FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Indigenous Australians
Australian Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders
, ,
Ernie Dingo, David Wirrpanda, Adam Goodes
Total population

517,000[1]
2.6% of Australia's population Image File history File links Australian_Aboriginal_Flag. ... Image File history File links Torres_Strait_Islanders_Flag. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 474 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (584 × 738 pixels, file size: 326 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) David Wirrpanda I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Ernie Dingo (born 31 July 1956) is a Yamatji from the Maheleny region of Western Australia. ... David Wirrpanda (born August 3, 1979, Melbourne, Australia) is an Australian rules footballer. ... Adam Goodes (born January 8, 1980 in Wallaroo, South Australia[1]) is an Australian rules football player and dual Brownlow Medal winner. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of the Northern Territory Northern Territory 32.5%
Flag of Western Australia Western Australia 4.0%
Flag of Queensland Queensland 3.6%
Flag of New South Wales New South Wales 2.5%
Flag of South Australia South Australia 2.3%
Flag of Victoria (Australia) Victoria 1.0%
Languages
Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol
Religions
Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including Islam and various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime
Related ethnic groups
see List of Indigenous Australian group names

Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first known human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. The term includes both the Torres Strait Islanders and the Aboriginal People, who together make up about 2.6% of Australia's modern population. The latter term is usually used to refer to those who live in mainland Australia, Tasmania, and some of the other adjacent islands. The Torres Strait Islanders are indigenous to the Torres Strait Islands between Australia and New Guinea. When the first indigenous Australians migrated to Australia is disputed among researchers, as estimates range from 125,000 years ago to 40,000 years ago. [2] Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Northern_Territory. ... For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004... Image File history File links Flag_of_Western_Australia. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... Image File history File links Flag_of_Queensland. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_South_Wales. ... NSW redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Australia. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Victoria_(Australia). ... VIC redirects here. ... The Australian Aboriginal languages comprise several language families and isolates native to Australia and a few nearby islands, but by convention excluding Tasmania. ... Australian English (AuE, AusE, en-AU) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) is a term referring to the various varieties of the English language used by Indigenous Australians. ... Torres Strait Creole (also Torres Strait Pidgin, Torres Strait Broken, Cape York Creole, Lockhart Creole) is a creole language spoken on several Torres Strait Islands (Queensland, Australia). ... Kriol is an Australian creole that developed out of the contact between European settlers and the indigenous people in the northern regions of Australia. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... opens chapter nine of The Dreaming Universe (1994) entitled The Dreamtime with a quote from The Last Wave, a film by Peter Weir: Aboriginals believe in two forms of time. ... This List of Indigenous Australian group names contains names and collective designations which have been applied, either formerly or in the past, to groups of Indigenous Australians. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Torres Strait Islander Flag. ... Languages see Indigenous Australian languages Religions see Australian Aboriginal mythology Australian Aborigines ( , aka Aboriginal Australians) are a class of peoples who are identified by Australian law as being members of a race indigenous to the Australian continent. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... Australia has thousands of islands within its territory and several external territories. ... Torres Strait and islands The Torres Strait - Cape York Peninsula is at the bottom; several of the Torres Strait Islands can be seen strung out towards Papua New Guinea to the north. ...


The term Indigenous Australians encompasses many different communities and societies, and these are further divided into local communities with unique cultures.[3] Although there are over 250 spoken languages, fewer than 200 of the languages of these groups remain in use[4] — all but 20 are considered to be endangered.[5] It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers the population of Indigenous Australians was approximately 318,000 - 750,000 across the continent.[6] The distribution of people was similar to that of the current Australian population, with the majority living in the south east centred along the Murray River.[7] For other uses, see Murray River (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Definitions

Aborigines performing at Crown Street Mall, Wollongong
Aborigines performing at Crown Street Mall, Wollongong

Although the culture and lifestyle of Aboriginal groups have much in common, Aboriginal society is not a single entity. The communities have different modes of subsistence, cultural practices, languages, and technologies. However, these peoples also share a larger set of traits, and are otherwise seen as being broadly related. A collective identity as Indigenous Australians is recognised and exists along names from the indigenous languages which are commonly used to identify groups based on regional geography and other affiliations. These include: Koori (or Koorie) in New South Wales and Victoria (Victorian Aborigines); Murri in Queensland; Noongar in southern Western Australia; Yamatji in Central Western Australia; Wangkai in the Western Australian Goldfields; Nunga in southern South Australia; Anangu in northern South Australia, and neighbouring parts of Western Australia and Northern Territory; Yapa in western central Northern Territory; Yolngu in eastern Arnhem Land (NT) and Palawah (or Pallawah) in Tasmania.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 397 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 397 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Wollongong is an industrial city located on the eastern coast of Australia in the state of New South Wales. ... Koori (also spelled Koorie) is a word which some Indigenous Australians in New South Wales and Victoria use to identify themselves, and has become a well established term to mean Indigenous Australians from south eastern Australia. Many Indigenous Australians dislike the terms Aborigine and Aboriginal because these terms have been... NSW redirects here. ... VIC redirects here. ... // There were five religious systems in pre-contact Victoria. ... The Murri are the indigenous Australians that traditionally occupied most of modern-day Queensland. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... The Noongar (alternate spellings: Nyungar/Nyoongar/Nyoongah/Nyungah),[1] are an indigenous Australian people who live in the southwest corner of Western Australia from Geraldton on the west coast to Esperance on the south coast. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... Yamatji is the name of an important Aboriginal people of the Murchison, Gascoyne and Pilbara regions of the North West of Western Australia, and comes from the word friend in the local languages of the area. ... Goldfield is the name of two towns in the United States: Goldfield, Iowa Goldfield, Nevada Goldfield is also a common name for the wildflower Penstemon barbatus Goldfield or goldfields may also describe an area where Gold mining occurs. ... Nunga People have lived throughout Australia for MANY Tens of Thousands of years, despite the English defining Australia to be Terra Nullis and void of habitation by people. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... Anangu, more accurately AṉaÅ‹u or Arnangu, IPA: is a word found in a number of eastern varieties of the Western Desert Language (WDL), an Australian Aboriginal language of the Pama-Nyungan family, spoken in the desert regions of western and central Australia. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004... For Yolngu language see Yolngu Matha. ... Arnhem Land is an area of 97,000 km² in the north-eastern corner of the Northern Territory, Australia. ... Palawah or Pallawah is a term of self-reference for Aboriginal people of Tasmania. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product...


These larger groups may be further subdivided; for example, Anangu (meaning a person from Australia's central desert region) recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Yankunytjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra, Luritja and Antikirinya.[citation needed] Yankunytjatjara (also Yankuntatjara, Jangkundjara, Kulpantja) is an Australian Aboriginal language. ... Ngaanyatjarra is an Aboriginal Australian dialectal group of the Western Desert cultural bloc. ... Luritja is both an Australian Aboriginal country, a group of people and a language. ...


The term "blacks" has often been applied to Indigenous Australians. This owes rather more to racial stereotyping than ethnology, as it categorises Indigenous Australians with the other black peoples of Asia and Africa. In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley proudly embraced the term "black", and writer Kevin Gilbert's groundbreaking book from the time was entitled Living Black. In recent years young Indigenous Australians — particularly in urban areas — have increasingly adopted aspects of black American and Afro-Caribbean culture, creating what has been described as a form of "black transnationalism."[8] An ethnic stereotype is a generalized representation of an ethnic group, composed of what are thought to be typical characteristics of members of the group. ... Ethnology (from the Greek ethnos, meaning people) is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyses the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the racial or national divisions of humanity. ... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Gary Foley (born 11 May 1950-) is an aboriginal activist, academic, writer and actor. ... Kevin Gilbert (1933-1993) was a 20th century Indigenous Australian activist writer and artist. ... Afro-Caribbean may refer to: the British Afro-Caribbean community other members of the African diaspora in or from the Carribean This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Aboriginal Australians

The word aboriginal, appearing in English since at least the 17th century and meaning "first or earliest known, indigenous," (Latin Aborigines, from ab: from, and origo: origin, beginning),[9] has been used in Australia to describe its Indigenous peoples as early as 1789. It soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, "Aborigine" is the noun and "Aboriginal" the adjectival form; however the latter is often also employed to stand as a noun. Note that the use of "Aborigine(s)" or "Aboriginal(s)" in this sense, i.e. as a noun, has acquired negative, even derogatory connotations among some sectors of the community, who regard it as insensitive, and even offensive.[10] The more acceptable and correct expression is "Aboriginal Australians" or "Aboriginal people", though even this is sometimes regarded as an expression to be avoided because of its historical associations with colonialism. "Indigenous Australians" has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s.[citation needed] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


Torres Strait Islanders

The Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions;[citation needed] the eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, and speak a Papuan language[11]. Accordingly, they are not generally included under the designation "Aboriginal Australians." This has been another factor in the promotion of the more inclusive term "Indigenous Australians". The Torres Strait Islander Flag. ... The term Papuan languages refers to those languages of the western Pacific which are neither Austronesian nor Australian. ...


Languages

The Indigenous languages of mainland Australia and Tasmania have not been shown to be related to any languages outside Australia. In the late 18th century, there were anywhere between 350 and 750 distinct groupings and a similar number of languages and dialects. At the start of the 21st century, fewer than 200 Indigenous Australian languages remain in use and all but about 20 of these are highly endangered. Linguists classify mainland Australian languages into two distinct groups, the Pama-Nyungan languages and the non-Pama Nyungan. The Pama-Nyungan languages comprise the majority, covering most of Australia, and are a family of related languages. In the north, stretching from the Western Kimberley to the Gulf of Carpentaria, are found a number of groups of languages which have not been shown to be related to the Pama-Nyungan family or to each other: these are known as the non-Pama-Nyungan languages. While it has sometimes proven difficult to work out familial relationships within the Pama-Nyungan language family many Australianist linguists feel there has been substantial success.[11] Against this some linguists, such as R. M. W. Dixon, suggest that the Pama-Nyungan group, and indeed the entire Australian linguistic area, is rather a sprachbund, or group of languages having very long and intimate contact, rather than a genetic linguistic phylum.[12] The Australian Aboriginal languages comprise several language families and isolates native to Australia and a few nearby islands, but by convention excluding Tasmania. ... Many Australian Aboriginal cultures have or traditionally had a sign language counterpart to their spoken language. ... The Australian Aboriginal languages comprise several language families and isolates native to Australia and a few nearby islands, but by convention excluding Tasmania. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The Pama-Nyungan languages are the most widespread family of Australian languages. ... The Kimberley is one of the nine regions of Western Australia, consisting of the local government areas of Broome, Derby-West Kimberley, Halls Creek and Wyndham-East Kimberley. ... The Gulf of Carpentaria from a 1859 Dutch map The Gulf of Carpentaria The Gulf of Carpentaria is a large, shallow sea enclosed on three sides by northern Australia and bounded on the north by the Arafura Sea (the body of water that lies between Australia and Indonesia). ... Robert Malcolm Ward DIXON is Professor of Linguistics at Latrobe University, in Melbourne Australia. ... A Sprachbund (German for language bond, also known as a linguistic area, convergence area, diffusion area) is a group of languages that have become similar in some way because of geographical proximity. ... Genetic, in linguistics, means due to descent from a common ancestor language, rather than borrowing at some time in the past between languages that were not necessarily descended from a common ancestor. ...


Given their long occupation of Australia, it has been suggested that Aboriginal languages form one specific sub-grouping. Certainly, similarities in the phoneme set of Aboriginal languages throughout the continent are suggestive of a common origin. A common feature of many Australian languages is that they display mother-in-law languages, special speech registers used only in the presence of certain close relatives. The position of Tasmanian languages is unknown, and it is also unknown whether they comprised one or more than one specific language family. In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ...


History

A 19th century engraving of an Indigenous Australian encampment, showing the indigenous mode of life in the cooler parts of Australia at the time of European settlement.

The general consensus among scholars for the arrival of humans in Australia is placed at 40,000 to 50,000 years ago with a possible range of up to 70,000 years ago. The earliest human remains found to date are that of Mungo Man which have been dated at about 40,000 years old. At the time of first European contact, it has been estimated the absolute minimum pre-1788 population was 315,000, while recent archaeological finds suggest that a population of 750,000 could have been sustained.[13] The mode of life and material cultures varied greatly from region to region. The greatest population density was to be found in the southern and eastern regions of the continent, the Murray River valley in particular. A 19th century engraving of an Indigenous Australian encampment, showing the indigenous lifestyle in the cooler parts of Australia at the time of European settlement. ... The prehistory of Australia is the period between the first human habitation of the Australian continent and the first definitive sighting of Australia by Europeans in 1606, which may be taken as the beginning of the recent history of Australia. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1363x715, 913 KB) Summary illtion from Australia in the 1870s by Edwin Carton Booth, Virtue and Co, 1873 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1363x715, 913 KB) Summary illtion from Australia in the 1870s by Edwin Carton Booth, Virtue and Co, 1873 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Consensus (disambiguation). ... The Mungo Man (also known as Lake Mungo 3) was an early human inhabitant of the continent of Australia, who is believed to have lived about 40,000 years ago, during the Pleistocene epoch. ... For other uses, see Murray River (disambiguation). ...


British colonisation of Australia began in Sydney in 1788. The most immediate consequence of British settlement - within weeks of the first colonists' arrival - was a wave of Old World epidemic diseases. Smallpox alone killed more than 50% of the Aboriginal population.[14] It is probable that anywhere between 50-90% of all the Aborigines in the vicinity of Sydney died from the smallpox epidemic within the first three years of the British settlement.[15] The second consequence of British settlement was appropriation of land and water resources. The combination of disease, loss of land and direct violence reduced the Aboriginal population by up to 80% between 1788 and 1900.[citation needed] A wave of massacres and resistance followed the frontier of British settlement.[citation needed] By the 1870s all the fertile areas of Australia had been appropriated, and Indigenous communities reduced to impoverished remnants living either on the fringes of cities and towns or on lands considered unsuitable for settlement.[citation needed] Many Indigenous people adapted to European culture, working as stock hands or labourers. Atrocities continued. "The white station owners would go on regular hunts for Aborigines. 'Instead of having a kangaroo hunt, we'll have an Aboriginal hunt'. They would go out and shoot them, men, women and children'". [16]With the exception of a few in the remote interior, all surviving Indigenous communities gradually became dependent on the settler population for their livelihood.[citation needed] By the early 20th century the Indigenous population had declined to an estimated 150,000 from 190,000.[17] This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... For other uses, see Old World (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pandemic (disambiguation). ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... This is a list of major epidemics. ... In medicine, infectious disease or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent (e. ... This is a list of massacres of Aboriginal Australians. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


Commonwealth legislation in 1962 specifically gave Aborigines the right to vote in Commonwealth elections. The 1967 referendum allowed the Commonwealth to make laws with respect to Aboriginal people, and for Aboriginal people to be included when the country does a count to determine electoral representation. In the controversial 1971 Gove land rights case, Justice Blackburn ruled that Australia had been terra nullius before British settlement, and that no concept of native title existed in Australian law. In 1972, the Aboriginal Tent Embassy was established on the steps of Parliament House in Canberra. In 1992, the High Court of Australia handed down its decision in the Mabo Case, declaring the previous legal concept of terra nullius to be invalid. In 2004, the Australian Government abolished the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC), which had been Australia's peak Indigenous organisation. The abolition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission occurred soon after rape allegations were brought against its chairman Geoff Clark. On 13 February 2008 prime minister Kevin Rudd issued a public apology to members of the Stolen Generation on behalf of the Australian government. The referendum of 27 May 1967 approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to Indigenous Australians. ... In December 1968, the Yolngu people living in Yirrkala, who were the traditional owners of the Gove Peninsula in Arnhem Land, obtained writs in the Northern Territory Supreme Court against the Nabalco Corporation, which had secured a twelve-year bauxite mining lease from the Federal Government. ... Terra nullius (English pronunciation IPA: , Latin pronunciation IPA: ) is a Latin expression deriving from Roman Law meaning land belonging to no one, nobodys land i. ... Native title is a concept in the law of Australia that recognises the continued ownership of land by local Indigenous Australians. ... The Aboriginal Tent Embassy in Canberra has existed intermittently since 1972. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... High Court entrance The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia, the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. ... Mabo v Queensland (No 2) (commonly known as Mabo) is a landmark Australian court case which was decided by the High Court of Australia on June 3, 1992. ... The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) (1990–2005) was the Australian Government body through which Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders were formally involved in the processes of government affecting their lives. ... The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) (1990–2005) was the Australian Government body through which Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders were formally involved in the processes of government affecting their lives. ... Geoff Clark (born. ... Portrayal of The taking of the children on the Great Australian Clock, Queen Victoria Building, Sydney The Stolen Generation (or Stolen Generations) is a term used to describe the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, usually of mixed descent who were removed from their families, under the rationale of...


Culture

Rock painting at Ubirr in Kakadu National Park
Rock painting at Ubirr in Kakadu National Park

There are a large number of tribal divisions and language groups in Aboriginal Australia, and, corresponding to this, a wide variety of diversity exists within cultural practices. However, there are some similarities between cultures. Aboriginal Australia contains a large number of tribal divisions and language groups, and, corresponding to this, a wide variety of diversity exists within cultural practices. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1085x1198, 224 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Indigenous Australians Kakadu National Park Ubirr ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1085x1198, 224 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Indigenous Australians Kakadu National Park Ubirr ... Kakadu National Park is in the Northern Territory of Australia, 171 km east of Darwin. ... This List of Indigenous Australian group names contains names and collective designations which have been applied, either formerly or in the past, to groups of Indigenous Australians. ... The Australian Aboriginal languages are a Australia, and the rest are descended linguistically from them. ...

Belief systems

See also: Australian Aboriginal mythology

Religious demography among Indigenous Australians is not conclusive because the methodology of the census is not always well-suited to obtaining accurate information on Aboriginal people. [18] The 1996 census reported that almost 72 percent of Aborigines practiced some form of Christianity; 16 percent listed no religion. The 2001 census contained no comparable, updated data.[19] There has also been an increase in the number of followers of Islam among the Indigenous Australian community.[20] This growing community includes high-profile members such as the boxer, Anthony Mundine. (See Islam in Australia). Aboriginal Australia contains a large number of tribal divisions and language groups, and, corresponding to this, a wide variety of diversity exists within cultural practices. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Anthony Mundine (born 21 May 1975) is a boxer, former Australian rugby league player of mixed White and Indigenous Australian descent and WBA Super Middleweight champion. ... Islam in Australia is the second largest minority religion after Buddhism. ...


In the world's oldest continent the creative epoch known as the Dreamtime stretches back into a remote era in history when the creator ancestors known as the First Peoples travelled across the great southern land of Bandaiyan (Australia), creating and naming as they went.[21] opens chapter nine of The Dreaming Universe (1994) entitled The Dreamtime with a quote from The Last Wave, a film by Peter Weir: Aboriginals believe in two forms of time. ...


Indigenous Australia's oral tradition and religious values are based upon reverence for the land and a belief in this Dreamtime. The Dreaming is at once both the ancient time of creation and the present day reality of Dreaming. There were a great many different groups, each with their own individual culture, belief structure, and language. These cultures overlapped to a greater or lesser extent, and evolved over time. Major Ancestral spirits include the Rainbow Serpent, Baiame, and Bunjil. The Yowie and Bunyip are also well known Ancestral beings. One version of the Dreaming story runs as follows:[cite this quote] Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... opens chapter nine of The Dreaming Universe (1994) entitled The Dreamtime with a quote from The Last Wave, a film by Peter Weir: Aboriginals believe in two forms of time. ... The Rainbow Serpent/Snake is a major mythological being for Aboriginal people across Australia, although the creation stories associated with it are best known from northern Australia. ... In Aboriginal mythology, Baiame was the ancestor and patron god of the Kamilaroi. ... In Australian aboriginal mythology, specifically Kulin including Wurundjeri and Bunurong, Bunjil is the supreme god, represented as an eagle. ... Yowie can refer to either of two mythical creatures of Australian folklore: The name has been applied to an Australian cryptid analogous to the American bigfoot. ... The bunyip (usually translated as devil or spirit[1]) is a mythical creature from Australian folklore. ...

The whole world was asleep. Everything was quiet, nothing moved, nothing grew. The animals slept under the earth. One day the rainbow snake woke up and crawled to the surface of the earth. She pushed everything aside that was in her way. She wandered through the whole country and when she was tired she coiled up and slept. So she left her tracks. After she had been everywhere she went back and called the frogs. When they came out their tubby stomachs were full of water. The rainbow snake tickled them and the frogs laughed. The water poured out of their mouths and filled the tracks of the rainbow snake. That's how rivers and lakes were created. Then grass and trees began to grow and the earth filled with life.

Music

A didgeridoo, or yirdaki
A didgeridoo, or yirdaki

Aboriginal people developed unique instruments and folk styles. The yirdaki or didgeridoo is commonly considered the national instrument of Aboriginal people, and it is claimed to be the world's oldest wind instrument.[citation needed] However, it was traditionally only played by Arnhem Land people, such as the Yolngu, and then only by the men. It has possibly been used by the people of the Kakadu region for 1500 years.[citation needed] Clapping sticks are probably the more ubiquitous musical instrument, especially because they help maintain the rhythm for the song. Much contemporary Aboriginal music is predominantly of the country music genre. Most indigenous radio stations - particularly in metropolitan areas - serve a double purpose as the local country music station. An example is 4AAA in Brisbane.[citation needed] More recently, Indigenous Australian musicians have branched into rock and roll, hip hop and reggae. One of the most well known modern bands is Yothu Yindi playing in a style which has been called Aboriginal rock. Didgeridoo, copied from French Wikipedia Securiger 11:52, 30 Dec 2003 (UTC) © fr:Utilisateur:Aoineko File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Didgeridoo, copied from French Wikipedia Securiger 11:52, 30 Dec 2003 (UTC) © fr:Utilisateur:Aoineko File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A didgeridoo. ... Indigenous Australian music includes the music of Australian Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders, who are collectively called Indigenous Australians; it incorporates a wide variety of distinctive traditional music styles practised by Indigenous Australian peoples, as well as a range of contemporary musical styles both derivative of and fusion with European... A didgeridoo. ... Arnhem Land is an area of 97,000 km² in the north-eastern corner of the Northern Territory, Australia. ... For Yolngu language see Yolngu Matha. ... Kakadu National Park is in the Northern Territory of Australia, 171 km east of Darwin. ... Country music is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. ... For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Indigenous Australian musicians. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Yothu Yindi (Yolngu for child and mother. ... Aboriginal rock is a rather nebulous term for a style of music which mixes traditional rock music elements (guitar, drums, bass etc) with the instrumentation of Indigenous Australians (Didjeridu, clap-sticks etc). ...


Art

Australia has a tradition of Aboriginal art which is thousands of years old,[citation needed] the best known forms being rock art and bark painting. These paintings usually consist of paint using earthly colours, specifically, from paint made from ochre. Traditionally, Aborigines have painted stories from their dreamtime. Modern Aboriginal artists continue the tradition using modern materials in their artworks. Aboriginal art is the most internationally recognisable form of Australian art. Several styles of Aboriginal art have developed in modern times including the watercolour paintings of Albert Namatjira; the Hermannsburg School, and the acrylic Papunya Tula "dot art" movement. Painting is a large source of income for some Central Australian communities such as at Yuendumu today.[citation needed] Aboriginal hollowed log coffin Indigenous Australian art is art produced by Indigenous Australians, covering works that pre-date European colonisation as well as contemporary art by Aboriginal Australians based on traditional culture. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Namatjira outside Government House, Sydney, circa 1947. ... The Hermannsburg School is an art movement, or art style, which began at the Hermannsburg mission in the 1930s. ... Papunya Tula, or Papunya Tula Artists Pty Ltd, is an artists cooperative, formed in 1972 to market the paintings of a group of Aboriginal Australian men who had begun painting traditional designs using western art materials at the Papunya settlement, 240 km northwest of Alice Springs in Central Australia in... Yuendumu (22°15′ S 131°47′ E) is a town in the Northern Territory in Australia. ...


Australian Aboriginal poetry is found throughout Australia. It ranges from the sacred to the every day. Ronald M Berndt has published traditional Aboriginal song-poetry in his book "Three Faces of Love", Nelson 1976. R.M.W. Dixon and M. Duwell have published two books dealing with sacred and every day poetry- "The Honey Ant men's love song" and "Little Eva at Moonlight Creek", University of Queensland Press, 1994".


Traditional recreation

Australian Aboriginal domestic scene from 1857 depicting traditional recreation, including a football game which may be Marn Grook.
Australian Aboriginal domestic scene from 1857 depicting traditional recreation, including a football game which may be Marn Grook.[22]
An Indigenous community Australian rules football game.
An Indigenous community Australian rules football game.

The Djabwurrung and Jardwadjali people of western Victoria once participated in the traditional game of Marn Grook, a type of football played with possum hide.[23] The game is believed by some to have inspired Tom Wills, inventor of the code of Australian rules football, a popular Australian winter sport. The Wills family had strong links to indigenous people and Wills coached the first Australian cricket side to tour England, the Australian Aboriginal cricket team in England in 1868. Similarities between Marn Grook and Australian football include the unique skill of jumping to catch the ball or high "marking", which results in a free kick. The word "mark" may have originated in "mumarki", which is "an Aboriginal word meaning catch" in a dialect of a Marn Grook playing tribe however most likely the word 'mark' originated from rugby which Tom Wills played and adopted a lot of elements from for Aussie Rules.Indeed, Aussie Rules has seen many indigenous players at elite football, and have produced some of the most exciting and skillful to play the modern game. In 2006, approximately one in ten AFL players were of indigenous origin.[24] The contribution the Aboriginal people have made to the game is recognised by the annual AFL "Dreamtime at the 'G" match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground between Essendon and Richmond football clubs (the colours of the two clubs combine to form the colours of the Aboriginal flag, and many great players have come from these clubs, including Essendon's Michael Long and Richmond's Maurice Rioli). Testifying to this abundance of indigenous talent, the Aboriginal All-Stars are an AFL-level all-Aboriginal football side competes against any one of the Australian Football League's current football teams in pre-season tests. The Clontarf Foundation and football academy is just one organisation aimed at further developing aboriginal football talent. The Tiwi Bombers began playing in the Northern Territory Football League and became the first and only all-Aboriginal side to compete in a major Australian competition. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 713 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (784 × 659 pixels, file size: 88 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Aboriginal domestic scene From Blandowskis Australien in 142 Photographischen Abbildungen, 1857 (Haddon Library, Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge: William Blandowski) The two-dimensional work... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 713 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (784 × 659 pixels, file size: 88 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Aboriginal domestic scene From Blandowskis Australien in 142 Photographischen Abbildungen, 1857 (Haddon Library, Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge: William Blandowski) The two-dimensional work... Image File history File linksMetadata Aboriginal_football. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Aboriginal_football. ... High marking is a key skill and spectacular attribute of Australian rules football Precise field and goal kicking using the oval shaped ball is the key skill in Australian rules football Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply football or footy is a code of... Marn Grook (also spelt marngrook) is an Australian Aboriginal ball game, which is claimed to have had an influence on the modern game of Australian rules football, most notably in the spectacular jumping and high marking exhibited by the players of both games. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Possum (disambiguation). ... Thomas Wentworth Wills was an Australian sportsman who is credited along with Henry Harrison as one of the inventors of Australian rules football. ... High marking is a key skill and spectacular attribute of Australian rules football Precise field and goal kicking using the oval shaped ball is the key skill in Australian rules football Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply football or footy is a code of... The Australian Aboriginal cricket team in England in 1868 was a cricket team comprised of Australian Aborigines that toured England between May and October 1868, the first Australian cricket team to travel overseas. ... “MCG” redirects here. ... Essendons Home and Clash Jumpers Essendon Football Club, nicknamed The Bombers, is an Australian rules football club that is part of the Australian Football League. ... This page is about the Aussie rules club. ... 2:3 The Australian Aboriginal flag The Australian Aboriginal flag was originally designed as a protest flag for the land rights movement of Indigenous Australians but has since become a symbol of the Aboriginal people of Australia. ... Michael Long (born October 1, 1969 in Darwin, Northern Territory) is a former Australian rules footballer and spokesperson against racism in sport. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The ATSIC Aboriginal All-Stars are an Australian rules football team composed purely of indigenous Australians. ... This article is about the national league in Australian rules football. ... The Clontarf Foundation is a non-profit foundation developed in the sport of Australian rules football to assist Indigenous Australians and encourage them to pursue careers in sport and prevent them from a life of crime. ... The Tiwi Bombers began as a representative club competing in the Northern Territory Football League 2006/07 season. ... The NTFL is a 7 team Australian rules football semi-professional league operating in Darwin in the Northern Territory. ...


The first Aboriginal to captain any Australian national sports team was Arthur Beetson, a Queensland rugby league player. Australian Aborigines have a strong presence in rugby league in Australia. Captain of the Australia national rugby league football team Arthur Henry Beetson OAM (born January 22, 1945 in Roma, Queensland) was a leading rugby league player for Queensland and Australia from 1964 to 1981. ...


Issues facing Indigenous Australians today

The Indigenous Australian population is a mostly urbanised demographic, but a substantial number (27%[25]) live in remote settlements often located on the site of former church missions. The health and economic difficulties facing both groups are substantial. Both the remote and urban populations have adverse ratings on a number of social indicators, including health, education, unemployment, poverty and crime.[26] In 2004 former Prime Minister John Howard initiated contracts with Aboriginal communities, where substantial financial benefits are available in return for commitments such as ensuring children wash regularly and attend school. These contracts are known as Shared Responsibility Agreements. This saw a political shift from 'self determination' for Aboriginal communities to 'mutual obligation'[27], which has been criticised as a "paternalistic and dictatorial arrangement"[28]. The "Mutual Obligation" concept was introduced for all Australians in receipt of welfare benefits and who are not disabled or elderly[29]. Notably, just prior to a federal election being called, John Howard in a Speech at the Sydney Institute on October 11 2007 acknowledged some of the failures of the previous policies of his government and said "We must recognise the distinctiveness of Indigenous identity and culture and the right of Indigenous people to preserve that heritage. The crisis of Indigenous social and cultural disintegration requires a stronger affirmation of Indigenous identity and culture as a source of dignity, self-esteem and pride." A Mission station is a location for missionary work. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ... The 2007 general election for the Parliament of Australia is expected to take place in November or early December, with 33 to 68 days notice. ... The Sydney Institute, founded in 1989, is a privately funded current affairs forum and think-tank. ...


Stolen Generations

Main article: Stolen Generations

On February 13, 2008, the federal government of Australia, led by Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, issued a formal apology to the Indigenous Australians over the Stolen Generations,[30] The Stolen Generation is a term used to describe the Australian Aboriginal children, usually of mixed descent, who were removed from their families by Australian government agencies and church missions, under various state acts of parliament, denying the rights of parents and making all Aboriginal cildren wards of the state... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Kevin Michael Rudd (born 21 September 1957), is the leader of the federal Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition in the Australian Parliament. ... The Stolen Generation is a term used to describe the Australian Aboriginal children, usually of mixed descent, who were removed from their families by Australian government agencies and church missions, under various state acts of parliament, denying the rights of parents and making all Aboriginal cildren wards of the state...


Health

In 2002 data collected on health status reported that Indigenous Australians were twice as likely as non-indigenous people to report their health as fair/poor and one-and-a-half times more likely to have a disability or long-term health condition (after adjusting for demographic structures).[25] In 1996-2001, the life expectancy of an Indigenous Australian was 59.4 years for males and, in 2004-05, 65.0 years for females[31], approximately 17 years lower than the Australian average.[25]


Health problems with the highest disparity (compared with the non-Indigenous population) in incidence [32] are outlined in the table below:

Health problem Comparative incidence rate Comment
Dementia 26-fold 26 times more likely to develop dementia than the rest of the Australian population and in some cases, an earlier onset of symptoms[33]
Circulatory system diseases 2 to 10-fold 5 to 10-fold increase in rheumatic heart disease and hypertensive disease, 2-fold increase in other heart disease, 3-fold increase in death from circulatory system disorders. Circulatory system diseases account for 24% of total indigenous deaths[34]
Diabetes 3 to 4-fold 11% incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Indigenous Australians, 3% in non-Indigenous population. 7 to 10 times more deaths in Aboriginals from diabetes than expected. 18% of total indigenous deaths [34]
Chronic kidney disease 2 to 3-fold 2 to 3-fold increase in listing on the dialysis and transplant registry, up to 30-fold increase in end stage renal disease, 8-fold increase in death rates from kidney disease, 2.5% of total indigenous deaths [34]
Neoplasms (Cancer) 60% increase in death rate 60% increased death rate from cancers. In 1999-2003, neoplasms accounted for 17% of all Aboriginal deaths[34]
Respiratory disease 3 to 4-fold 3 to 4-fold increased death rate from respiratory disease accounting for 8% of total indigenous deaths
Communicable diseases Up to 70-fold 10-fold increase in tuberculosis, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C virus, 20-fold increase in Chlamydia, 40-fold increase in Shigellosis and Syphilis, 70-fold increase in Gonococcal infections
External Causes 3-fold increase in fatalities Of Indigenous fatal injuries, 24% are from suicide, 26% from motor vehicle accidents and 17% from assault. Combined, external causes account for 16% of all Indigenous deaths[34]
Vision problems 2-fold A 2-fold increase in cataracts
Oral health 2-fold increase 2-fold increase in children with dental decay
Mental health 2 to 5-fold 5-fold increase in drug-induced mental disorders, 2-fold increase in schizophrenia, 2 to 3-fold increase in suicide, 3-fold increase in death rate
Infant mortality 2 to 3-fold Over the period 1999-2003, in Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia and the Northern Territory, the national infant mortality rate for Indigenous infants was three times the rate for non-Indigenous infants[34]

Each of these indicators is expected to underestimate the true prevalence of disease in the Indigenous population due to reduced levels of diagnosis.[32] For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ... Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease which may develop after an infection with streptococcus bacteria (such as strep throat or scarlet fever) and can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... Diabetes mellitus type 2 or Type 2 Diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM), obesity-related diabetes, or adult-onset diabetes) is a metabolic disorder that is primarily characterized by insulin resistance, relative insulin deficiency, and hyperglycemia. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... In medicine, dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy which is used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function due to renal failure. ... Transplant redirects here. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... See the article on the kidney for the anatomy and function of healthy kidneys and a list of diseases involving the kidney. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Neoplasia (literally: new growth) is abnormal, disorganized growth in a tissue or organ, usually forming a distinct mass. ... Diseases of the mammalian respiratory system are classified under one of two broad categories: physiologic, where disease states are characterised by alterations in physiology, or anatomical, where disease states are defined by the anatomical location/level affected, or by the layers of the respiratory system affected by disease. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... “HBV” redirects here. ... Type species Hepatitis C virus This page is for the virus. ... Chlamydia is a common term for Chlamydiae. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Binomial name Zopf, 1885 Neisseria gonorrhoeae (also known as Gonococci) is a species of Gram-negative bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhoea. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Cataract is also used to mean a waterfall or where the flow of a river changes dramatically. ... This article is about dental caries in humans. ... The Scream, the famous painting commonly thought of as depicting the experience of mental illness. ... is the death of infants in the first year of life. ...


The following factors have been at least partially implicated in the racial inequality in life expectancy:[25]

  • poverty (low income)
  • poor education
  • substance abuse (smoking, alcohol, illicit drugs, glue, petrol[35][36]
  • for remote communities poor access to health services including immunisation
  • for urbanised Indigenous Australians, social pressures which prevent access to health services
  • cultural differences resulting in poor communication between Indigenous Australians and health workers.
  • exposure to violence or other types of abuse

Additional problems are created by the reluctance of many rural indigenous people to leave their homelands to access medical treatment in larger urban areas, particularly when they have need for on-going treatments such as dialysis.[32] However, in some categories of health problems, Aboriginal people living in remote areas have better health outcomes than those in urban areas. The difference is particularly striking in mental health -- living on traditional lands appears to produce better mental health outcomes. [37] A boy from Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ...


Successive Federal Governments have responded to the problem by implementing programs such as the Office of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health (OATSIH). There have been some small successes, such as the reduction of infant mortality since the 1970s (down to twice the non-Indigenous levels in 1996-2001),[32] effected by bringing health services into indigenous communities, but on the whole the problem remains unsolved. OATSIH is the Office of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health, a division of the Australian Governments Department of Health and Ageing. ...


According to Western Australian Office of Aboriginal Health Abriginal Australians face a large number of health issues due to their living conditions. In Western Australia, respiratory, gastrointestinal, infectious and parasitic diseases are disproportionately higher among Aboriginal people, especially the young. Factors that put Aboriginal people, especially those residing in rural and remote areas at a higher risk of poor health are related to inadequate housing or harmful levels of community or personal hygiene. A survey of communities in Western Australia reported large problems with water supply and sanitation problems, overcrowding and substandard housing, waste-water disposal problems and the absence of rubbish disposal that resulted in a high prevalence of vermin and pests and a lack of personal hygiene (ABS & AIHW, 2003). Other factors include poor nutrition, obesity, substance abuse and exposure to violence.[38]


Education

Indigenous students as a group leave school earlier, and live with a lower standard of education, compared with their non-indigenous peers. Although the situation is slowly improving (with significant gains between 1994 and 2004),[25] both the levels of participation in education and training among Indigenous Australians and their levels of attainment remain well below those of non-Indigenous Australians.

  • 39% of indigenous students stayed on to year 12 at high school, compared with 75% for the Australian population as a whole. ABS
  • 22% of indigenous adults had a vocational or higher education qualification, compared with 48% for the Australian population as a whole. ABS
  • 4% of Indigenous Australians held a bachelor degree or higher, compared with 21% for the population as a whole. While this fraction is increasing, it is increasing at a slower rate than that for non-Indigenous Australians. ABS

In response to this problem, the Commonwealth Government formulated a National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education Policy. A number of government initiatives have resulted, some of which are listed by the Commonwealth Government's Indigenous Education page. The Australian National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education Policy (AEP) is an agreed national policy between the Government of Australia and each State and Territory government and is the foundation of education programs for all Indigenous Australians. ...


Crime

An Indigenous Australian is 11 times more likely to be in prison than a non-Indigenous Australian, and in June 2004, 21% of prisoners in Australia were Indigenous. [39] This over-representation of Indigenous Australians in prisons was drawn to public attention by the Royal Commission into Aboriginal deaths in custody. The Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody (1987-1991) investigated allegations of murder of Australian Aboriginals in prison. ... hello people i love uAboriginal deaths in custody became a major issue because of a widespread perception that a disproportionate number of indigenous Australians were dying in jail after being arrested by police. ...


Violent crime, including domestic and sexual abuse, is a problem in many communities. Indigenous Australians are twice as likely to be a victim of violence than non-Indigenous Australians,[39] with 24% of Indigenous Australians reported being a victim of violence in 2001.[39] This is consistent with hospitalisation data showing higher rates of injury due to assault.[39]


An estimated three in five children have suffered some kind of sexual abuse in the southeast Queensland Aboriginal community of Cherbourg [40]. In May, 2006, Alice Springs crown prosecutor Nanette Rogers publicly declared child sexual abuse in Aboriginal communities a "National problem".[41] Australia-wide, Indigenous Australian children are 20-fold overrepresented in the juvenile corrective service[32] and 20-fold more likely to be involved in child abuse and neglect cases.[32]


In August 2007, the government announced the Northern Territory National Emergency Response, a package of welfare reform, law enforcement and other measures designed to address endemic levels of child abuse in the Northern Territory. Legislation was rushed through Parliament in support of the measures. Critics of the Intervention claim that it does not address the problem, but reduces land rights of the Aboriginal communities. Others supported the tough stance on child abuse. The Northern Territory National Emergency Response is a package of welfare reform, law enforcement and other measures, which the Australian federal government claims is designed to address endemic levels of child sexual abuse in the Northern Territory, Australia. ...


Unemployment and housing

According to the 2001 Census, an Indigenous Australian is almost three times more likely to be unemployed (20.0% unemployment) than a non-Indigenous Australian (7.6%). The difference is not solely due to the increased proportion of Indigenous Australians living in rural communities, for unemployment is higher in Indigenous Australian populations living in urban centres (Source: ABS). The average household income for Indigenous Australian populations is 60% of the non-Indigenous average.[25]. Indigenous Australians are 6-fold more likely to be homeless, 15-fold more likely to be living in improvised dwellings, and 25-fold more likely to be living with 10 or more people.[32]


Substance abuse

Signpost outside Yirrkala, NT, where kava was introduced as a safer alternative to alcohol, but was withdrawn in 2007.
Signpost outside Yirrkala, NT, where kava was introduced as a safer alternative to alcohol, but was withdrawn in 2007.

Many Indigenous communities suffer from a range of health and social problems associated with substance abuse of both legal and illegal drugs. This is due to a lack of awareness and services available. Image File history File links Kava. ... Image File history File links Kava. ... Yirrkala is a well-known indigenous community in Arnhem Land, in the Northern Territory of Australia, at 12. ... Binomial name G.Forst. ... Also see Alcoholism and Drug addiction. ...


Alcohol consumption within Indigenous communities is seen as a significant issue, as are the domestic violence and associated issues resulting from the behaviour such as incest and gang rape. A large 2004-05 health survey by the ABS found that the proportion of the Indigenous adult population engaged in 'risky' and 'high-risk' alcohol consumption (15%) was comparable with that of the non-Indigenous population (14%), based on age-standardised data.[42] Booze redirects here. ... Australian Bureau of Statistics logo The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the Australian government agency that collects and publishes statistical information about Australia. ...


One study[43] by the Australian National Commission on Drugs (ANCD) published in 2002 attributes the "public misperception of high alcohol use [in Indigenous communities]" to "the disproportionate level of harm caused (to the individual and community) by those drinking at very high levels in public" (ANCD 2002:p.2). Even so, other studies have indicated that those in the Indigenous communities who do drink excessively are at greater risk of harm (to themselves and others) than similar-level alcohol consumers in the wider population[44]


To combat the problem, a number of programs to prevent or mitigate against alcohol abuse have been attempted in different regions, many initiated from within the communities themselves. These strategies include such actions as the declaration of "Dry Zones" within indigenous communities, prohibition and restriction on point-of-sale access, and community policing and licensing. Some communities (particularly in the Northern Territory) introduced kava as a safer alternative to alcohol, as over-indulgence in kava produces sleepiness, in contrast to the violence that can result from over-indulgence in alcohol. These and other measures met with variable success, and while a number of communities have seen decreases in associated social problems caused by excessive drinking, others continue to struggle with the issue and it remains an ongoing concern. The ANCD study notes that in order to be effective, programs in general need also to address "...the underlying structural determinants that have a significant impact on alcohol and drug misuse" (Op. cit., p.26). In 2007, Kava was banned in the Northern Territory[45]. Binomial name G.Forst. ... Binomial name G.Forst. ...


Petrol sniffing is also a problem among some remote Indigenous communities. Petrol vapour produces euphoria and dulling effect in those who inhale it, and due to its relatively low price and widespread availability, is an increasingly popular substance of abuse. Proposed solutions to the problem are a topic of heated debate among politicians and the community at large.[46][47] In 2005 this problem among Aboriginal communities was considered so serious that a new petrol Opal was distributed across the Northern Territory to combat it. Opal petrol does not give the 'high' that regular petrol does[48]. An aerosol metered-dose inhaler (MDI) used for administration of asthma medication. ... Opal is a tyle of gasoline (petrol) fuel developed in 2005 by BP Australia to combat the rising use of gasoline as an inhalant by the Indigenous Australian community. ...


Political representation

See also: Voting rights of Australian Aboriginals

Under Section 41 of the Australian Constitution Aboriginals always had the legal right to vote in Australian Commonwealth elections if their State granted them that right. This meant that all Aborigines outside Queensland and Western Australia had a legal right to vote. Indigenous Australians gained the unqualified right to vote in Federal elections in 1962. It was not until 1967 that they were counted in the population for the purpose of distribution of electoral seats. Only two Indigenous Australians have been elected to the Australian Parliament, Neville Bonner (1971-1983) and Aden Ridgeway (1999-2005). There are currently no Indigenous Australians in the Australian Parliament. Historically the voting rights of Australian Aboriginals had been restricted in Australian parliaments and local government bodies. ... Neville Thomas Bonner AO (28 March 1922 - 5 February 1999), Australian politician, was the first Indigenous Australian to become a member of the Parliament of Australia. ... Aden Ridgeway Aden Derek Ridgeway (born 18 September 1962), Australian politician, was a member of the Australian Senate for New South Wales, from 1999 to 2005, representing the Australian Democrats. ...


ATSIC, the representative body of Aborigine and Torres Strait Islanders, was set up in 1990 under the Hawke government. In 2004, the Howard government disbanded ATSIC and replaced it with an appointed network of 30 Indigenous Coordination Centres that administer Shared Responsibility Agreements and Regional Partnership Agreements with Aboriginal communities at a local level.[49] The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) (1990–2004) was the Australian Government body through which aboriginal Australians were formally involved in the processes of government affecting their lives. ... Robert James Lee (Bob) Hawke, AC (born 9 December 1929) was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia after previously being an Australian trade union leader. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ...


In October 2007, just prior to the calling of a federal election, the then Prime Minister, John Howard, advocated a referendum to recognise Indigenous Australians in the Constitution. Reaction to his surprising adoption of the importance of the symbolic aspects of the reconciliation process, was mixed. The ALP supported the idea. Some sections of the Australian public and media [12] suggested it was a cynical attempt in the lead-up to an election to whitewash Mr Howard's poor handling of this issue during his term in office. David Ross (Central Land Council) said "its a new skin for an old snake." [50] (ABC radio 12 October 2007) The 2007 general election for the Parliament of Australia is expected to take place in November or early December, with 33 to 68 days notice. ...


Mainland Australia

Groups and communities

Throughout the history of the continent, there have been many different Aboriginal groups, each with their own individual language, culture, and belief structure. At the time of British settlement there were over 200 distinct languages. There are an indeterminate number of Indigenous communities, comprised of several hundred groupings. Some communities, cultures or groups may be inclusive of others and alter or overlap; significant changes have occurred in the generations after colonisation. This List of Indigenous Australian group names contains names and collective designations which have been applied, either formerly or in the past, to groups of Indigenous Australians. ... Australian Aboriginal kinship is the system of law governing social interaction, particularly marriage, in traditional Aboriginal culture. ... The Australian Aboriginal languages are a Australia, and the rest are descended linguistically from them. ... This List of Indigenous Australian group names contains names and collective designations which have been applied, either formerly or in the past, to groups of Indigenous Australians. ... The Australian Aboriginal languages comprise several language families and isolates native to Australia and a few nearby islands, but by convention excluding Tasmania. ...


The word 'community' is often used to describe groups identifying by kinship, language or belonging to a particular place or 'country'. A community may draw on separate cultural values and individuals can conceivably belong to a number of communities within Australia, identification within them may be adopted or rejected. An individual community may identify itself by many names, each of which can have alternate English spellings. The largest Aboriginal communities, the Pitjantjatjara, the Arrernte, the Luritja and the Warlpiri are all from Central Australia. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Image:Some aboriginal communities in the northern territory australia. ... Arrente is both a language, a group of people, and an area of land in Central Australia. ... Luritja is both an Australian Aboriginal country, a group of people and a language. ... Image:Some aboriginal communities in the northern territory australia. ... Central Australia is a term used to describe the area of land surrounding and including Alice Springs in Australia. ...

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Tiwi Islands and Groote Eylandt

Main articles: Tiwi Islands and Groote Eylandt

The Tiwi islands are inhabited by the Tiwi, an Aboriginal people culturally and linguistically distinct from those of Arnhem Land on the mainland just across the water. They number around 2,500. Groote Eylandt belongs to the Anindilyakwa Aboriginal people, and is part of the Arnhem Land Aboriginal Reserve. Landsat 7 imagery of the Tiwi Islands. ... Groote Eylandt from space, November 1989 Groote Eylandt is the largest island in the Gulf of Carpentaria in northeastern Australia and is the homeland of and is owned by, the Anindilyakwa people, spoken isolated Anindilyakwa language. ... Landsat 7 imagery of the Tiwi Islands. ... The Tiwi people are one of the many Indigenous groups of Australia. ... Groote Eylandt from space, November 1989 Groote Eylandt is the largest island in the Gulf of Carpentaria in northeastern Australia and is the homeland of and is owned by, the Anindilyakwa people, spoken isolated Anindilyakwa language. ... The Enindhilyagwa language, also spelled Andilyaugwa and Anindilyakwa, is an Australian language isolate spoken by the Warnindhilyagwa people on Groote Eylandt in the Gulf of Carpentaria in northern Australia. ...


Tasmania

Fanny Cochrane Smith
Fanny Cochrane Smith
Main article: Tasmanian Aborigines

The Tasmanian Aborigines are thought to have first crossed into Tasmania approximately 40,000 years ago via a land bridge between the island and the rest of mainland Australia during an ice age.[citation needed] The original population, estimated at 4,000 to 6,000 people, was reduced to a population of around 300 between 1803 and 1833 often due to the actions of British settlers.[citation needed] Almost all of the Tasmanian Aboriginal peoples today are descendants of two women: Fanny Cochrane Smith and Dolly Dalrymple.[citation needed] A woman named Truganini, who died in 1876, is generally considered to be the last first-generation tribal Tasmanian Aborigine while Fanny Cochrane Smith, who died in 1905, is recognised as the last of the Tasmanian Aboriginals.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x831, 55 KB) Fanny Cochrane Smith, a Tasmanian Aborigine, wearing a belt with wallaby pelts. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x831, 55 KB) Fanny Cochrane Smith, a Tasmanian Aborigine, wearing a belt with wallaby pelts. ... A picture of the last four Tasmanian Aborigines c. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Fanny Cochrane Smith Fanny Cochrane Smith, (ca. ... Truganini (ca. ...


This conflict is a subject of the Australian history wars, the 2002 publication of The Fabrication of Aboriginal History, Volume One: Van Diemen's Land 1803-1847 by Keith Windschuttle,[51] questioned the historical evidence used to identify the actual number of Aborigines killed stating that it was exaggerated and challenged what is labelled the "Black armband view of history" of Tasmanian colonisation. [13] After years of research, though only using officially-recorded deaths, Keith Windschuttle speculated that only 118 Tasmanian Aborigines had been killed in the whole period between 1803, when British settlement began, and 1847, when the frontier nature of Tasmanian society ended. Most Tasmanian Aboriginal deaths were the result of virulent diseases to which the natives had no immunity (including syphilis) and alcoholism.[52] His argument has been challenged by a number of authors, for example see "Contra Windschuttle" by S.G. Foster in Quadrant, March 2003, 47:3.[53] The History wars are an ongoing public debate over the interpretation of the history of the white colonisation of Australia and its influence on responses to the current situation of the original inhabitants of the land. ... Keith Windschuttle (born 1942) is an Australian writer who is the author of several books, including Unemployment (1979) which analyses the economic causes and social consequences of unemployment in Australia, The Media: a New Analysis of the Press, Television, Radio and Advertising in Australia (1984) on the political economy and... Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ... The black armband view of history is a phrase coined by Australian historian Professor Geoffrey Blainey in his 1993 Sir John Latham Memorial Lecture. ... Keith Windschuttle (born 1942) is an Australian writer who is the author of several books, including Unemployment (1979) which analyses the economic causes and social consequences of unemployment in Australia, The Media: a New Analysis of the Press, Television, Radio and Advertising in Australia (1984) on the political economy and... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ...


Torres Strait Islanders

Six per cent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders. A further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islanders and Aboriginal heritage.[54] The Torres Strait Islander Flag. ... Torres Strait and islands The Torres Strait - Cape York Peninsula is at the bottom; several of the Torres Strait Islands can be seen strung out towards Papua New Guinea to the north. ... Torres Strait and islands The Torres Strait - Cape York Peninsula is at the bottom; several of the Torres Strait Islands can be seen strung out towards Papua New Guinea to the north. ...


More than 100 islands make up the Torres Strait Islands where they come from.[55] There are 6,800 Torres Strait Islanders who live in the area of the Torres Strait, and 42,000 others who live outside of this area, mostly in the north of Queensland, such as in the coastal cities of Townsville and Cairns.[citation needed] Many organisations to do with Indigenous people in Australia are named "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander", showing the importance of Torres Strait Islanders in Australia's indigenous population. The islands were annexed by Queensland in 1879.[55] The Torres Strait Islanders were not given official recognition by the Australian government until the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission was set up in 1990.[citation needed] The Torres Strait Islands are a group of at least 274 small islands which lie in Torres Strait, the waterway separating far northern continental Australias Cape York Peninsula and the island of New Guinea. ...


Eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved.[55] Indigenous Australians should be aware that this article may contain pictures and names of deceased Aboriginal people and or images of their art work. ... Murray Island (known by Torres Strait Islanders as Mer) is a small island of volcanic origin, populated by the Melanesian Meriam people and situated in the eastern section of Torres Strait, near the Great Barrier Reef. ... Mabo v Queensland (No 2) (commonly known as Mabo) was a landmark Australian court case which was decided by the High Court of Australia on June 3, 1992. ...


Population

In 1983 the High Court of Australia[56] defined 'An Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander is a person of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent who identifies as an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander and is accepted as such by the community in which he or she lives'. This decision legally established that anyone who has a drop of Aboriginal blood can classify himself as an Aboriginal if he is accepted as such by his community. However, there is no formal procedure for any community to record acceptance, so the only method of determining indigenous population is from self-identification on census forms. There is no provision on the forms to differentiate full from part indigenous.[57] High Court entrance The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia, the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. ...


The latest Australian Bureau of Statistics 2005 snapshot of Australia shows the indigenous population has grown at twice the rate of the overall population since 1996 when the indigenous population stood at 283,000. As at June 2001, the Australian Bureau of Statistics estimated the total resident indigenous population to be 458,520 (2.4% of Australia's total), 90% of whom identified as Aboriginal, 6% Torres Strait Islander and the remaining 4% being of dual Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander parentage. Much of the increase since 1996 can be attributed to higher rates of people identifying themselves as Aborigines and changed definitions of aboriginality. The preliminary census of Indigenous estimated resident population of Australia, at 30 June 2006, is 517,200.[58] Australian Bureau of Statistics logo The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the Australian government agency that collects and publishes statistical information about Australia. ... The snapshot is a concept in photography introduced by Eastman Kodak with their Brownie box camera in 1900: A casual photograph taken without any particular pre-arrangement, often of every day events. ...


In the 2001 census the Aboriginal population in different States was:

While the State with the largest total Aboriginal population is New South Wales, as a percentage this constitutes only 2.1% of the overall population of the State. The Northern Territory has the largest Aboriginal population in percentage terms for a State or Territory, with 28.8%. All the other States and Territories have less than 4% of their total populations identifying as Aboriginal; Victoria has the lowest percentage (0.6%). NSW redirects here. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004... VIC redirects here. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ... For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004...


In 2001 about 30% of the Aboriginal population was living in major cities (a decrease from the 46% living in urban areas in 1971) and another 43% in or close to rural towns. The populations in the eastern states are more likely to be urbanised sometimes in city communities such as at Redfern in Sydney.[citation needed] Redfern is an inner-city suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. ...


Prominent Indigenous Australians

See also: Category:Indigenous Australian sportspeople

There have been many distinguished Indigenous Australians, in politics, sports, the arts and other areas. These include (in alphabetical order): Various indigenous Australian cultures consider the reference of deceased persons - whether in name or in image - to be taboo. ...

Captain of the Australia national rugby league football team Arthur Henry Beetson OAM (born January 22, 1945 in Roma, Queensland) was a leading rugby league player for Queensland and Australia from 1964 to 1981. ... Australia team jersey The Australian national rugby league side represents Australia at rugby league. ... Neville Thomas Bonner AO (28 March 1922 - 5 February 1999), Australian politician, was the first Indigenous Australian to become a member of the Parliament of Australia. ... Type Upper house President Alan Ferguson, Liberal since 14 August 2007 Members 76 Political groups Coalition (39) ALP (28) Green (4) Democrat (4) FFP (1) Last elections 9 October 2004 Meeting place Parliament House, Canberra, ACT Web site Senate Entrance to the Senate Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State... Ernie Dingo (born 31 July 1956) is a Yamatji from the Maheleny region of Western Australia. ... Mark Ella In Action Mark Ella was born on Friday, June 5th, 1959. ... Catherine Astrid Salome Freeman also known as just Cathy Freeman OAM (born 16 February 1973) is an Australian sprinter who is particularly associated with the 400 m race. ... Jason Neil Gillespie (born April 19, 1975 in Sydney) is an Australian cricketer (right arm fast bowler). ... Adam Goodes (born January 8, 1980 in Wallaroo, South Australia[1]) is an Australian rules football player and dual Brownlow Medal winner. ... The Charles Brownlow Trophy, better known as the Brownlow Medal, is the medal awarded to the best and fairest player in the Australian Football League during the regular season (ie not including finals matches) as decided upon by umpires. ... Evonne Fay Goolagong Cawley AO MBE (born July 31, 1951, in Griffith, New South Wales, Australia) is a former World No. ... In tennis, a singles player or doubles team that wins all four Grand Slam titles in the same year is said to have achieved the Grand Slam or a Calendar Year Grand Slam. ... David Gulpilil (Gurlpiril is linguistically correct though he is sometimes credited as David Gumpilil) (b. ... Andrew Luke McLeod (born August 4, 1976) is an Australian rules football player in the Australian Football League of Aboriginal descent, and is number 23 of the Adelaide Football Club. ... The Norm Smith Medal is the award given in AFL grand final to the player adjudged by an independent panel of experts to have been the best player in the match. ... Marcia Langton Marcia Langton holds the Foundation Chair in Australian Indigenous Studies at the University of Melbourne, Australia. ... Prime Minister Gough Whitlam pours the sand into Vincent Lingiaris hand. ... Michael Long (born October 1, 1969 in Darwin, Northern Territory) is a former Australian rules footballer and spokesperson against racism in sport. ... Anthony Mundine (born 21 May 1975) is a boxer, former Australian rugby league player of mixed White and Indigenous Australian descent and WBA Super Middleweight champion. ... Namatjira outside Government House, Sydney, circa 1947. ... Sir Douglas Doug Ralph Nicholls, KCVO, OBE (1906–1988) was an Australian Aborigine from the Yorta Yorta people of New South Wales. ... Oodgeroo Noonuccal (Born Kathleen Jean Mary Ruska, formerly Kath Walker) (3 November 1920—16 September 1993) was an Australian poet, Political activist, artist and educator. ... Lowitja (Lois) ODonoghue AC CBE was born August 1st 1932 in Granite Downs, South Australia, to Tom ODonoghue and Lily (known as just Lily). ... Noel Pearson (born in June 1965 in Cooktown, Australia) is an Indigenous Australian lawyer and land rights activist. ... Charles Nelson Perkins AO, aka Kumantjayi Perkins immediately following his death, (June 16, 1936 — October 19, 2000) was an Australian Aboriginal activist and football (soccer) player, coach and administrator. ... Aden Ridgeway Aden Derek Ridgeway (born 18 September 1962), Australian politician, was a member of the Australian Senate for New South Wales, from 1999 to 2005, representing the Australian Democrats. ... Type Upper house President Alan Ferguson, Liberal since 14 August 2007 Members 76 Political groups Coalition (39) ALP (28) Green (4) Democrat (4) FFP (1) Last elections 9 October 2004 Meeting place Parliament House, Canberra, ACT Web site Senate Entrance to the Senate Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lionel Rose MBE (born June 21, 1948) is an Australian bantamweight boxer, now retired, who became the first Aboriginal in boxing history to win a world title. ... Gavin Wanganeen (born 16 June 1973) is an Australian rules footballer, currently playing with the Port Adelaide Football Club. ... Mandawuy Yunupingu (b. ... Deborah Mailman (born July 14, 1972 in Mount Isa, Queensland), Australian actress, was the first Aboriginal actor to win the Australian Film Institute Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role. ... The Australian Film Institute Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role is an award in the annual Australian Film Institute Awards. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Australian Aboriginals

This is a list of articles that are related to African and black people. ... Languages see Indigenous Australian languages Religions see Australian Aboriginal mythology Australian Aborigines ( , aka Aboriginal Australians) are a class of peoples who are identified by Australian law as being members of a race indigenous to the Australian continent. ... The Torres Strait Islander Flag. ... A picture of the last four Tasmanian Aborigines c. ... This List of Indigenous Australian group names contains names and collective designations which have been applied, either formerly or in the past, to groups of Indigenous Australians. ... Numerous Indigenous Australians have been notable for their contributions to politics, including participation in governments and activism in Australia. ... Numerous Indigenous Australians and noted sportspeople. ... Numerous Indigenous Australians are noted for their participation in, and contributions to, the visual arts in Australia and abroad. ... // Mark Bin Bakar -- actor & comedian Stephen Page Frances Rings Kylie Belling -- actor Ernie Dingo -- actor and television presenter Stan Grant (journalist) television presenter David Gulpilil -- actor Tom E. Lewis -- actor, musician Deborah Mailman -- actor Leah Purcell -- actor Everlyn Sampi -- actor Justine Saunders -- actor Caitlin Stasey -- actor Ivan Sen -- filmmaker Robert... Numerous Indigenous Australians are notable for their contributions to Australian literature and journalism. ... This is a list of Indigenous Australian musicians. ... Aboriginal Australia contains a large number of tribal divisions and language groups, and, corresponding to this, a wide variety of diversity exists within cultural practices. ... This article is about Australian Aboriginal cosmogony, cosmology and spirituality. ... opens chapter nine of The Dreaming Universe (1994) entitled The Dreamtime with a quote from The Last Wave, a film by Peter Weir: Aboriginals believe in two forms of time. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Australian Aboriginal kinship is the system of law governing social interaction, particularly marriage, in traditional Aboriginal culture. ... Australian Aboriginal avoidance practices refers to those relationships in traditional Aboriginal society where certain people were required to avoid others in their family or clan. ... Indigenous Australians had distinct ways of dividing the year up. ... Australian Aboriginal enumeration refers to the way some Australian Aborigines traditionally counted. ... Marn Grook (also spelt marngrook) is an Australian Aboriginal ball game, which is claimed to have had an influence on the modern game of Australian rules football, most notably in the spectacular jumping and high marking exhibited by the players of both games. ... Kurdaitcha (or kurdaitcha man) is a ritual executioner in Aboriginal Australian culture. ... Many of the Australian Aboriginal cultures have a strong element of astronomy. ... Songlines - the British based world music magazine featuring the greatest artists in the current music scene on the web at [Songlines http://www. ... A message stick is a form of communication traditionally used by Indigenous Australians. ... The Deadlys are an annual celebration of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander achievement in music, sport, entertainment and community. ... NAIDOC National Aboriginal Islander Day Observance Committee ... A Bora is the name given both to an initiation ceremony of Indigenous Australians, and to the site on which the initiation is performed. ... The Outstation movement refers to the relocation of Indigenous Australians from towns to remote outposts on traditional tribal land. ... Riji are the pearl shells traditionally worn by Aboriginal men in the north-west part of Australia, around present day Broome. ... First international Biggest win Biggest defeat The Australian Indigenous national football team is the official football (soccer) team for the Indigenous Australian People. ... This List of Indigenous Australian group names contains names and collective designations which have been applied, either formerly or in the past, to groups of Indigenous Australians. ... The Pama-Nyungan languages are the most widespread family of Australian languages. ... Many Australian Aboriginal cultures have or traditionally had a sign language counterpart to their spoken language. ... Avoidance speech, or mother-in-law languages, is a feature of many Australian Aboriginal languages and some North American languages whereby in the presence of certain relatives it is taboo to use everyday speech style, and instead a special speech style must be used. ... . ... These words of Australian Aboriginal origin include some which are almost universal in the English-speaking world, such as kangaroo and boomerang. ... The Gunwinyguan languages form the second largest family of Australian Aboriginal languages. ... Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) is a term referring to the various varieties of the English language used by Indigenous Australians. ... Kriol is an Australian creole that developed out of the contact between European settlers and the indigenous people in the northern regions of Australia. ... There are two languages indigenous to Torres Strait Islanders. ... The Northern Land Council (NLC) is in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. ... The Central Land Council is in the southern half of the Northern Territory of Australia. ... The Aboriginal Medical Service (AMS) was established in Redfern from 1971. ... Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation (ANTaR) is an independent, national network of mainly non-Indigenous organisations and individuals working in support of justice for Indigenous Australians. ... Reconciliation Australia is the non-government, not-for-profit foundation established in January 2001 to provide a continuing national focus for reconciliation. ... European Network for Indigenous Australian Rights (ENIAR) is a European wide non-profit organisation that promotes awareness of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander issues and to provide information for Indigenous Australians about European and international organisations. ... The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) is an independent Australian Government statutory authority. ... The National Indigenous Council is an appointed advisory body to the Australian Government through the Ministerial Taskforce on Indigenous Affairs. ... The Aborigines Advancement League (also known as the Aboriginal Advancement League) is the oldest Aboriginal organisation in Australia[1]. It is primarily concerned with Aboriginal welfare issues and the preservation of Aboriginal culture and heritage, and is based in Melbourne. ... Alice Springs Desert Park, Bush Tucker The word Bushfood refers to any food native to Australia and used as sustenance by the original inhabitants, the Australian Aborigines, although it is sometimes used with the specific connotation of food found in the Outback while living on the land. It is also... Bush medicine is the term used in Australia by Aboriginal people to describe their traditional medicinal knowledge and practices. ... Aboriginal millstone - vital in making flour or pastes for bread. ... Australian Aboriginal fibrecraft refers to the various ways Australian Aborigines created fibres traditionally. ... A soakage, or soak, is a source of water in Australian deserts. ... A 19th century engraving showing Aboriginal people and humpy. ... Sewn and incised possum-skin cloak of Wurundjeri origin (Melbourne Museum) Possum-skin cloaks were a form of clothing worn by Australian Aborigines in the south-east of the continent – present-day Victoria and southern New South Wales. ... Buka, or Boka, is the name for the cloak traditionally worn by Noongar people, the Indigenous people of south-western Australia. ... Indigenous Australian peoples traditionally classified food sources in a methodical way. ... Australian Aborigines had many ways to source sweet foods. ... Fire-stick farming is a term coined by Australian archeologist Rhys Jones in 1969 to describe the practice of Indigenous Australians where fire was used regularly to burn vegetation to facilitate hunting and to change the composition of plant and animal species in an area. ... The woomera in this picture is the wooden object at left A woomera is an Australian Aboriginal spear-throwing device. ... This article is about the wooden implement. ... The coolamon in this picture is at top left. ... A Waddy is an Australian Aboriginal war club. ... Spinifex (Triodia) plant Spinifex resin refers to the gum traditionally made by Australian Aborigines by burning the Spinifex plant and extracting its resin. ... Aboriginal hollowed log coffin Indigenous Australian art is art produced by Indigenous Australians, covering works that pre-date European colonisation as well as contemporary art by Aboriginal Australians based on traditional culture. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Papunya Tula, or Papunya Tula Artists Pty Ltd, is an artists cooperative, formed in 1972 to market the paintings of a group of Aboriginal Australian men who had begun painting traditional designs using western art materials at the Papunya settlement, 240 km northwest of Alice Springs in Central Australia in... Indigenous Australian music includes the music of Australian Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders, who are collectively called Indigenous Australians; it incorporates a wide variety of distinctive traditional music styles practised by Indigenous Australian peoples, as well as a range of contemporary musical styles both derivative of and fusion with European... Aboriginal rock is a rather nebulous term for a style of music which mixes traditional rock music elements (guitar, drums, bass etc) with the instrumentation of Indigenous Australians (Didjeridu, clap-sticks etc). ... A didgeridoo. ... Vibe Australia Pty Ltd (Vibe) is an Aboriginal media, communications and events management agency. ... The National Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Art Award (NATSIAA) is one of the most prestigious art awards in Australia. ... The prehistory of Australia is the period between the first human habitation of the Australian continent and the first definitive sighting of Australia by Europeans in 1606, which may be taken as the beginning of the recent history of Australia. ... A 19th century engraving of an Indigenous Australian encampment, showing the indigenous lifestyle in the cooler parts of Australia at the time of European settlement. ... Some Indigenous Australians are remembered in history for leadership prior to European colonisation, some for their resistance to that colonisation, others for assisting Europeans explore the country. ... The Aboriginal History of Western Australia is the history of the indigenous inhabitants of the western third of the Australian continent, from their own perspective. ... The 1946 Pilbara strike was a landmark strike by Indigenous Australian pastoral workers in the Pilbara region of Western Australia for human rights recognition and payment of fair wages and working conditions. ... Shows location of Gurindji (blue, near top left) in the Northern Territory The Gurindji Strike lasted from 1966 to 1975 at Wave Hill cattle station in the Northern Territory of Australia. ... This is a list of massacres of Aboriginal Australians. ... Umbarra, King Merriman, from the Djirringanj of Bermagui with King plate King plates were a form of regalia used chiefly in pre-Federation Australia by white colonial authorities to recognise local Aboriginal leaders. ... Proclamation of the Day of Mourning. ... The Aboriginal Tent Embassy in Canberra has existed intermittently since 1972. ... The Caledon bay crisis refers to a series of killings in Caledon Bay in the Northern Territory of Australia in 1932-1934. ... From as early as the 1830s, a Native Police Corps was established in the Australian colony of New South Wales (now Victoria). ... Proclamation of the Day of Mourning. ... The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) (1990–2005) was the Australian Government body through which Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders were formally involved in the processes of government affecting their lives. ... The Pintupi Nine refers to a group of nine Pintupi people who were discovered living a traditional semi-nomadic desert-dwelling life in the Gibson Desert in 1984. ... A picture of the last four Tasmanian Aborigines c. ... The Stolen Generation is a term used to describe the Australian Aboriginal children, usually of mixed descent, who were removed from their families by Australian government agencies and church missions, under various state acts of parliament, denying the rights of parents and making all Aboriginal cildren wards of the state... Native title is a concept in the law of Australia that recognises the continued ownership of land by local Indigenous Australians. ... Petrol sniffing is a form of substance abuse where a person deliberately inhales petrol fumes for the intoxicating effect. ... The Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody (1987-1991) investigated allegations of murder of Australian Aboriginals in prison. ... The Northern Territory National Emergency Response is a package of welfare reform, law enforcement and other measures, which the Australian federal government claims is designed to address endemic levels of child sexual abuse in the Northern Territory, Australia. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]Australian Bureau of Statistics
  2. ^ "When did Australia’s earliest inhabitants arrive?", University of Wollongong, 2004. Retrieved June 6, 2008
  3. ^ "Aboriginal truth and white media: Eric Michaels meets the spirit of Aboriginalism", The Australian Journal of Media & Culture, vol. 3 no 3, 1990. Retrieved June 6, 2008
  4. ^ "Australian Social Trends" Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1999, Retrieved on June 6, 2008,
  5. ^ Nathan, D: "Aboriginal Languages of Australia", Aboriginal Languages of Australia Virtual Library, "http://www.dnathan.com/VL/austLang.htm" 2007
  6. ^ 1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2002 Australian Bureau of Statistics January 25, 2002
  7. ^ Pardoe, C: "Becoming Australian: evolutionary processes and biological variation from ancient to modern times", Before Farming 2006, Article 4, 2006
  8. ^ Chris Gibson, Peter Dunbar-Hall, Deadly Sounds, Deadly Places: Contemporary Aboriginal Music in Australia, pp. 120-121 (UNSW Press, 2005)
  9. ^ Originally used by the Romans to denote the (mythical) indigenous people of ancient Italy; see Sallust, Bellum Catilinae, ch. 6.
  10. ^ UNSW guide on How to avoid Discriminatory Treatment on Racial of Ethnic Grounds
  11. ^ Bowern, Claire and Harold Koch (eds.). 2004. Australian Languages: Classification and the comparative method. John Benjamins, Sydney.
  12. ^ Dixon, R.M.W. 1997. The Rise and Fall of Languages. CUP.
  13. ^ 1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2002 Australian Bureau of Statistics January 25, 2002
  14. ^ Smallpox Through History
  15. ^ BC [Before Cook and Colonisation]
  16. ^ Charles Perkins, Order of Australia, Official Biography. 'A bastard Like Me'. 1975.
  17. ^ Aboriginal population much higher than records show The University of Sydney September 14, 2006
  18. ^ Tatz, C. (1999, 2005). Aboriginal Suicide Is Different. Aboriginal Studies Press. [2]
  19. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics - Religion
  20. ^ Phil Mercer. "Aborigines turn to Islam", BBC, 31 March, 2003. Retrieved on 2007-05-25. 
  21. ^ Andrews, M. (2004) 'The Seven Sisters', Spinifex Press, North Melbourne, p. 424
  22. ^ (From William Blandowski's Australien in 142 Photographischen Abbildungen, 1857, (Haddon Library, Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge)
  23. ^ Kids play kick to kick -1850s style from abc.net.au
  24. ^ [3]
  25. ^ a b c d e f Australian Bureau of Statistics
  26. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. Year Book Australia 2005
  27. ^ Mutual obligation, shared responsibility agreements & indigenous health strategy, Ian PS Anderson [4]
  28. ^ Nothing mutual about denying Aborigines a voice, Larissa Behrendt, The Age newspaper, December 8, 2004 [5]
  29. ^ Mutual Obligation Requirements
  30. ^ "Rudd says sorry", Dylan Welch, Sydney Morning Herald February 13, 2008
  31. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (May 14, 2007). The health and wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women: A snapshot, 2004-05.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. [6]
  33. ^ ABC News [7]
  34. ^ a b c d e f Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. [8]
  35. ^ Petrol Sniffing - Health & Wellbeing
  36. ^ Alcohol and Other Drugs - Petrol
  37. ^ T. Vos, B. Barker, L. Stanley, A Lopez (2007). The burden of disease and injury in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: Summary report, page 14. Brisbane: School of Population Health, University of Queensland. [9]
  38. ^ http://www.aboriginal.health.wa.gov.au/healthinfo/index.cfm
  39. ^ a b c d 4102.0 - Australian Social Trends, 2005: Crime and Justice: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: Contact with the Law ABS. Australian Bureau of Statistics (12/07/2005). Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
  40. ^ Tony Koch. "Women act after three in five kids abused", The Australian, 17 May, 2006. 
  41. ^ Child abuse a 'national problem' | The Australian
  42. ^ Australian Statistician (2006). "National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey, 2004-05 (ABS Cat. 4715.0), Table 6.". pdf. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved on 2006-06-01. The percentage-point difference between the two figures quoted is not statistically significant, and a similar result was obtained in the earlier 2000-01 survey. The definition of "risky" and "high-risk" consumption used is 4 or more standard drinks per day average for males, 2 or more for females.
  43. ^ Australian National Commission on Drugs (2002). "ANCD Report into Cape York Indigenous Issues". pdf. Retrieved on 2006-06-01.
  44. ^ Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) (2005). "National Drug Strategy Household Survey - detailed findings". pdf. Retrieved on 2006-06-01., p.32 et. seq.
  45. ^ Australian Broadcasting Commission (2007) "Kava Ban 'Sparks Black Market Boom'", ABC Darwin 23 August 2007 http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2007/08/23/2012707.htm?site=darwin Accessed 18 October 2007
  46. ^ Effects of sniffing petrol Northern Territory Government Health Department
  47. ^ Petrol Sniffing in Remote Northern Territory Communities Legislative Assembly of the Northern Territory
  48. ^ Australian Health Ministry
  49. ^ Coordination and engagement at regional and national levels. Administration. Office of Indigenous Policy Coordination (2006). Retrieved on 2006-05-17.
  50. ^ (ABC Television News 12 October 2007)Patrick Dodson said "I think it's a positive contribution to the process of national reconciliation...It's obviously got to be well discussed and considered and weighed, and it's got to be about meaningful and proper negotiations that can lead to the achievement of constitutional reconciliation."
  51. ^ The Fabrication of Aboriginal History, Volume One: Van Diemen's Land 1803-1847, Keith Windschuttle, 2002, ISBN 1-876492-05-8
  52. ^ Historian dismisses Tasmanian aboriginal genocide "myth",PM show, ABC Local Radio, 12 December 2002. Transcript accessed 22 June 2007.
  53. ^ "Contra Windschuttle", S.G. Foster Quadrant, March 2003, 47:3 [10]
  54. ^ Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population, Australian Bureau of Statistics 2004. Accessed 21 June 2007.
  55. ^ a b c Places - Torres Strait Islands ABC Radio Australia website, 2005. Accessed 21 June 2007.
  56. ^ Commonwealth v Tasmania [1983] HCA 21; (1983) 158 CLR 1 (1 July 1983)
  57. ^ John Gardiner-Garden (2000-10-05). The Definition of Aboriginality. Parliamentary Library. Parliament of Australia. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  58. ^ Population Distribution, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians Australian Bureau of Statistics 15 AUG 2007 pdf.

Tim Flannery (1994), The Future Eaters: An Ecological History of the Australasian Lands and People, ISBN 0-8021-3943-4 ISBN 0-7301-0422-2 Australian Bureau of Statistics logo The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the Australian government agency that collects and publishes statistical information about Australia. ... Australian Bureau of Statistics logo The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the Australian government agency that collects and publishes statistical information about Australia. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Gaius Sallustius Crispus, simply known as Sallust, (86-34 BC). ... Australian Bureau of Statistics logo The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the Australian government agency that collects and publishes statistical information about Australia. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The University of Sydney, established in Sydney in 1850, is the oldest university in Australia. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Australian Bureau of Statistics logo The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the Australian government agency that collects and publishes statistical information about Australia. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ABC Local Radio is a network of publicly-owned radio stations in Australia, operated by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Quadrant is an Australian literary and cultural journal founded in 1956 by Richard Krygier, a Polish-Jewish refugee who had been active in social-democrat politics in Europe, James McAuley, a Catholic poet. ... Australian Bureau of Statistics logo The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the Australian government agency that collects and publishes statistical information about Australia. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Australian Bureau of Statistics logo The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the Australian government agency that collects and publishes statistical information about Australia. ...


Further reading

  • Jamison, T. The Australian Aboriginal People: Dating the Colonization of Australia

External links

  • Ceremony The Djungguwan of Northeast Arnhem Land
  • Aborigines win 'native title' over Perth
  • Australia's largest circulating Indigenous Affairs Newspaper
  • Latest Indigenous news from ABC News Online
  • Indigenous Australians - State Library of NSW
  • Aboriginal Studies Virtual Library
  • Department of Indigenous Affairs (Australian Government)
  • European Network for Indigenous Australian Rights
  • Indigenous Australia - Australian Museum educational site
  • KooriWeb
  • Norman B. Tindale's Catalogue of Aboriginal Tribes
  • Reconciliation Australia
  • Australian, Bosnian and Norwagian Cross-Bred Children
  • Classroom Resources
  • Joel Gibson. "Australia worst in the world for indigenous health", stuff.com.nx, 1 May 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-25. 
  • Australian Bureau of Statistics. "Law and justice statistics - Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: a snapshot, 2002", May 14, 2007. 
  • [http://enc.slq.qld.gov.au/vbook/slq/original-girl/index.htm
Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Indigenous Australians - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7456 words)
Indigenous Australians are the first human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands, believing they have been in occupation since the beginning of time and continuing their presence during European settlement.
Indigenous Australians were given the right to vote in Commonwealth elections in Australia in November 1963, and in state elections shortly after, with the last state to do this being Queensland in 1965.
As at June 2001, the Australian Bureau of Statistics estimated the total resident indigenous population to be 458,520 (2.4% of Australia's total), 90% of whom identified as Aboriginal, 6% Torres Strait Islander and the remaining 4% being of dual Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander parentage.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m