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Encyclopedia > Indian numerals
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Numeral systems

Arabic (Hindu)
Arabic (Abjad)
Armenian
Attic (Greek)
Babylonian
Brahmi
Chinese
Cyrillic
D'ni (fictional)
Egyptian
Etruscan
Greek
Hebrew
Indian
Ionian (Greek)
Japanese
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Roman
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Jump to: navigation, search A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols that represents a number. ... Jump to: navigation, search Arabic numerals (also called Hindu numerals or Indian numerals ) are the most common set of symbols used to represent numbers. ... The Abjad numerals are a numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the so-called Arabic numerals (which are actually of Indian origin and the ENGLISH NUMBERS are ARABIC ORIGIN not english ). In the Abjad system the letters of the arabic alphabet... Attic numerals were used by ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd century manuscript by Herodianus. ... Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. ... The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). ... Cyrillic numerals was a numbering system derived from the Cyrillic alphabet, used by South and East Slavic peoples. ... Myst franchise Games Myst Riven Myst III: Exile Myst IV: Revelation Myst V: End of Ages Uru: Ages Beyond Myst Ages of: Myst Riven Myst III: Exile Myst IV: Revelation Uru Novels Myst: The Book of Atrus   Tiana   Dni Comic Books #0   #1 Miscellaneous Dni Ages   The... The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. ... The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ... Ionian numerals were used by the ancient Greeks, possibly before the 7th century BC. They are also known by the names Milesian numerals or Alexandrian numerals. ... Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language of Cambodia. ... The Pre-Columbian Maya civilization used a vigesimal (base-twenty) numeral system. ... Jump to: navigation, search The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. ...


Unary (1)
Binary (2)
Ternary (3)
Quinary (5)
Senary (6)
Octal (8)
Decimal (10)
Duodecimal (12)
Hexadecimal (16)
Vigesimal (20)
Quadrovigesimal (24)
Hexavigesimal (26)
Septemvigesimal (27)
Hexatridecimal (36)
Sexagesimal (60)
Jump to: navigation, search The unary numeral system is the simplest numeral system to represent natural numbers: in order to represent a number N, an arbitrarily chosen symbol is repeated N times. ... Jump to: navigation, search The binary numeral system represents numeric values using two symbols, typically 0 and 1. ... Ternary is the base-3 numeral system. ... Quinary (base-five) is a numeral system with five as the base. ... A senary numeral system is a base-six numeral system. ... The octal numeral system is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. ... Decimal, or less commonly, denary, usually refers to the base 10 numeral system. ... Jump to: navigation, search A duodecimal multiplication table The duodecimal (also known as base-twelve or dozenal) system is a numeral system using twelve as its base. ... In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix or base of 16 usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F or a–f. ... Jump to: navigation, search The vigesimal (base-twenty) is a numeral system which is based on twenty. ... As there are 24 hours in a day a numbering system based upon 24, and as the base 12 is convenient here some examples of the base 24 (quadrovigesimal) system. ... A Hexavigesimal numeral system has a base of twenty-six. ... A Septemvigesimal numeral system has a base of twenty-seven. ... Base 36 refers to a positional numeral system using 36 as the radix. ... Jump to: navigation, search The sexagesimal (base-sixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ...

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India has produced many numeral systems. Arguably, any of these numeral systems could be called the Indian numeral system. For the purpose of this article however the term Indian Numeral System will refer only to the positional base 10 numeral systems that developed in India and the term Indian numerals will refer only to the numerals that are part of the Devanagari script. Jump to: navigation, search A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols that represents a number. ... Positional notation is a system in which each position has a value represented by a unique symbol or character. ... Decimal, or denary, notation is the most common way of writing the base 10 numeral system, which uses various symbols for ten distinct quantities (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, called digits) together with the decimal point and the sign symbols + (plus) and − (minus) to... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ...


The Indian Numeral system is commonly referred to in the West as Arabic numerals, since it reached Europe through the Arabs. Arabic numerals (also called Hindu numerals or Hindu-Arabic numerals) are by far the most common form of symbolism used to represent numbers. ...


Written below is a list of the Indian numerals, their corresponding Arabic numeral and their Sanskrit pronunciation. Jump to: navigation, search Sanskrit ( संस्कृता) is a classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ...

Devanagari Numeral Arabic Numeral Pronunciation
0 shuunyaha
1 ekaha
2 dwitiyaha
3 tritityaha
4 chaturaha
5 panchaha
6 shashtihi
7 sapthami
8 ashtaha
9 navaha

Today these numerals are used in all Indian languages that use the Devanagari script. Most South Asian languages which use other Brahmic scripts use the Indian numeral system, except with their own symbols for each numeral. Jump to: navigation, search 0 (zero), alternatively called naught or nought, is both a number and a numeral. ... Jump to: navigation, search Look up one on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 2 (two) is a number, numeral, and glyph. ... 1+1 ... 4 (four) is a number, numeral, and glyph. ... 5 (five) is a number, numeral, and glyph. ... 6 (six) is the natural number following 5 and preceding 7. ... Jump to: navigation, search 7 (seven) is the natural number following 6 and preceding 8. ... 8 (eight) is the natural number following 7 and preceding 9. ... Jump to: navigation, search 9 (nine) is the natural number following 8 and preceding 10. ... The article describes the languages spoken in the Republic of India. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas used in South Asia and Southeast Asia. ...


History

The Indian numerals have been traced back to about 50 BC. Prior to that, the Brahmi numerals used similar forms, except that 10 was represented as a fish. It is this fish shape that became the "10" of the Indian numerals. This numeral system spread to the Middle East. When the Arabs introduced these numerals to Europe, the Europeans called them the Arabic numerals, although the Arabs continue to call their numerals the Indian numerals. In 662 a Nestorian bishop living in what is now called Iraq said of the numeral system: The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ...

I will omit all discussion of the science of the Indians ... of their subtle discoveries in astronomy - discoveries that are more ingenious than those of the Greeks and the Babylonians - and of their valuable methods of calculation which surpass description. I wish only to say that this computation is done by means of nine signs. If those who believe that because they speak Greek they have arrived at the limits of science would read the Indian texts they would be convinced even if a little late in the day that there are others who know something of value.

Arabs learnt the Hindu (Indian) numeral and transmitted it to Europeans. For a long time, this numerical system was mistakenly named as Arabic Numerals; now the world mathematical community recognizes it as Hindu-Arabic numerals.


Reference

Georges Ifrah, The Universal History of Numbers. John Wiley, 2000.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Arabic numerals at AllExperts (972 words)
Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also known as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, European numerals, and Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world.
The European acceptance of the numerals was accelerated by the invention of the printing press, and they became commonly known during the 15th century.
The numeral system employed, known as Algorism, is positional decimal notation.Various symbol sets are used to represent numbers in the Arabic numeral system, all of which evolved from the Brahmi numerals.
Ancient India - Mathematics - Crystalinks (1956 words)
Thus Indians could take their mathematical concepts to an abstract plane and with the aid of a simple numerical notation devise a rudimentary algebra as against the Greeks or the ancient Egyptians who due to their concern with the immediate measurement of physical objects remained confined to Mensuration and Geometry.
For instance, as E the Roman system of numeration, the number thirty would have to be written as X: while as per the decimal system it would 30, further the number thirty three would be XXXIII as per the Roman system, would be 33 as per the decimal system.
It was from this translation of an Indian text on Mathematics that the Arab mathematicians perfected the decimal system and gave the world its current system of enumeration which we call the Arab numerals, which are originally Indian numerals.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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