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Encyclopedia > Indian Ocean
Earth's oceans
(World Ocean)
This article is about the water body. For the Indian fusion music band, see Indian Ocean (band).

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering about 20% of the Earth's water surface. It is bounded on the north by Asia (including the Indian subcontinent, after which it is named); on the west by Africa; on the east by Indochina, the Sunda Islands, and Australia; and on the south by the Southern Ocean (or, traditionally, by Antarctica). One component of the all-encompassing World Ocean, the Indian Ocean is delineated from the Atlantic Ocean by the 20° east meridian running south from Cape Agulhas,[1] and from the Pacific by the 147° east meridian. The northernmost extent of the Indian Ocean is approximately 30° north latitude in the Persian Gulf and, thus, has asymmetric ocean circulation. This ocean is nearly 10,000 kilometres (6,200 mi) wide at the southern tips of Africa and Australia; its area is 73,556,000 square kilometres (28,400,000 mi²), including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... Indian Ocean is a contemporary fusion music band from India. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... The Sunda Islands are a group of islands in west part of the Indonesian Archipelago. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... On the earth, a meridian is a north-south line between the North Pole and the South Pole. ... A marker at Cape Agulhas indicates the official dividing line between the Atlantic and Indian oceans. ... Pacific redirects here. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...

The ocean's volume is estimated to be 292,131,000 cubic kilometres (70,086,000 mi³). Small islands dot the continental rims. Island nations within the ocean are Madagascar (formerly Malagasy Republic), the world's fourth largest island; Comoros; Seychelles; Maldives; Mauritius; and Sri Lanka. Indonesia borders it. The ocean's importance as a transit route between Asia and Africa has made it a scene of conflict. Because of its size, however, no nation had successfully dominated most of it until the early 1800s when the United Kingdom controlled much of the surrounding land. After the decline of the British Empire, the ocean has been dominated by India and Australia. Map of The Indian Ocean (CIA FB 2002) File links The following pages link to this file: Indian Ocean Categories: United States government images | Ocean maps ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...

Contents

Geography

The African, Indian, and Antarctic crustal plates converge in the Indian Ocean. Their junctures are marked by branches of the Mid-Oceanic Ridge forming an inverted Y, with the stem running south from the edge of the continental shelf near Mumbai, India. The eastern, western, and southern basins thus formed are subdivided into smaller basins by ridges. The ocean's continental shelves are narrow, averaging 200 kilometres (125 mi) in width. An exception is found off Australia's western coast, where the shelf width exceeds 1,000 kilometres (600 mi). The average depth of the ocean is 3,890 metres (12,760 ft) making it the deepest of the big three in median depth. Its deepest point, is in the Diamantina Deep close to the coast of south west Western Australia. North of 50° south latitude, 86% of the main basin is covered by pelagic sediments, of which more than half is globigerina ooze. The remaining 14% is layered with terrigenous sediments. Glacial outwash dominates the extreme southern latitudes.  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... Diamantina Deep Is the deepest point of the Indian Ocean and is located in the Diamantina Trench south west of Perth, Western Australia. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... The pelagic zone is the part of the open sea or ocean comprising the water column, i. ... An order of calcareous planktic Foraminifera. ... In oceanography, terrigenous sediments are those derived from the erosion of rocks on land; that is, that are derived from terrestrial environments. ...


A spring 2000 decision by the International Hydrographic Organisation delimited a fifth world ocean, stripping the southern portions of the Indian Ocean. The new ocean extends from the coast of Antarctica north to 60° south latitude which coincides with the Antarctic Treaty Limit. The Indian Ocean remains the third-largest of the world's five oceans. The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental international organization established in 1921. ... The Southern Ocean, also known as the Great Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Ocean and the South Polar Ocean, is the International Hydrographic Organizations oceanic division encircling Antarctica, comprising the southernmost waters of the World Ocean south of 60° S latitude. ...


Major choke points include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, Strait of Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the Lombok Strait. Seas include Andaman Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Great Australian Bight, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman, Laccadive Sea, Mozambique Channel, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Strait of Malacca, and other tributary water bodies. Bab-el-Mandeb area with description The Bab-el-Mandeb, alternatively Bab el Mandab, Bab al Mandab, or Bab al Mandeb meaning Gate of Tears in Arabic (باب المندب), is the strait separating the continents of Asia (Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula) and Africa (Djibouti, north of Somalia on the Horn of... Historical map of the area (1892) Map Of Strait of Hormuz Satellite image The Strait of Hormuz (Arabic: ‎, Persian: ‎) is a narrow, strategically important stretch of ocean between the Gulf of Oman in the southeast and the Persian Gulf in the southwest. ... A close-up map showing the Strait of Malacca separating peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... The Lombok Strait is a strait connecting the Java Sea to the Indian Ocean, located between the islands of Bali and Lombok. ... The Andaman Sea (Burmese: ; IPA: ) is a body of water to the southeast of the Bay of Bengal, south of Myanmar, west of Thailand and east of the Andaman Islands; it is part of the Indian Ocean. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Great Australian Bight is a large bight, or open bay, encompassing an area of the Southern Ocean located off the central and western portions of the southern coastline of mainland Australia. ... Gulf of Aden in 1860 The Gulf of Aden (Arabic: خليج عدن; transliterated: Khalyj Adan) is located in the Indian Ocean between Yemen on the south coast of the Arabian Peninsula and Somalia in Africa. ... Gulf of Oman The Gulf of Oman (Arabic: خليج عمان; transliterated: khalīj ʿumān, Persian: دریای عمان یا دریای پازس; transliterated: daryā-ye ʿomān,Pars) Persian sea is a strait that connects the Arabian Sea with the Persian Gulf; it is generally included as a branch of the Persian Gulf, not as an arm of... The Laccadive Sea encirces the Lakshadweep Islands belonging to India. ... Location of Mozambique Channel The Mozambique Channel is a portion of the Indian Ocean between the island of Madagascar and southeast Africa, namely Mozambique. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... A close-up map showing the Strait of Malacca separating peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ...


Climate

The climate north of the equator is affected by a monsoon or tornado wind system. Strong north-east winds blow from October until April; from May until October south and west winds prevail. In the Arabian Sea the violent monsoon brings rain to the Indian subcontinent. In the southern hemisphere the winds generally are milder, but summer storms near Mauritius can be severe. When the monsoon winds change, cyclones sometimes strike the shores of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The Indian Ocean happens to be the warmest ocean in the world. World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the weather phenomenon. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Hydrology

Bathymetric map of the Indian Ocean
Bathymetric map of the Indian Ocean

Among the few large rivers flowing into the Indian Ocean are the Zambezi, Shatt al-Arab, Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Ayeyarwady River. Currents are mainly controlled by the monsoon. Two large circular currents, one in the northern hemisphere flowing clockwise and one south of the equator moving anticlockwise, constitute the dominant flow pattern. During the winter monsoon, however, currents in the north are reversed. Deep water circulation is controlled primarily by inflows from the Atlantic Ocean, the Red Sea, and Antarctic currents. North of 20° south latitude the minimum surface temperature is 22 °C (72 °F), exceeding 28 °C (82 °F) to the east. Southward of 40° south latitude, temperatures drop quickly. Surface water salinity ranges from 32 to 37 parts per 1000, the highest occurring in the Arabian Sea and in a belt between southern Africa and south-western Australia. Pack ice and icebergs are found throughout the year south of about 65° south latitude. The average northern limit of icebergs is 45° south latitude. Download high resolution version (800x874, 1227 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (800x874, 1227 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب, Stream of the Arabs) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrÅ«d in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindhu; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδός Indos) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... This article is about the river. ... The Brahmaputra is one of the major rivers of Asia. ... The Ayeyarwady River or Irrawaddy River (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) is a river that flows through Burma (Myanmar). ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ...


Economy

The Indian Ocean provides major sea routes connecting the Middle East, Africa, and East Asia with Europe and the Americas. It carries a particularly heavy traffic of petroleum and petroleum products from the oilfields of the Persian Gulf and Indonesia. Large reserves of hydrocarbons are being tapped in the offshore areas of Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, and Western Australia. An estimated 40% of the world's offshore oil production comes from the Indian Ocean. Beach sands rich in heavy minerals, and offshore placer deposits are actively exploited by bordering countries, particularly India, South Africa, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ...


The warmth of the Indian Ocean keeps phytoplankton production low, except along the northern fringes and in a few scattered spots elsewhere; life in the ocean is thus limited. Fishing is confined to subsistence levels. Its fish are of great and growing importance to the bordering countries for domestic consumption and export. Fishing fleets from Russia, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan also exploit the Indian Ocean, mainly for shrimp and tuna. For the SpongeBob SquarePants character, see Plankton (SpongeBob SquarePants). ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... For other uses, see Tuna (disambiguation). ...


Endangered marine species include the dugong, seals, turtles, and whales. Binomial name (Müller, 1776) Natural range of . ... subfamilies Otariidae Phocidae Odobenidae Pinnipeds are large marine mammals belonging to the Pinnipedia, a family (sometimes a suborder or superfamily, depending on the classification scheme) of the order Carnivora. ... For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation). ... This article is about the animal. ...


Oil pollution threatens the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...


History

The world's earliest civilizations in Mesopotamia (beginning with Sumer), ancient Egypt, and the Indian subcontinent (beginning with the Indus Valley civilization), which began along the valleys of the Tigris-Euphrates, Nile and Indus rivers respectively, had all developed around the Indian Ocean. Civilizations soon arose in Persia (beginning with Elam) and later in Southeast Asia (beginning with Funan). During Egypt's first dynasty (c. 3000 BC), sailors were sent out onto its waters, journeying to Punt, thought to be part of present-day Somalia. Returning ships brought gold and myrrh. The earliest known maritime trade between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley (c. 2500 BC) was conducted along the Indian Ocean. Phoenicians of the late 3rd millennium BC may have entered the area, but no settlements resulted. Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Sumer (or Å umer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindhu; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδός Indos) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Funan (Old Khmer Bnam, Modern Khmer Phnom (i. ... The Land of Punt was a fabled and exotic source of trade with Ancient Egypt. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ...


The Indian Ocean is far calmer and thus opened to trade earlier than the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans. The powerful monsoons also meant ships could easily sail west early in the season, then wait a few months and return eastwards. This allowed Indonesian peoples to cross the Indian Ocean to settle in Madagascar. For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ...


In the second or first century BC, Eudoxus of Cyzicus was the first Greek to cross the Indian Ocean. Hippalus is said to have discovered the direct route from Arabia to India around this time. During the first and second centuries intensive trade relations developed between Roman Egypt and the Tamil kingdoms of the Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas in Southern India. Like the Indonesian peoples above, the western sailors used the monsoon to cross the ocean. The unknown author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea describes this route and the ports and trade goods along the coasts of Africa and India around AD 70. Another article treats of Eudoxus of Cnidus. ... Hippalus was a Greek navigator who probably lived in the 1st century BCE. He is sometimes conjectured to have been the captain of the Greek explorer Eudoxus of Cyzicus ship. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Roman commerce was the engine that drove the growth of the Roman Empire. ... The conquests of Alexander the Great brought Egypt within the orbit of the Greek world for the next 900 years. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are a multi-ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... The Cheras were one of the three ancient Tamil dynasties who ruled the southern tip of the peninsula of India for most of its early history. ... The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. ...


From 1405 to 1433, Admiral Zheng He led large fleets of the Ming Dynasty on several voyages to the Western Ocean (Chinese name for the Indian Ocean) and reached the coastal country of East Africa. (see Zheng He for reference) A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ... For other uses, see Ming. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ...


In 1497, Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and became the first European to sail to India. The European ships, armed with heavy cannon, quickly dominated trade. Portugal at first attempted to achieve pre-eminence by setting up forts at the important straits and ports. But the small nation was unable to support such a vast project, and they were replaced in the mid-17th century by other European powers. The Dutch East India Company (1602-1798) sought control of trade with the East across the Indian Ocean. France and Britain established trade companies for the area. Eventually Britain became the principal power and by 1815 dominated the area. For other uses, see Vasco da Gama (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cape of Good Hope (disambiguation). ... This article is about the trading company. ...


The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 revived European interest in the East, but no nation was successful in establishing trade dominance. Since World War II the United Kingdom has withdrawn from the area, to be only partially replaced by India, the USSR, and the United States. The last two have tried to establish hegemony by negotiating for naval base sites. Developing countries bordering the ocean, however, seek to have it made a "zone of peace" so that they may use its shipping lanes freely, though the United Kingdom and United States maintain a military base on Diego Garcia atoll in the middle of the Indian Ocean. For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Diego Garcia ( ) is an atoll located in the heart of the Indian Ocean, some 1,000 miles (1,600 km) south of Indias southern coast. ...


On December 26, 2004, the countries surrounding the Indian Ocean were hit by a tsunami caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. The waves resulted in more than 226,000 deaths and over 1 million were left homeless. is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, known by the scientific community as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake,[1] was a great undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) December 26, 2004 with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. ...


Culture and Literature

The Indian Ocean is known as Ratnakara in the ancient Sanskrit literature. Ratnakara means "the maker(creator) of jewels". Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...

See Culture of the Indian Ocean Islands and Indian Ocean literature

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Major ports and harbours

This is a list of ports and harbours of the Indian Ocean. ...

See also

Look up Indian Ocean in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Indian Ocean

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Indian Ocean Island States is the name given to those island states in the Indian subcontinent which lie in the Indian Ocean. ... This is a list of islands in the Indian Ocean. ...

External links

  • Oceanography Image of the Day , from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
  • NOAA In-situ Ocean Data Viewer Plot and download ocean observations
  • The Regional Tuna Tagging Project-Indian Ocean with details of the importance of Tuna in the Indian Ocean
  • Detailed maps of the Indian Ocean
  • The Indian Ocean Trade: A Classroom Simulation

Coordinates: 20° S 80° E Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindhu; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδός Indos) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... “Ganga” redirects here. ... Not to be confused with the nearby Jamuna River a tributary of the Meghna River, which is sometimes confused both in older historical literature, and by translations of the local dialects. ... The Chenab River (Punjabi: , , Urdu: , literally Moon(Chen) River(ab)) is formed by the confluence of the Chandra and Bhaga rivers at Tandi located in the upper Himalayas, in the Lahaul district of Himachal Pradesh, India. ... The Jhelum River is the largest and most western of the five rivers of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and passes through Jhelum City. ... Map of the Brahmaputra Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet. ... Godavari river map The Godavari River, adjacent to the town of Kovvur This article is about Godavari River in India. ... The Narmada River in central India The Narmada (Gujarati: નર્મદા Devanagri: नर्मदा or Nerbudda (Narbada) is a river in central India in Indian subcontinent. ... The Tapti River (also Tapi River) is a river of central India. ... The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ... The Beas River (Punjabi: ) runs through the Northwestern Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. ... The Sutlej, also known as Satluj, is the longest of the five rivers of Punjab (five waters) that flows through Northern India, with its source in Tibet near Mount Kailash. ... Dudh Kosi (दुध कोसी, Milk River) is a river in eastern Nepal. ... The Padma River is a distributary of the Ganges River in Bangladesh. ... The Sarasvati River is an ancient river that is mentioned in Hindu texts. ... Krishna in Vijayawada in 2007 The River Krishna (meaning dark (feminine) in Sanskrit, also called the Krishnaveni, is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). ... This article is about a river. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Mahanadi rises in the highlands of Chhattisgarh. ... The Ganga receives numerous tributaries from the Southern Uplands among which the Son is the largest and it joins ganga from the south along with Gandak, Gumti, Ghaghara, and sarda rivers. ... Ghaghara also called the Gogra, is a river in Northern India, one of the largest affluents of the Ganges. ... The Betwa (Vetravati) is a river in Northern India, and a tributary of the Yamuna. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Dudh Kosi (Milk River) is a river in eastern Nepal. ... Sapt Koshi is a large river in eastern Nepal. ... Tamur is a major river in eastern Nepal, which begins around Kanchenjunga. ... Mo Chhu is a major river in Bhutan. ... Sankosh is a river in India that rises in Bhutan (where it is called Mo Chu) and empties into the Brahmaputra. ... Drangme Chhu is a major river in Bhutan. ... The Ganga basin is a part of the composite Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin, which drains an area of 1,086,000 square kilometres. ... Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Ganges Delta (or the Bengal Delta) is a river delta in the South Asia region of Bengal, consisting of Bangladesh and the state of West Bengal, India. ... Indus River Delta The Indus River Delta occurs where the Indus River flows into the Arabian Sea in Pakistan. ... sab bakwas hai Categories: India geography stubs | Jammu and Kashmir | Kashmir ... Pookode Lake is a scenic lake in Wayanad, India. ... Roopkund is a place in Uttaranchal India, the location of about three to six hundred skeletons at the edge of a lake—Skeleton Lake in the Himalayas. ... Chilka Lake (also Chilika Lake) is a brackish water coastal lake in Indias Orissa state, south of the mouth of the Mahanadi River. ... Powai Lake Powai Lake is a large artificial lake, situated in a northern suburb of (Mumbai). ... Borith Lake is a famous lake in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... At an altitude of 10,578 feet above sea level it is probably one of the highest lakes in Pakistan. ... Gosaikunda is a lake in Nepal in Rasuwa district that is the sight of Hindu pilgrimage. ... At a distance of about 144 km north-west of Hyderabad, a reservoir known by the name Nizamsagar was constructed across the Manjira River, a tributary of the Godavari River, between Achampet and Banjapalle villages of the Nizamabad district in Andhra Pradesh, India. ... The Red Hills Lake, located in Ambattur taluka of Thiruvallur district, Tamilnadu, South India, is one of the rain-fed reservoirs from where water is drawn for supply to Chennai. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Map of Backwaters in Kerala The Kerala Backwaters are a chain of brackish lagoons and lakes lying parallel to the Arabian Sea coast (known as the Malabar Coast) of Kerala state in southern India. ... Damodar River rises from the Chota Nagpur plateau of the Jharkhand state of India. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... The Laccadive Sea encirces the Lakshadweep Islands belonging to India. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gulf of Kutch on the left. ... Gulf of Khambhat on the right. ... The Palk Strait is a 40-85 mi (64-137 km) wide strait that lies between Indias Tamil Nadu state and the island nation of Sri Lanka. ... The Gulf of Mannar is an arm of the Indian Ocean, lying between the southern tip of India and the west coast of Sri Lanka at a width of between 160 and 200 km (100 to 125 mi). ... The rivers of India play an important role in the lives of the Indian people. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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Indian Ocean - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1652 words)
It is bounded on the north by Southern Asia; on the west by the Arabian Peninsula and Africa; on the east by the Malay Peninsula, the Sunda Islands, and Australia; and on the south by the Southern Ocean.
The northernmost extent of the Indian Ocean is approximately 30° north latitude in the Persian Gulf.
The African, Indian, and Antarctic crustal plates converge in the Indian Ocean.
Indian Ocean - MSN Encarta (391 words)
Indian Ocean, third largest of Earth's four oceans, bounded on the west by Africa, on the north by Asia, on the east by Australia and the Australasian islands, and on the south by Antarctica.
The ocean narrows toward the north and is divided by the Indian peninsula into the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west.
The average depth of the Indian Ocean is 3,900 m (12,800 ft), or slightly greater than that of the Atlantic, and the deepest known point is 7,725 m (25,344 ft), off the southern coast of the Indonesian island of Java.
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