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Encyclopedia > Indigenous Peoples

The term indigenous peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. However, several widely-accepted formulations, which define the term "Indigenous peoples" in stricter terms, have been put forward by prominent and internationally-recognized organizations, such as the United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank. Indigenous peoples in this article is used in such a narrower sense. UN redirects here. ... The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with labour issues. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ...

Drawing on these, a contemporary working definition of "indigenous peoples" for certain purposes has criteria which would seek to include cultural groups (and their continuity or association with a given region, or parts of a region, and who formerly or currently inhabit the region either: Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

  • before its subsequent colonization or annexation; or
  • alongside other cultural groups during the formation of a nation-state; or
  • independently or largely isolated from the influence of the claimed governance by a nation-state,

linguistic, cultural and social / organizational characteristics, and in doing so remain differentiated in some degree from the surrounding populations and dominant culture of the nation-state. It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...


To the above, a criterion is usually added to also include:

  • peoples who are self-identified as indigenous, and/or those recognised as such by other groups.

Note that even if all the above criteria are fulfilled, some people may either not consider themselves as indigenous or may not be considered as indigenous by governments, organizations or scholars.


Other related terms for indigenous peoples include aborigines (æbəˈɹɪdʒɪni ), aboriginal peoples, native peoples, first peoples, first nations and autochthonous (this last term having a derivation from Greek, meaning "sprung from the earth"). Indigenous peoples may often be used in preference to these or other terms, as a neutral replacement where these terms may have taken on negative or pejorative connotations by their prior association and use. It is the preferred term in use by the United Nations and its subsidiary organizations. First Nations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the indigenous peoples in what is now Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ...

Contents

Definitions

Main article: Definitions and identity of indigenous peoples
Ati woman. The Negritos were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia.
Ati woman. The Negritos were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia.[1]

The adjective indigenous has the common meaning of "having originated in and being produced, growing, living, or occurring naturally in a particular region or environment".[2] Therefore, in a purely adjectival sense any given people, ethnic group or community may be described as being indigenous in reference to some particular region or location. The adjective indigenous has the common meaning of having originated in and being produced, growing, living, or occurring naturally in a particular region or environment.[1] Therefore, in a purely adjectival sense any given people, ethnic group or community may be described as being indigenous in reference to some particular... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Ati are an indigenous tribe of Negritos on the island of Panay in the Philippines. ... Ati woman Negrito refers a dwindling ethnic group which is now restricted to parts of Southeast Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ...


Key to a contemporary understanding of 'indigenousness' is the political role an ethnic group plays, for all other criteria usually taken to denote indigenous groups (territory, race, history, subsistence lifestyle, etc.) can to a greater or lesser extent also be applied to majority cultures. Therefore, the distinction applied to indigenous ethnic groups can be formulated as: “a politically underprivileged group, who share a similar ethnic identity different to the nation in power, and who have been an ethnic entity in the locality before the present ruling nation took over power” (Greller, 1997).[verification needed]


However, the specific term indigenous peoples has a more restrictive interpretation when it used in the more formalised, legalistic and academic sense, associated with the collective rights of human populations. In these contexts, the term is used to denote particular peoples and groups around the world who, as well as being native to or associated with some given territory, meet certain other criteria (such as having reached a social and technological plateau thousands of years ago). This article is concerned with the latter, and not the former, sense of the term. The term collective rights refers to rights which are held and exercised by all the people collectively, or by specific subsets of the people. ...


Characteristics of indigenous peoples: overview

Population and distribution

Brazilian Indigenous chiefs of the Kayapo tribe.
Brazilian Indigenous chiefs of the Kayapo tribe.

Indigenous societies range from those who have been significantly exposed to the colonizing or expansionary activities of other societies (such as the Maya peoples of Mexico and Central America) through to those who as yet remain in comparative isolation from any external influence (such as the Sentinelese and Jarawa of the Andaman Islands). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2480x1488, 690 KB) Brazilian indian chiefs, Kaiapos tribe. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2480x1488, 690 KB) Brazilian indian chiefs, Kaiapos tribe. ... Brazilian Indigenous chiefs of the Kayapo tribe: Raony, Kaye, Kadjor, Panara. ... This article is about the contemporary indigenous peoples and cultures who descend from, or remain, speakers of the Mayan languages of southern Mesoamerica. ... The Sentinelese (also Sentineli, Senteneli, Sentenelese, North Sentinel Islanders) are one of the Andamanese indigenous peoples of the Andaman Islands, located in the Bay of Bengal. ... The Jarawa (also Järawa, Jarwa) are one of the indigenous peoples of the Andaman Islands, located in the Bay of Bengal approximately 200 km south of the nearest continental mainland, Cape Negrais in Myanmar. ... Andaman Islands The Andaman Islands are a group of islands in the Bay of Bengal, and are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India. ...


Precise estimates for the total population of the world's indigenous peoples are very difficult to compile, given the difficulties in identification and the variances and inadequacies of available census data. Recent source estimates range from 300 million[3] to 350 million[4] as of the start of the 21st century. This would equate to just under 6% of the total world population. This includes at least 5000 distinct peoples[5] in over 72 countries. Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ...


Contemporary distinct indigenous groups survive in populations ranging from only a few dozen to hundreds of thousands or more. Many indigenous populations have undergone a dramatic decline and even extinction, and remain threatened in many parts of the world. Some have also been assimilated by other populations or have undergone many other changes. In other cases, indigenous populations are undergoing a recovery or expansion in numbers.


Certain indigenous societies survive even though they may no longer inhabit their "traditional" lands, owing to migration, relocation, forced resettlement or having been supplanted by other cultural groups. In many other respects, the transformation of culture of indigenous groups is ongoing, and includes permanent loss of language, loss of lands, encroachment on traditional territories, and disruption in traditional lifeways due to contamination and pollution of waters and lands.

Tsengel Tuvan child and grandmother.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Tuvans or Tuvinians (Tuvan: Тывалар, Tyvalar) are a group of Turkic people who make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva, Russia. ...

Common characteristics

Characteristics common across many indigenous groups include present or historical reliance upon subsistence-based production (based on pastoral, horticultural and/or hunting and gathering techniques), and a predominantly non-urbanized society. Indigenous societies may be either settled in a given locale/region or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited climate zone and continent of the world. Subsistence means living in a permanently fragile equilibrium between alimentary needs and the means for satisfying them. ... Pastoralism is a form of farming, such as agriculture and horticulture. ... Horticulture (pronounced or US [1]) is the art and science of the cultivation of plants. ... This article is about the pre-agricultural practice of harvest from the wild. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... The Köppen Climate Classifications are the standard incriments by which geographers and climatologists classify the climate of a particular part of the world. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ...


Common concerns

Indigenous peoples confront a diverse range of concerns associated with their status and interaction with other cultural groups, as well as changes in their inhabited environment. Some challenges are specific to particular groups; however, other challenges are commonly experienced. Bartholomew Dean and Jerome Levi (2003) explore why and how the circumstances of indigenous peoples are improving in some places of the world, while their human rights continue to be abused in others.[6] These issues include cultural and linguistic preservation, land rights, ownership and exploitation of natural resources, political determination and autonomy, environmental degradation and incursion, poverty, health, and discrimination. Because land is a limited resource and property rights include the right to exclude others, land rights are a form of monopoly. ... Natural resources are commodities that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... A boy from Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity...


The interaction between indigenous and non-indigenous societies throughout history has been complex, ranging from outright conflict and subjugation to some degree of mutual benefit and cultural transfer. A particular aspect of anthropological study involves investigation into the ramifications of what is termed first contact, the study of what occurs when two cultures first encounter one another. The situation can be further confused when there is a complicated or contested history of migration and population of a given region, which can give rise to disputes about primacy and ownership of the land and resources. This article is about the social science. ... First contact is a term used to describe a first meeting of two previously unknown cultures. ...


Historical indigenous cultures

An Adivasi woman from the Kutia Kondh tribal group in Orissa.
An Adivasi woman from the Kutia Kondh tribal group in Orissa.

The migration, expansion and settlement of societies throughout different territories is a universal, almost defining thread which runs through the entire course of human history. Many of the cross-cultural interactions which arose as a result of these historical encounters involved societies which might properly be considered as indigenous, either from their own viewpoint or that of external societies. An Adivasi woman from the Kutia Kondh tribal group in Orissa Ä€divāsÄ«s (in Devanagari script: आदिवासी), literally original inhabitants, comprise a substantial indigenous minority of the population of India. ... Khonds, or Kandhs, an aboriginal tribe of India, inhabiting the tributary states of Orissa and Srikakulam, Vizianagaram and Visakhapatnam districts of Andhra Pradesh. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... For the history of Earth which includes the time before human existence, see History of Earth. ...


Most often, these past encounters between indigenous and "non-indigenous" groups lack contemporary account or description. Any assessment or understanding of impact, result and relation can at best only be surmised, using archaeological, linguistic or other reconstructive means. Where accounts do exist, they frequently originate from the viewpoint of the colonizing, expansionary or nascent state. For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ...


Classical antiquity

Greek sources of the Classical period acknowledge the prior existence of indigenous people(s), whom they referred to as "Pelasgians." These peoples inhabited lands surrounding the Aegean Sea before the subsequent migrations of the Hellenic ancestors claimed by these authors. The disposition and precise identity of this former group is elusive, and sources such as Homer, Hesiod and Herodotus give varying, partially mythological accounts. However, it is clear that cultures existed whose indigenous characteristics were distinguished by the subsequent Hellenic cultures (and distinct from non-Greek speaking "foreigners", termed "barbarians" by the historical Greeks). The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Ancient Greek writers used the name Pelasgian to refer to groups of people who preceded the Greeks and dwelt in several locations in mainland Greece, Crete, and other regions of the Aegean as neighbors of the Hellenes. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ...

Alonso Fernández de Lugo presenting the captured Guanche kings of Tenerife to Ferdinand and Isabella.
Alonso Fernández de Lugo presenting the captured Guanche kings of Tenerife to Ferdinand and Isabella.

Image File history File links AlonsoFernandezdeLugo2. ... Image File history File links AlonsoFernandezdeLugo2. ... Alonso Luis Fernández de Lugo (?-1525), Spanish military man and administrator. ... Guanches (also: Guanchis or Guanchos) were the first known inhabitants of the Canary Islands. ... The Catholic monarchs (Spanish: Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ...

European expansion and colonialism

The rapid and extensive spread of the various European powers from the early 18th century onwards had a profound impact upon many of the indigenous cultures with whom they came into contact. The exploratory and colonial ventures in the Americas, Africa, Asia and the Pacific often resulted in territorial and cultural conflict, and the intentional or unintentional displacement and devastation of the indigenous populations. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... See also: Age of Sail and Afro-Asiatic age of discovery For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ...


Europe

The Canary Islands had an indigenous population called the Guanches whose origin is still the subject of discussion among historians and linguists.[7] This article is about the islands in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Guanches (also: Guanchis or Guanchos) were the first known inhabitants of the Canary Islands. ...


Contemporary distribution and survey

See also: List of indigenous peoples

Indigenous populations are distributed in regions throughout the globe. The numbers, condition and experience of indigenous groups may vary widely within a given region. A comprehensive survey is further complicated by sometimes contentious membership and identification. Main article: indigenous peoples This is a selected list of the worlds indigenous peoples. ...


Africa

See also: Category:Indigenous peoples of Africa

In the post-colonial period, the concept of specific indigenous peoples within the African continent has gained wider acceptance, although not without controversy. The highly-diverse and numerous ethnic groups which comprise most modern, independent African states contain within them various peoples whose situation, cultures and pastoralist or hunter-gatherer lifestyles are generally marginalised and set apart from the dominant political and economic structures of the nation. Since the late 20th century these peoples have increasingly sought recognition of their rights as distinct indigenous peoples, in both national and international contexts. The indigenous peoples of Africa are those peoples from the African region whose way of life, attachment or claims to particular lands, and social and political standing in relation to other more dominant groups have resulted in their substantial marginalisation within modern African states. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Pastoralism is a form of farming, such as agriculture and horticulture. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ...

A San man from Namibia.

Although the vast majority of African peoples can be considered to be indigenous in the sense that they have originated from that continent and nowhere else, in practice identity as an "indigenous people" as per the term's modern application is more restrictive, and certainly not every African ethnic group claims identification under these terms. Groups and communities who do claim this recognition are those who by a variety of historical and environmental circumstances have been placed outside of the dominant state systems, and whose traditional practices and land claims often come into conflict with the objectives and policies promulgated by governments, companies and surrounding dominant societies. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... |group = Bushmen |image = |poptime = 82,000 |popplace = Botswana (55,000), Namibia (27,000) |rels = San Religion |langs = various Khoisan languages |related = Khoikhoi, Xhosa, Zulu, Griqua }} The Bushmen, San, Basarwa, ǃKung or Khwe are indigenous people of the Kalahari Desert, which spans areas of South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and Angola. ...

A Tuareg wearing the Niqab.
A Tuareg wearing the Niqab.

Given the extensive and complicated history of human migration within Africa, being the "first peoples in a land" is not a necessary pre-condition for acceptance as an indigenous people. Rather, indigenous identity relates more to a set of characteristics and practices than priority of arrival. For example, several populations of nomadic peoples such as the Tuareg of the Sahara and Sahel regions now inhabit areas in which they arrived comparatively recently; their claim to indigenous status (endorsed by the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights) is based on their marginalisation as nomadic peoples in states and territories dominated by sedentary agricultural peoples. For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights (ACHPR) is an supranational body tasked with promoting and protecting human rights throughout the African continent. ...


The Indigenous Peoples of Africa Co-ordinating Committee (IPACC) is one of the main trans-national network organizations recognised as a representative of African indigenous peoples in dialogues with governments and bodies such as the UN. IPACC identifies several key characteristics associated with indigenous claims in Africa:

  • political and economic marginalisation rooted in colonialism;
  • de facto discrimination based often on the dominance of agricultural peoples in the State system (e.g. lack of access to education and health care by hunters and herders);
  • the particularities of culture, identity, economy and territoriality that link hunting and herding peoples to their home environments in deserts and forests (e.g. nomadism, diet, knowledge systems);
  • some indigenous peoples, such as the San and Pygmy peoples are physically distinct, which makes them subject to specific forms of discrimination.

With respect to concerns expressed that identifying some groups and not others as indigenous is in itself discriminatory, IPACC states that it: |group = Bushmen |image = |poptime = 82,000 |popplace = Botswana (55,000), Namibia (27,000) |rels = San Religion |langs = various Khoisan languages |related = Khoikhoi, Xhosa, Zulu, Griqua }} The Bushmen, San, Basarwa, ǃKung or Khwe are indigenous people of the Kalahari Desert, which spans areas of South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and Angola. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity...

  • "...recognises that all Africans should enjoy equal rights and respect. All of Africa’s diversity is to be valued. Particular communities, due to historical and environmental circumstances, have found themselves outside the state-system and underrepresented in governance...This is not to deny other Africans their status; it is to emphasise that affirmative recognition is necessary for hunter-gatherers and herding peoples to ensure their survival."
A Berber family crossing a ford - scene in Algeria. Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley.
A Berber family crossing a ford - scene in Algeria. Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley.

At an African inter-governmental level, the examination of indigenous rights and concerns is pursued by a sub-commission established under the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR), sponsored by the African Union (AU) (successor body to the Organisation of African Unity (OAU)). In late 2003 the 53 signatory states of the ACHPR adopted the Report of the African Commission's Working Group on Indigenous Populations/Communities and its recommendations. This report says in part (p. 62): Image File history File links ST-berberfamily. ... Image File history File links ST-berberfamily. ... Languages Berber languages Religions Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly Kabyle catholic) Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights (ACHPR) is an supranational body tasked with promoting and protecting human rights throughout the African continent. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Working languages Arabic English Spanish French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman Jakaya Kikwete  -  Jean Ping Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st1... OUA redirects here. ...

  • ...certain marginalized groups are discriminated in particular ways because of their particular culture, mode of production and marginalized position within the state[; a] form of discrimination that other groups within the state do not suffer from. The call of these marginalized groups to protection of their rights is a legitimate call to alleviate this particular form of discrimination.

The adoption of this report at least notionally subscribed the signatories to the concepts and aims of furthering the identity and rights of African indigenous peoples. The extent to which individual states are mobilising to put these recommendations into practice varies enormously, however, and most indigenous groups continue to agitate for improvements in the areas of land rights, use of natural resources, protection of environment and culture, political recognition and freedom from discrimination.

Peruvian indigenous people, learning to read.
Peruvian indigenous people, learning to read.[8]

Image File history File links Qichwa_conchucos_01. ... Image File history File links Qichwa_conchucos_01. ...

The Americas

See also: Category:Indigenous peoples of the Americas

Indigenous peoples of the American continents are broadly recognised as being those groups and their descendants who inhabited the region before the arrival of European colonizers and settlers (i.e., Pre-Columbian). Indigenous peoples who maintain, or seek to maintain, traditional ways of life are found from the high Arctic north to the southern extremities of Tierra del Fuego. For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. ... For the ships, see USS Arctic, SS Arctic, MV Arctic The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic... Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ...

A Choctaw Belle (1850)
A Choctaw Belle (1850)

The impact of European colonization of the Americas on the indigenous communities was in general quite severe, with many authorities estimating ranges of significant population decline due to the ravages of various epidemic diseases (smallpox, measles, etc), displacement, conflict and exploitation. The extent of this impact is the subject of much continuing debate. Several peoples shortly thereafter became extinct, or very nearly so. For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ... Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... Natives of North America. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... This article is about the medical term. ... This article is about the disease. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ...


All nations in North and South America have populations of indigenous peoples within their borders. In some countries (particularly Latin American), indigenous peoples form a sizeable component of the overall national population--in Bolivia they account for an estimated 56%-70% of the total nation, and at least half of the population in Guatemala and the Andean and Amazonian nations of Peru. In English, indigenous peoples are collectively referred to by several different terms which vary by region and include such ethnoynms as Native Americans, Amerindians, Indians. In Spanish or Portuguese speaking countries one finds the use of terms such as pueblos indígenas, povos, nativos, indígenas, and in Peru, Comunidades Nativas, particularly among Amazonian societies like the Urarina and Matsés. A nation is an imagined community of people created by a national ideology, to which certain norms and behavior are usually attributed. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... Brazilian Indian chiefs The scope of this indigenous peoples of the Americas article encompasses the definitions of indigenous peoples and the Americas as established in their respective articles. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... An Indigenous Peoples of the Peruvian Amazon (Loreto), they refer to themselves as Kachá (lit. ... The Matsés are an indigenous tribe of the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon. ...


The Aboriginal peoples in Canada include the First Nations, Inuit, and Métis. The combined indigenous population is over a million (1,172,790). This means they represent 3.8% of the Canadian population. Their status is recognized by Canada's Constitution Act, 1982.[9] The Inuit have achieved a degree of administrative autonomy with the creation in 1999 of the territories of Nunavik (in Northern Quebec), Nunatsiavut (in Northern Labrador) and Nunavut, which was until 1999 a part of the Northwest Territories. The self-administering Danish territory of Greenland is also home to a majority population of indigenous Inuit (about 85%). Aboriginal people in Canada are Indigenous Peoples recognized in the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982, sections 25 and 35, respectively, as Indians (First Nations), Métis, and Inuit. ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the indigenous peoples in what is now Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mestizo. ... The Constitution Act, 1982 (Schedule B of the Canada Act 1982 (U.K.)) is a part of the Constitution of Canada. ... The Nunavik Region of Quebec, Canada Nunavik (ᓄᓇᕕᒃ) is a region making up the northern third of the province of Quebec, Canada. ... Capital Hopedale (legislative) Nain (administrative) Area Total Recognized 142,450 km² 72,520 km² Nunatsiavut (Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᕗᑦ) is an area claimed by the Inuit in Canada (not to be confused with the territory Nunavut). ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ...

In the United States, the combined populations of Native Americans, Inuit and other indigenous designations totalled 2,786,652 (constituting about 1.5% of 2003 US census figures). Some 563 scheduled tribes are recognized at the Federal level, and a number of others recognized at the State level. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Fierce People redirects here. ... Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ...


In Mexico, approximately 6,011,202 (constituting about 6.7% of 2005 Mexican census figures) identify as indígenas (Spanish for natives or indigenous peoples). In the southern states of Chiapas, Yucatan and Oaxaca they constitute 26.1%, 33.5% and 35.3%, respectively, of the population. In these states several conflicts and episodes of civil war have been conducted, in which the situation and participation of indigenous societies were notable factors (see for example EZLN). Location within Mexico Municipalities of Chiapas Country Mexico Capital Municipalities 118 Largest City Tuxtla Gutiérrez Government  - Governor Juan José Sabines Guerrero ( PRD)  - Federal Deputies PRI: 7 PRD: 5  - Federal Senators PRI: 1 PRD: 1 PVEM: 1 Area Ranked 8th  - Total 74,211 km² (28,653 sq mi) Population (2005... The Yucatán Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... Catedral de Santo Domingo The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca or simply Oaxaca   is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located in the southern part of Mexico, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... The flag of the EZLN. The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN) is an armed revolutionary group based in Chiapas, one of the poorest states of Mexico. ...


The Amerindians make up 0.4% of Brazil's population, or about 700,000 people.[10] Indigenous peoples are found in the entire territory of Brazil, although the majority of them live in Indian reservations in the North and Centre-Western part of the country. On 18 January 2007, FUNAI reported that it had confirmed the presence of 67 different uncontacted tribes in Brazil, up from 40 in 2005. With this addition Brazil has now overtaken the island of New Guinea as the country having the largest number of uncontacted tribes.[11] Fundação Nacional do Índio (FUNAI or Funai) is the Brazilian Indian Protection Agency. ... Few peoples have remained totally uncontacted by modern civilisation. ...


Asia

See also: Category:Indigenous peoples of Asia

The vast regions of Asia contain the majority of the world's present-day indigenous populations, about 70% according to IWGIA figures. The indigenous peoples of Asia are the various groups identified as indigenous peoples within the region, as per the modern definition of that term. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


The most substantial populations are in India, which constitutionally recognises a range of "Scheduled Tribes" within its borders. These various peoples (collectively referred to as Adivasis, or tribal peoples) number about 68 million (1991 census figures, approximately 8% of the total national population). This is a full list of Scheduled Tribes in India, as recognised in Indias Constitution. ... An Adivasi woman from the Kutia Kondh tribal group in Orissa Ādivāsīs (in Devanagari script: आदिवासी), literally original inhabitants, comprise a substantial indigenous minority of the population of India. ...


The languages of Taiwanese aborigines have significance in historical linguistics, since in all likelihood Taiwan was the place of origin of the entire Austronesian language family, which is spread across the whole of Oceania.[12][13][14] Total population 2006: 458,000 (CIP 2006) 2004: 454,600 (CIP 2004) Homelands in Taiwan Mountainous terrain running in five ranges from the northern to the southern tip of the island Narrow eastern plains Orchid Island (Lán Yǔ) Languages 14 living Formosan languages. ... Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ... The Austronesian languages are a family of languages widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ...

Ainu bear sacrifice. Japanese scroll painting, circa 1870.
Ainu bear sacrifice. Japanese scroll painting, circa 1870.

Indigenous peoples of Iran include the Bakhtiari, Laks, Lurs, Kurds, and Qashqai. The Assyrians and Marsh Arabs are also indigenous to areas of the geocultural region of Mesopotamia which includes parts of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. The Lurs also inhabit parts of Iraq close to the Iranian border with the provinces of Lorestan and Ilam. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 389 pixelsFull resolution (1877 × 912 pixel, file size: 432 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 389 pixelsFull resolution (1877 × 912 pixel, file size: 432 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ainu ) IPA: (also called Ezo in historical texts) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, the Kuril Islands, and much of Sakhalin. ... Bakhtiari test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator The Bakhtiari (or Bakhtiyari, Bakhtyari) are a group of southwestern Iranians, with their most significant member being Naveed Bakh. ... The Laks are an Iranian ethnic group in southwestern Iran. ... Lurs are an ethnic group of Iranian peoples. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... For the language, see Qashqai language. ... Language(s) Aramaic Religion(s) Syriac Christianity Related ethnic groups Other Semitic peoples, and other ethnic groups from the Fertile Crescent. ... The Marsh Arabs are the inhabitants of the lowlands of southern Iraq, the former Mesopotamia, whose families have lived in the area for thousands of years. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Falak-ol-aflak, built by the Sassanids, is almost 1800 years old. ... // Introduction Ilam province is on the western edges of the Zagros range, bordering Iraq. ...


Ainu people are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, the Kuril Islands, and much of Sakhalin. As Japanese settlement expanded, the Ainu were pushed northward, until by the Meiji period they were confined by the government to a small area in Hokkaidō, in a manner similar to the placing of Native Americans on reservations.[citation needed] Ainu ) IPA: (also called Ezo in historical texts) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, the Kuril Islands, and much of Sakhalin. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ... For the political history of the sovereignty conflict, see Kuril Islands dispute. ... Sakhalin (Russian: , IPA: ; Japanese: 樺太 ) or サハリン )); Chinese: 庫頁; also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50 and 54°24 N. It is part of Russia and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. ... The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ...


Europe

See also: Category:Indigenous peoples of Europe and European ethnic groups
The Khinalug people are the indigenous inhabitants of the Caucasus.
The Khinalug people are the indigenous inhabitants of the Caucasus.

Since most of Europe in historical times was never colonized by non-European powers with lasting effect (arguably except for Hungary, Turkish Thrace, Tatarstan, Kalmykia and islands such as Malta or Cyprus[15]), the vast majority of Europeans can be considered "indigenous". However several widely-accepted formulations, which define the term "Indigenous peoples" in stricter terms, have been put forward by important internationally-recognised organizations, such as the United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank. Indigenous peoples in this article is used in such a narrower sense. The indigenous peoples of Europe are those peoples identified as indigenous peoples, as per the modern global interpretation of that term. ... This article deals with the European people as an ethnic group or ethnic groups. ... For the term Caucasian referring to all white people, see Caucasian race. ... The region of Thrace, in the countries of Turkey, Greece, and Bulgaria. ... Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar Cyrillic: Татарстан Республикасы, Latin: Tatarstan Respublikası) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: ; Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... UN redirects here. ... The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with labour issues. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ...


In Europe, present-day recognized indigenous populations are relatively few, mainly confined to northern and far-eastern reaches of this Eurasian peninsula. Whilst there are various ethnic minorities distributed within European countries, few of these still maintain traditional subsistence cultures and are recognized as indigenous peoples, per se. Notable indigenous populations include the Sami people of northern Scandinavia, the Nenets and other Samoyedic peoples of the northern Russian Federation, and the Komi peoples of the western Urals. For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of a minority. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... The Nenets people (Russian name: Ненцы - Nentsy (plural)) are an indigenous people in Russia. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The term Samoyedic peoples is used to describe peoples speaking a Samoyedic language. ... Motto: none Anthem: Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow Official language(s) Russian Government Semi-presidential Federal republic  - President of Russia Vladimir Putin  - Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Independence From the Soviet Union   - Declared June 12, 1991   - Finalized December 25, 1991  Area    - Total 17,075,400 km... Komi (obsolete: Komi-Zyrians) live in Komi Republic, Murmansk Oblast, Khanty-Mansi autonomous district, and Yamal-Nenets autonomous district of Russia. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ...


The Basque people, indigenous people who inhabit northern Spain and southwestern France, are the oldest indigenous ethnic group in Europe. The main theory about Basque origins suggests that they are a remnant of Paleolithic Europeans inhabiting continuously the Franco-Cantabrian region since at least Magdalenian times, and maybe as early as the original colonization of Europe by Homo sapiens. The only archaeological evidence for an invasion of the Basque Country dates to some 40,000 years ago when Cro-Magnon people first arrived in Europe and superseded Homo neanderthalensis.[16] Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an ethnic group who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. ... The origin of the Basque people is shrouded in mystery. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... the inhabitants of the Franco-Cantabric region produced some of the finest Paleolithic mural art, as this horse at Lascaux cave Franco-Cantabric region (also Franco-Cantabrian region) is a term applied in Archaeology and History to refer to an area that stretches from Asturias, in northern Spain, to Provence... The Magdalenian, also spelt Magdalénien, refers to one of the later culture of the Upper Palaeolithic in western Europe. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... For the avant garde collective, see Cromagnon (band). ... For other uses, see Neanderthal (disambiguation). ...


Caucasus is unique in its ethnic diversity, with a greater variety of languages spoken there than in any region of similar size in the world. Caucasus region is the home of over 50 indigenous ethnic groups.[17][18] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...


Oceania

Huli man from the Southern Highlands, Papua New Guinea. New Guinea has more than 1,000 indigenous languages.
Huli man from the Southern Highlands, Papua New Guinea. New Guinea has more than 1,000 indigenous languages.
See also: Category:Indigenous peoples of Oceania

Many of the present-day Pacific Island nations in the Oceania region were originally populated by Polynesian, Melanesian and Micronesian peoples over the course of thousands of years. European colonial expansion in the Pacific brought many of these under non-indigenous administration. During the 20th century several of these former colonies gained independence and nation-states were formed under local control. However, various peoples have put forward claims for indigenous recognition where their islands are still under external administration; examples include the Chamorros of Guam and the Northern Marianas, and the Marshallese of the Marshall Islands. Image File history File links Huli Wigman from the Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Huli Wigman from the Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Location of Southern Highlands Province in Papua New Guinea Southern Highlands is a province in Papua New Guinea. ... The indigenous peoples of Oceania are those peoples identified as indigenous peoples, as per the modern global definition of the term. ... The Pacific Ocean has an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands; the exact number is unknown. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... map of Melanesia Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) is a subregion of Oceania extending from the western side of the West Pacific to the Arafura Sea, north and northeast of Australia. ... Pacific redirects here. ... Depiction of latte stone colonnades on the island of Tinian. ... The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) is a commonwealth in political union with the United States of America at a strategic location in the West Pacific Ocean. ...


In most parts of Oceania, indigenous peoples outnumber the descendents of colonists. Exceptions include Australia, New Zealand and Hawaii. According to the 2001 Australian census, Indigenous Australians make up 2.4% of the total population, while in New Zealand 14.6% of the population identify at least partially as indigenous Māori, with slightly more than half (53%) of all Māori residents identifying solely as Māori. Indigenous Hawaiians make up nearly a quarter of the general Hawaiian population. This article is about the U.S. State. ... Languages Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religions Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including Islam and various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ...


The independent state of Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a majority population of indigenous societies, with some 700+ different tribal groups recognised out of a total population of just over 5 million. The PNG Constitution and other Acts identify traditional or custom-based practices and land tenure, and explicitly sets out to promote the viability of these traditional societies within the modern state. However, several conflicts and disputes concerning land use and resource rights continue to be observed between indigenous groups, the government and corporate entities. The Independent State of Papua New Guinea, often referred to by just the initials, PNG, is a country in Oceania, occupying the eastern half of the island of New Guinea (the other half is the Papua province of Indonesia). ...


Indigenous rights, issues and concerns

A Chuckhi prisoner of Gulag. Painting by Nikolai Getman

Wherever indigenous cultural identity is asserted, some particular set of societal issues and concerns may be voiced which either arise from (at least in part), or have a particular dimension associated with, their indigenous status. These concerns will often be commonly held or affect other societies also, and are not necessarily experienced uniquely by indigenous groups. Chukchi, or Chukchee (Russian: чукчи (plural), chukcha, чукча (singular)) are an indigenous people inhabiting the Russian Far East on the shores of the Arctic Ocean and Bering Sea. ... Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... Getmans painting of Nagaevo, Magadans port Nikolai Getman (Russian: , Ukrainian: ), an artist, was born in 1917 in Kharkiv, Ukraine, and died in Orel, Russia, in 2004. ...


Despite the diversity of indigenous peoples, it may be noted that they share common problems and issues in dealing with the prevailing, or invading, society. They are generally concerned that the cultures of indigenous peoples are being lost and that indigenous peoples suffer both discrimination and pressure to assimilate into their surrounding societies. This is borne out by the fact that the lands and cultures of nearly all of the peoples listed at the end of this article are under threat. Notable exceptions are the Sakha and Komi peoples (two of the Northern Indigenous Peoples of Siberia), who now control their own autonomous republics within the Russian state, and the Canadian Inuit, who form a majority of the territory of Nunavut (created in 1999). Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... Komi (obsolete: Komi-Zyrians) live in Komi Republic, Murmansk Oblast, Khanty-Mansi autonomous district, and Yamal-Nenets autonomous district of Russia. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ...


It is also sometimes argued that it is important for the human species as a whole to preserve a wide range of cultural diversity as possible, and that the protection of indigenous cultures is vital to this enterprise. There is a general consensus among mainstream anthropologists that humans first emerged in Africa about two million years ago. ...


An example of this occurred in 2002 when the Government of Botswana expelled all the Kalahari Bushmen known as the San from their lands [2] on which they had lived for at least twenty thousand years [3]. President Festus Mogai has described the Bushmen as "stone age creatures" [4] and a minister for local government, Margaret Nasha, likened public criticism of their eviction to criticism of the culling of elephants [5]. In 2006, the Botswanan High Court ruled that the Bushmen had a right to return to their land in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve [6][7]. Kalahari redirects here. ... |group = Bushmen |image = |poptime = 82,000 |popplace = Botswana (55,000), Namibia (27,000) |rels = San Religion |langs = various Khoisan languages |related = Khoikhoi, Xhosa, Zulu, Griqua }} The Bushmen, San, Basarwa, ǃKung or Khwe are indigenous people of the Kalahari Desert, which spans areas of South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and Angola. ... For other uses, see Elephant (disambiguation). ... Central Kalahari Game Reserve is a National Park in Botswana. ...


In response, many have pointed out that in many cases the indigenous peoples often haven't been living self-sufficiently in an area for centuries, and that economic development was not an issue before because it was not an option.


Representation

The rights, claims and even identity of indigenous peoples are apprehended, acknowledged and observed quite differently from government to government. Various organizations exist with charters to in one way or another promote (or at least acknowledge) indigenous aspirations, and indigenous societies have often banded together to form bodies which jointly seek to further their communal interests. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


In cooperation, representatives of indigenous peoples have met in The World Council of Indigenous Peoples (WCIP), which held its first conference in British Columbia in 1975. Cooperation has continued in the research and education organization The Center for World Indigenous Studies (CWIS), founded in 1984, in Olympia, Washington, USA. The World Council of Indigenous Peoples (WCIP) was a formal international body dedicated to having concepts of aboriginal rights accepted on a worldwide scale. ... The Center for Indigenous Studies founded in 1984 by Dr. Rudolph C. Ryser, Ph. ...


United Nations

Indigenous peoples and their interests are represented in the United Nations primarily through the mechanisms of the Working Group on Indigenous Populations (WGIP). In April 2000 the United Nations Commission on Human Rights adopted a resolution to establish the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (PFII) as an advisory body to the Economic and Social Council with a mandate to review indigenous issues. The Working Group on Indigenous Populations (WGIP) is a subsidiary body within the structure of the United Nations. ... United Nations Commission on Human Rights - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... // Facts The Permanent Forum is a forum for indigenous issues worldwide. ... The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. ...


In late December 2004, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed 2005-2014 to be the Second International Decade of the World's Indigenous People. The main goal of the new decade will be to strengthen international cooperation around resolving the problems faced by indigenous people in areas such as culture, education, health, human rights, the environment, and social and economic development. Spanish president in the General Assembly in New York Org type: Principal Organ Acronyms: GA, UNGA Head: President of the UN General Assembly As of 18 September 2007 Srgjan Kerim former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Status: Active Established: 1945 Website: www. ...


In September 2007, after a process of preparations, discussions and negotiations stretching back to 1982, the General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The non-binding declaration outlines the individual and collective rights of indigenous peoples, as well as their rights to identity, culture, language, employment, health, education and other issues. Four nations with significant indigenous populations voted against the declaration: the United States, Canada, New Zealand and Australia. Eleven nations abstained: Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burundi, Colombia, Georgia, Kenya, Nigeria, Russia, Samoa and Ukraine. Thirty-four nations did not vote, while the remaining 143 nations voted for it. The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly during its 61st session at UN Headquarters in New York City on 13 September 2007. ...


Other accredited organizations

Various organizations are devoted to the preservation or study of indigenous peoples. Of these, several have widely-recognized credentials to act as an intermediary or representative on behalf of indigenous peoples' groups, in negotiations on indigenous issues with governments and international organizations. These include:

  • African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR)
  • Society for Threatened Peoples International (STP)
  • International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA)
  • Indigenous Peoples of Africa Co-ordinating Committee (IPACC)
  • Movement in the Amazon for Tribal Subsistence and Economic Sustainability
  • Survival International
  • Indigenous Dialogues
  • Cultural Survival

The International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA) is an independent and non-profit international human rights-based membership organization, whose central charter is to endorse and promote the collective rights of the worlds indigenous peoples. ... Survival International is a human rights organisation formed in 1969 that campaigns for the rights of indigenous peoples, helping them preserve their land and culture. ... The Indigenous Dialogues Foundation (Indiĝenaj Dialogoj or ID) is an international organisation which seeks to empower organisations of indigenous peoples worldwide to communicate directly, freely, and affordably, allowing them to more effectively work together for their common interests. ... Cultural Survival (founded 1972) is a nonprofit group based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA which is dedicated to defending the human rights of indigenous peoples. ...

International Day of the World's Indigenous People

The International Day of the World's Indigenous People falls on August 9 as this was the date of the first meeting in 1982 of the United Nations Working Group of Indigenous Populations of the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities of the Commission on Human Rights. is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The UN General Assembly decided on 23 December 1994, that the International Day of the World’s Indigenous People should be observed on August 9 every year during the International Decade of the World’s Indigenous People (resolution 49/214). Later on 20 December 2004 the assembly decided to continue observing the International Day of Indigenous People every year during the Second International Decade of the World's Indigenous People (2005-2014) (resolution 59/174).[19]


Indigenous knowledge and culture

Main article: Traditional knowledge

Indigenous societies possess an often unique body of cultural and environmental knowledge. The preservation and investigation of specialised indigenous knowledge, particularly in relation to the resources of the natural environment with which the society is associated, is an increasingly sought-after goal of both the indigenous and the societies who thereby seek to identify new resources and benefits (example: partnerships established to research useful biological extracts from vegetation in the Amazon rainforests). Traditional knowledge (TK), indigenous knowledge (IK), and local knowledge generally refer to the matured long-standing traditions and practices of certain regional, indigenous, or local communities. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... Traditional knowledge (TK), indigenous knowledge (IK), and local knowledge generally refer to the matured long-standing traditions and practices of certain regional, indigenous, or local communities. ... Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. ...


For some people (e.g. indigenous communities from India, Brazil, and Malaysia and some NGOs such as GRAIN and Third World Network), indigenous peoples may be victims of biopiracy when they are subjected to unauthorised use of their biological resources, of their traditional knowledge on these biological resources, of unequal share of benefits between them and a patent holder. A controversial case of biopiracy was reported on human genes of a tribal community reported to be resistant to malaria and leprosy[citation needed]. The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... An image of Third World Resurgence, the flagship magazine of Third World Network The Third World Network is an international network of organizations and individuals involved in issues relating to environment, development and the Third World and North-South issues. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Bioprospecting. ... Natural resources are commodities that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see Tzaraath. ...


Viewpoints on indigenous societies

A range of differing viewpoints and attitudes have arisen from the experience and history of contact between indigenous and "non-indigenous" communities. The cultural, regional and historical contexts in which these viewpoints have developed are complex, and many competing viewpoints exist simultaneously in any given society, albeit promulgated with greater or lesser force depending on the extent of cross-cultural exposure and internal societal change. These views may be noted from both sides of the relationship.


Indigenous viewpoints

Indigenous people are increasingly faced with threats to their sovereignty, environment, and access to natural resources. Examples of this can be the deforestation of tropical rainforests where many native tribe's subsistence lifestyles are threatened.


Non-indigenous viewpoints

Indigenous peoples have been denoted primitives, savages, or uncivilized. These terms were common during the height of European colonial expansion, but still continue in modern times.[20] By the 17th century, indigenous peoples were commonly labeled "uncivilized". Proponents of civilization, like Thomas Hobbes, considered them merely savages; Enlightenment philosophers such as Jean Jacques Rousseau, considered them to be "noble savages". Those who were close to the Hobbesian view tended to believe themselves to have a duty to civilize and modernize indigenes. Although anthropologists, especially from Europe, used to apply these terms to all tribal cultures, it has fallen into disfavor as demeaning and, according to anthropologists, inaccurate (see tribe, cultural evolution). Survival International runs a campaign to stamp out media portrayal of indigenous peoples as 'primitive' or 'savages'. Central New York City. ... Hobbes redirects here. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 - July 2, 1778) was a Swiss-French philosopher, writer, political theorist, and self-taught composer of The Age of Enlightenment Biography of Rousseau The tomb of Rousseau in the crypt of the Panthéon, Paris Rousseau was born in Geneva, Switzerland... A detail from Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe; Wests idealised depiction of this American Indian is in the tradition of the Noble savage (Fryd, 75) In the eighteenth-century cult of Primitivism the noble savage, uncorrupted by the influences of civilization, was considered more worthy, more... For other uses, see Civilization (disambiguation). ... http://www. ... Cultural evolution is the structural change of a society and its values over time. ... Survival International is a human rights organisation formed in 1969 that campaigns for the rights of indigenous peoples, helping them preserve their land and culture. ...


After World War I, however, many Europeans came to doubt the value of civilization. At the same time, the anti-colonial movement, and advocates of indigenous peoples, argued that words such as "civilized" and "savage" were products and tools of colonialism, and argued that colonialism itself was savagely destructive. For other uses, see Civilization (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ...


In the mid 20th century, European attitudes began to shift to the view that indigenous and tribal peoples should have the right to decide for themselves what should happen to their ancient cultures and their ancestral lands. For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...


Several criticisms of the concept of indigenous peoples are:

  • Some critics of Native American tribes claim that the people termed indigenous arrived in an area after the people termed non-indigenous.
  • Peoples have invaded or colonised each other's lands since before recorded history and so the division into indigenous and non-indigenous is a matter of judgement. Even in recent centuries there are difficulties: for example, are the Zulu people indigenous to South Africa?
  • Lumping indigenous peoples into one group ignores the vast amounts of diversity among them and at the same time imposes a uniform identity on them, which may not be historically accurate.

Brazilian Indian chiefs The scope of this indigenous peoples of the Americas article encompasses the definitions of indigenous peoples and the Americas as established in their respective articles. ... Languages Zulu Religions Christian, African Traditional Religion Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of an estimated 17-22 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ...

References

  1. ^ Negritos, Australian Aborigines, and the proto-sundadont dental pattern: The basic populations in East Asia, V
  2. ^ "indigenous". Merriam Webster's Online Dictionary. (2006—07). Merriam Webster. Retrieved on 2007-04-05. 
  3. ^ WGIP (2001). "Indigenous Peoples and the United Nations System". . Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations Office at Geneva
  4. ^ Indigenous issues. International Work Group on Indigenous Affairs. Retrieved on September 5, 2005.
  5. ^ Ibid.
  6. ^ Bartholomew Dean and Jerome Levi (eds.) At the Risk of Being Heard: Indigenous Rights, Identity and Postcolonial States University of Michigan Press (2003)[1]
  7. ^ Old World Contacts/Colonists/Canary Islands
  8. ^ Little-known Indian tribe spotted in Peru's Amazon
  9. ^ Fenlon, Brodie. "Aboriginal numbers soar, census shows", The Globe and Mail, 2008-01-15. Retrieved on 2008-01-15. 
  10. ^ Brazil urged to protect Indians
  11. ^ Brazil sees traces of more isolated Amazon tribes
  12. ^ Blust, R. (1999), "Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: some issues in Austronesian comparative linguistics" in E. Zeitoun & P.J.K Li, ed., Selected papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. Taipei: Academia Sinica
  13. ^ Fox, James J."Current Developments in Comparative Austronesian Studies"PDF (105 KiB). Paper prepared for Symposium Austronesia Pascasarjana Linguististik dan Kajian Budaya. Universitas Udayana, Bali 19-20 August 2004.
  14. ^ Diamond, Jared M. "Taiwan's gift to the world"PDF (107 KiB). Nature, Volume 403, February 2000, pp. 709-710
  15. ^ temporary rules over parts of Europe by non-European powers include Avar Khaganate (c.560s-800), Al-Andalus (711-1492), Emirate of Sicily (831-1072), the Mongol/Tatar invasions (1223-1480), and Ottoman control of the Balkans (1389-1878)
  16. ^ The Basque History of the World
  17. ^ Caucasian peoples
  18. ^ Mountain of Tongues: The Languages of the Caucasus
  19. ^ International Day of the World's Indigenous People - 9 August
  20. ^ See Oliphant v. Suquamish Indian Tribe, 435 U.S. 191 (1978); also see Robert Williams, Like a Loaded Weapon

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Globe and Mail is a Canadian English-language nationally distributed newspaper, based in Toronto and printed in six cities across the country. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Italy in 1000. ... The Mongol invasions of Europe were centered in their destruction of the Ruthenian states, especially Kiev, under the leadership of Subutai. ... Tatar invasions of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the middle ages to early modern period. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

See also

Look up indigenous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The term collective rights refers to rights which are held and exercised by all the people collectively, or by specific subsets of the people. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the concept of a minority. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Indigenous intellectual property: is an umbrella legal term used in national and international forums to identify indigenous peoples special rights to claim (from within their own laws) all that their indigenous groups know now, have known, or will know. ... The notion of intangible cultural heritage emerged in the 90s, as a counter part to the World Heritage that focusses mainly on tangible aspects of culture. ... Traditional knowledge Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are the data, techniques, and technologies designed to document and utilize local knowledges in communities around the world. ... Few peoples have remained totally uncontacted by modern civilisation. ... Click on map to enlarge and see color legend Headquarters The Hague, Netherlands Membership 701 population groups Leaders  -  Secretary General Marino Busdachin (since 2003) Establishment February 11, 1991 Population  -   estimate c. ... This is a list of ethnic groups. ...

External links

Institutions

Indigenous studies

Journals

  • Bemaadizing: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Indigenous Life (An online journal)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rights of Indigenous People - Global Issues (4369 words)
However, others have argued that more generally, many indigenous people, for decades—even centuries—have accumulated important knowledge and traditions that allow them to work with nature rather than destroy it, because they are dependent on it and thus have a sense of interdependence.
Indigenous peoples around the world have sought recognition of their identities, their ways of life and their right to traditional lands, territories and natural resources; yet throughout history, their rights have been violated.
Although it would not be legally binding if it were ever adopted by the General Assembly, indigenous communities around the world have pressed hard for this and have felt that the adoption of the declaration will help indigenous people in their efforts against discrimination, racism, oppression, marginalization and exploitation.
Embera Indigenous People, Culture and Lifestyle (5621 words)
Today, Indigenous people work in an effort to revive their culture and traditions, to preserve their language and values and to find economic development ideas to supplement meager income from farming.
Like many indigenous people with no written language and only oral histories to rely on, there is no reliable record that tracks their historical migration.
Indigenous people realize that to fight for their political and human rights, they need modern education which is not free.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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