Nation — is Indian. Aboriginal peoples in Canada are indigenous peoples recognized in the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982 as Indians (First Nations), Métis, and Inuit. ... Aboriginal peoples in Canada are indigenous peoples recognized in the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982 as Indians (First Nations), Métis, and Inuit. ... Inuit (Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, singular Inuk or Inuq / ᐃᓄᒃ) is a general term for a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic coasts of Siberia, Alaska, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Québec, Labrador and Greenland. ... The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, IPA: , in French or , in Métis ) are one of three recognized Aboriginal peoples in Canada. ... Carved mask in Vancouver First Nations is a term for ethnicity used in Canada to replace the word Indian. It refers to the Indigenous peoples of North America located in what is now Canada, and their descendants, who are not Inuit or Métis. ... The Indian Act of Canada (1876) (full title An Act respecting Indians) is an Act which establishes the rights of registered Indians and of their bands. ... The Indian Register is the official record of Status Indians or Registered Indians in Canada. ...


Mexico

The territory of modern-day Mexico was home to numerous indigenous civilizations prior to the arrival of the European conquistadors: The Olmecs, who flourished from between 1200 BC to about 800 BC in the coastal regions of the Gulf of Mexico; the Zapotecs and the Mixtecs, who held sway in the mountains of Oaxaca and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec; the Maya in the Yucatán (and into neighbouring areas of contemporary Central America;the Purepecha or Tarascan in present day Guatamala and surrounding areas and, of course, the Aztecs, who, from their central capital at Tenochtitlan, dominated much of the centre and south of the country (and the non-Aztec inhabitants of those areas) when Hernán Cortés first landed at Veracruz. Conquistador (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who achieved the Conquista (this Spanish term is generally accepted by historians), i. ... The Olmec were an ancient people living in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, roughly in what are the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... Zapotec refers to a native people of Mexico, their language family consisting of more than 15 languages, and their historic culture and traditions. ... Codex Zouche-Nuttall, a pre-Columbian piece of Mixtec writing, now in the British Museum The Mixtec (or Mixteca) are a Native American people centered in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. ... Oaxaca is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is an isthmus in Mexico. ... The Maya civilization is a historical Mesoamerican civilization, which extended throughout the northern Central American region which includes the present-day nations of Guatemala, Belize, western Honduras and El Salvador, as well as the southern Mexican states of Chiapas, Tabasco, and the Yucatán peninsula states of Quintana Roo, Campeche... Yucatán is the name of one of the 31 states of Mexico, located on the north of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... Commonly, Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ... Plan of Tenochtitlan (Dr Atl) Mexico City statue commemorating the foundation of Tenochtitlan Tenochtitlan (pronounced ) or, alternatively, Mexico-Tenochtitlan, was the capital of the Aztec empire, which was built on an island in Lake Texcoco in what is now central Mexico. ... Hernán Cortés Hernán(do) Cortés, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who conquered Mexico for Spain. ... Veracruz from space, July 1997 The city of Veracruz is a major port city on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz. ...


In contrast to what was the general rule in the rest of North America, the history of the colony of New Spain was one of racial intermingling (mestizaje). Mestizos quickly came to account for a majority of the colony's population; however, significant pockets of pure-blood indígenas (as the native peoples are now known) have survived to the present day. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is a continent in the northern hemisphere bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west by the... Flag of New Spain New Spain (Spanish: Nueva España) was the name given to the viceroy-ruled colonial territories of the Spanish Empire from 1525 to 1821. ... It has been suggested that Métis be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Métis be merged into this article or section. ...


With mestizos numbering some 60% of the modern population, estimates for the numbers of unmixed indigenous peoples vary from a very modest 10% to a more liberal (and probably more accurate) 30% of the population. The reason for this discrepancy may be the Mexican government's policy of using linguistic, rather than racial, criteria as the basis of classification.


In the states of Chiapas and Oaxaca and in the interior of the Yucatán peninsula the majority of the population is indigenous. Large indigenous minorities, including Nahuas, Purépechas, and Mixtecs are also present in the central regions of Mexico. In Northern Mexico indigenous people are a small minority: they are practically absent from the northeast but, in the northwest and central borderlands, include the Tarahumara of Chihuahua and the Yaquis and Seri of Sonora. Chiapas is a state in the southeast of Mexico. ... The Mexican state of Oaxaca (Pronounced wa-HA-ka) is in the south west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... Yucatán is the name of one of the 31 states of Mexico, located on the north of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ... Tarascan men reeling cord for nets & making nets, 1899. ... Codex Zouche-Nuttall, a pre-Columbian piece of Mixtec writing, now in the British Museum The Mixtec (or Mixteca) are a Native American people centered in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. ... The Tarahumara are a Native American people of northern Mexico, renowned for their long-distance running ability. ... This article is about the state in Mexico; for the city of Chihuahua, see: Chihuahua. ... The Yaqui are a Native American people who live in region comprising the northern Mexican state of Sonora and the southwestern U.S. state of Arizona. ... Sonora is a state in northwestern Mexico, bordering the states of Chihuahua to the east, Sinaloa to the south, and Baja California to the northwest. ...


While Mexicans are universally proud of their indigenous heritage (generally more so than of their Spanish roots), modern-day indigenous Mexicans are still the target of discrimination and outright racism. In particular, in areas such as Chiapas — most famously, but also in Oaxaca, Puebla, Guerrero, and other remote mountainous parts — indigenous communities have been left on the margins of national development for the past 500 years. Indigenous customs and uses enjoy no official status. The Huichols of the states of Jalisco, Nayarit, Zacatecas, and Durango are impeded by police forces in their ritual pilgrimages, and their religious observances are interfered with. Chiapas is a state in the southeast of Mexico. ... Oaxaca is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... Puebla is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... Guerrero is a state in the United Mexican States. ... The Huichol are an indigenous ethnic group of Western Central Mexico that live in the Sierra Madre Occidental. ...


Belize

Mestizos (European with indigenous peoples) number about 45% of the population; unmixed Maya make up another 10%. The Maya people are a Native American people of southern Mexico and northern Central America. ...


Guatemala

The indigenous peoples of Guatemala are of Maya stock. Pure Maya account for some 45% of the population; although around 40% of the population speaks an indigenous language, those tongues (of which there are more than 20) enjoy no official status. Maya sources, however, place estimates at around 60% of the population. The Maya people are a Native American people of southern Mexico and northern Central America. ...

Brazilian Indian chiefs
Brazilian Indian chiefs

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2480x1488, 690 KB) Brazilian indian chiefs, Kaiapos tribe. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2480x1488, 690 KB) Brazilian indian chiefs, Kaiapos tribe. ...

Brazil

Main articles: Indigenous peoples in Brazil, and [[]], and [[]], and [[]], and [[]]

Indigenous peoples in Brazil (povos indígenas in Portuguese) comprise a large number of distict ethnic groups who inhabited the countrys present territory prior to its discovery by Europeans around 1500. ...

Argentina

Argentina's Native American population is a subject of controversy. Estimates vary from a minimum of 300,000 (0.7% of total population) to a maximum of two million (5.6% of the population). Indigenous nations include the Toba, Wichí, Mocoví, Pilagá, Chulupí, Diaguita Calchaquí, Kolla, Guaraní (Tupí Guaraní and Avá Guaraní in the provinces of Jujuy and Salta, and Mbyá Guaraní in the province of Misiones), Chorote, Chané, Tapieté, Mapuche, Tehuelche and Selknam (Ona). Diaguita. ... Guarani was one of the most important tribal groups of South America, having the former home territory chiefly between the Uruguay and lower Paraguay Rivers, in what is now Paraguay and the Provinces of Corrientes and Entre Rios of Argentina. ... Mapuche (Mapudungun; Che, People + Mapu, of the Land) are the original Amerindian inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. ... Selknam Indians lived in the Tierra del Fuego islands, in southern Chile and Argentina. ...


Other parts of the Americas

One of the several wiphala of the Aymara in Bolvia and Peru
One of the several wiphala of the Aymara in Bolvia and Peru

Indigenous peoples make up the majority of the population in Bolivia and Peru, and are a significant element in most other former Spanish colonies. Exceptions to this include Costa Rica, Cuba, Argentina, Dominican Republic, and Uruguay. At least three of the Amerindian languages (Quechua in Peru and Bolivia, Aymara also in Bolivia, and Guarani in Paraguay) are recognized along with Spanish as national languages. Download high resolution version (798x798, 19 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (798x798, 19 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Aymara is the name of a South-American people and of their language. ... Quechua (Standard Quechua, Runasimi Language of People) is an Native American language of South America. ... Help wikipedia by translating Spanish article into this article. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Statistics on indigenous populations

Representation of the populations of pure Amerindian peoples in Latin America. (Source : World Fact book 1999)
Enlarge
Representation of the populations of pure Amerindian peoples in Latin America. (Source : World Fact book 1999)

The following table provides estimates of the per-country populations of indigenous peoples, and also those with part-indigenous ancestry, expressed as a percentage of the overall country population. of each country that is comprised by indigenous peoples, and of people with partly indigenous descent. The total percentage obtained by adding both of these categories is also given (One should note however that these categories, especially the second one, are rather vaguely defined and measured differently from country to country). Image File history File links Map-Amerindian_populations. ... Image File history File links Map-Amerindian_populations. ...

Indigenous populations of the Americas1
as estimated percentage of total country's population
Country Indigenous Part-indigenous Combined total
Bolivia 55% 30% 85%
Peru 45% 37% 82%
Guatemala 44 % 52% 96%
Mexico 30% 60% 90%
Ecuador 25% 55% 80%
French Guyana,
Guyana and Suriname
5 – 20% [?] [?]
Honduras 7% 90% 97%
Panama 6% 70% 76%
Nicaragua 5% 69% 74%
El Salvador 5% 94% 99%
Paraguay 5% 93.3% 98.3%
Chile 3% [?] [?]
Venezuela 2% 69% 71%
Colombia [?] 58% [?]
Dominican Republic 0% 0% 0%.
Uruguay 0% 8% 8%
Cuba2 0% NA NA
Costa Rica3 [?] [?] [?]
Argentina3 [?] [?] [?]
Brazil3 [?] [?] [?]
USA4 [?] [?] 1.5%

1 Source : The World Factbook 1999, Central Intelligence Agency.
2 indigenous peoples mixed into the general population; NA = "not applicable".
3 figures not available
4 2000 U.S. Census
French Guiana (French: Guyane) is an overseas département (département doutre-mer, or DOM) of France, located on the Caribbean coast of South America. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Cultural aspects

Though cultural features including language, garb, and customs vary enormously from one tribe to another; there are certain elements which are encountered frequently and shared by many indigenous peoples.


Gender

Most indigenous peoples had traditional gender roles. Agriculture was often women's work while war and hunting was men's. In some tribes, social and clan relationships were matrilinear and matriarchal but several different systems were in use. Men filled the war leader role. The cradle board is used by mothers to carry their baby whilst working or traveling. A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage; it may also involve the inheritance of property or titles through the female line. ... A matriarchy is a tradition (and by extension a form of government) in which community power lies with the eldest mother of a community. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... A cradle board is a typical North American baby carrier used to keep babies secure and comfortable and at the same time allowing the mothers freedom to work and travel. ...


As in many indigenous cultures around the world, homosexual and transgender individuals (and animals) are considered routine and expected. Many indigenous groups formally recognize these homosexual and transgender individuals in the role of the "two-spirit" person (previously labeled by Europeans as "berdache", a term now considered obsolete). Two-spirit transgender and homosexual roles are known to have been recognized and honored, at the present time or historically, in more than 150 different tribes. The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Transgender is generally used as an overarching term for a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies along the gender continuum that are opposite to or in divergence with the assigned biological sex: woman or man. ... Berdache (from French, from Arabic bardajo meaning kept boy) is a generic term used by some for a third gender (woman-living-man) among many, if not most, Native American tribes. ...


The two-spirit is a man or woman who mixes gender roles by wearing clothes of the opposite or both genders, doing both male and female (or primarily "opposite-gender") work, and often engaging in same-sex relations with other members of the tribe. Two-spirit people often are shamans, performing religious and/or mediating functions. Their special status is thought to invest them with exceptional spiritual power, as a result of which they are both feared and respected. A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ...


Music and art

Mystic River Singers performing at a powwow in 1998
Mystic River Singers performing at a powwow in 1998

Native American music of North American Indians is almost entirely monophonic, but there are notable exceptions. Traditional Native American music often includes drumming but little other instrumentation, although flutes are played by individuals. The tuning of these flutes is not precise and depends on the length of the wood used and the hand span of the intended player, but the finger holes are most often around a whole step apart and, at least in Northern California, a flute was not used if it turned out to have an interval close to a half step. Download high resolution version (908x1124, 214 KB)Drummer Wayahsti Richardson of the Saponi tribe and the Native American drum Mystic River perform at the 1998 National Veterans Pow-wow. ... Download high resolution version (908x1124, 214 KB)Drummer Wayahsti Richardson of the Saponi tribe and the Native American drum Mystic River perform at the 1998 National Veterans Pow-wow. ... This article is about a Native American gathering. ... There are hundreds of tribes of Native Americans (called the First Nations in Canada), each with diverse musical practices, spread across the United States and Canada (excluding Hawaiian music). ... In music, the word texture is often used in a rather vague way in reference to the overall sound of a piece of music. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ...


Music from indigenous peoples of Central Mexico and Central America often was pentatonic. Before the arrival of the Spaniards it was inseparatable from religious festivities and included a large number of instruments such as drums, flutes, sea snails shells (used as a kind of trumpet), "rain" tubes, etc. No string instruments were used, though, only percussion and wind. In music, a pentatonic scale is a scale with five notes per octave. ...


Art of the indigenous peoples of the Americas comprises a major category in the world art collection. Contributions include pottery, paintings, jewelry, weavings, sculptures, basketry, and carvings. Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... The Mona Lisa is perhaps the best-known artistic painting in the Western world. ... Jewelry (the American spelling; spelled jewellery in Commonwealth English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn made of fiber called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... A sculpture is a three-dimensional, man-made object selected for special recognition as art. ... Four styles of household basket. ... Carving can mean Rock carving Wood carving Meat carving See also: Sculpture, Lapidary This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Controversial terminology

See discussion in Native American name controversy article.

Generally, ethnic groups desire that others use the name they give themselves. This preference has gained importance recently as a means of avoiding ethnic discrimination. The principle applies poorly to larger, multi-ethnic groups since different sub-groups often have incompatible preferences. English, like other natural languages, has traditionally ignored this principle, exerting its privilege to invent its own ethnic terms, such as German, Dutch, and Albanian, and disregarding the self-appellations and preferences of the subjects. Not surprisingly, English names for the pre-Columbian Americans are largely assigned by tradition, and are not always accepted by the peoples themselves. The Native American name controversy concerns disputed terms such as Native American used to describe the indigenous peoples of the New World; it also concerns the debate vis-à-vis how best to collectively describe and refer to the various indigenous peoples of the Americas, and of North America in particular. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Hopi man weaving on traditional loom
Hopi man weaving on traditional loom

The terms Indian or American Indian are commonly thought to have been born of the misconception by Christopher Columbus that the Caribbean islands were the islands in Southeast Asia known to Europeans as the Indies. Despite Columbus's mistake, the name stuck, and for centuries the native people of the Americas were collectively called Indians. Image File history File links Hopi man weaving a blanket; with back to cam- era and holding a wooden sley in both hands. ... Image File history File links Hopi man weaving a blanket; with back to cam- era and holding a wooden sley in both hands. ... Hopi woman dressing hair of unmarried girl Part of a Hopi pueblo Hopi House near Grand Canyon, stereoptical view c. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – 20 May 1506) was an Italian explorer and trader who crossed the Atlantic Ocean and reached the Americas on October 12, 1492 under the flag of Castile. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and...


Red Indian is a common British term, useful in differentiating this group from a distinct group of people referred to as East Indians, but considered offensive in North America, where it is rarely if ever used. In the French language used in Europe, the term Amérindien has been coined, and the English term Amerindian (sometimes abbreviated Amerind) is sometimes used in the social sciences to refer collectively to all indigenous peoples of the Americas or their cultures. The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and Southeast Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, the Maldives... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...


Canada and the North

A more serious difficulty with this term is that several ethnic groups traditionally excluded from the American Indians were just as "native" to the Americas as them. These groups include the Inuit, Yupik, and Aleut peoples of the far north of the continent. Eskimos was once used for these groups, but this term is in disfavor because it is perceived by many of them as derogatory. Inuit (Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, singular Inuk or Inuq / ᐃᓄᒃ) is a general term for a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic coasts of Siberia, Alaska, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Québec, Labrador and Greenland. ... The Yupik or, in the Central Alaskan language, Yupik, are indigenous or aboriginal peoples who live along the coast of western Alaska, especially on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta and along the Kuskokwim River (Central Alaskan Yupik), in southern Alaska (the Alutiiq) and in the Russian Far East and St. ... The Aleuts (self-denomination: Unangax) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, U.S.A. // Location For specific tribal village names, see List of Native Alaskan Tribal Entities. ...


In Canada the term First Nations has generally replaced the use of the word Indian, though the Canadian Indian Act which defines the rights of recognized First Nations, does refer to them as Indians. The term First Nations does not refer to the Inuit, Inuvialuit, or Métis. Collectively they and the First Nations are referred to as Aboriginals. French Canadians tend to use the term Autochtone as opposed to Amerindian, which is the term used by Europeans. Carved mask in Vancouver First Nations is a term for ethnicity used in Canada to replace the word Indian. It refers to the Indigenous peoples of North America located in what is now Canada, and their descendants, who are not Inuit or Métis. ... The Indian Act of Canada (1876) (full title An Act respecting Indians) is an Act which establishes the rights of registered Indians and of their bands. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In Alaska, the term Alaskan Native predominates, because of its legal use in the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANSCA) and because it includes the Eskimo peoples. Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 1st 663,267 mi² / 1,717,854 km² 808 mi / 1,300 km 1,479 mi / 2,380 km 13. ... The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act was signed into law on December 18, 1971, and the largest land claims settlement in United States history was concluded. ... The Eskimos, or Esquimaux, are people who inhabit the circumpolar region (excluding Scandinavia and most of Russia, but including the easternmost portions of Russia). ...


Latin America

In Latin America, the preferred expression is Indigenous Peoples (pueblos indígenas in Spanish, povos indígenas in Portuguese). However, Indians (indios, índios) is often used too, even by indigenous peoples themselves. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


See also

There were millions of people living in the Americas when Christopher Columbus arrived in 1492. ... Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages) are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland, encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas. ... The Narragansett tribe, or more accurately Nahahiganseck Sovereign Nation, are a Native American tribe who controlled the area surrounding Narragansett Bay in present-day Rhode Island, and also portions of Connecticut, and eastern Massachusetts. ... A Mandan man in a buffalo robe overlooking the Missouri River. ... The Sioux (also Dakota) are a Native American tribe. ...

External links

  • Indigenous Women of the Americas

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