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Encyclopedia > Indian nationalism
Map of India.

Indian nationalism refers to the consciousness and expression of political, social, religious and ethnic influences that help mould Indian national consciousness. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOV Wikipedia policy is that all articles should be written from a neutral point of view. ... Image File history File links Circle-question-red. ... Image File history File links link title Media:Example. ... Image File history File links link title Media:Example. ...


Indian Nationalism describes the many underlying forces that moulded the Indian independence movement, and strongly continue to influence the politics of India, as well as being the heart of many contrasting ideologies that have caused ethnic and religious conflict in Indian society. It should be noted that Indian nationalism often imbibes the consciousness of Indians that prior to 1947, India embodied the broader Indian subcontinent and influenced a part of Asia, known as Greater India. The Indian independence movement incorporated the efforts by Indians to liberate the region from British rule and form the nation-state of India. ... Politics of India takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of India is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... It has been suggested that Undivided India be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

National consciousness in India

Main article: History of India
Further information: Achievements of ancient Indian civilization
The map of the Mughal Empire at its zenith ca. 1600

India has been unified under many emperors and governments in history. Ancient texts mention India under emperor Bharata and Akhand Bharat, these reigons roughly form the entities of modern day greater India and Indosphere. Ashokan India began from the eastern heart of modern India, stretched into modern Bangladesh, Pakistan and beyond, into Afghanistan. In addition, India has also been unified under a central government by empires, such as the Mughal empire and the British Raj. The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BC. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Science and technology in ancient India, Indus Valley Civilization, Vedic period and Indian mathematics, accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Download high resolution version (500x664, 92 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Mughal Empire Categories: United States government images ... Download high resolution version (500x664, 92 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Mughal Empire Categories: United States government images ... It has been suggested that Mughal Era be merged into this article or section. ... Bharata was the first king to conquer all of the world as known to the adherents of Hinduism, uniting it into a single entity which was named after him as Bharatavarsha. ... Akhanda Bharatam (literally undivided India) is the historic homeland of the Hindus, before Islamic conquest and colonial partition, which resulted in the subsequent conversion of a significant number to Islam and Christianity. ... It has been suggested that Undivided India be merged into this article or section. ... Dark blue: the Indian subcontinent, Light Blue: Other countries culturally linked to India, notably Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Indonesia and Malaysia, Purple: Regions not included in Indosphere, but with significant current or historical Indian cultural influence, notably Afghanistan, Tibet, and Yunnan province of China. ... Central government or the national government (or, in federal states, the federal government) is the government at the level of the nation state. ... It has been suggested that Mughal Era be merged into this article or section. ... The flag of British India British India, circa 1860 The British Raj (Raj in Hindi meaning Rule; from Sanskrit Rajya) was the British rule between 1858 and 1947 of the Indian Subcontinent, which included the present-day India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Burma (Myanmar), whereby these lands were under the colonial...


Conception of nationhood

India's concept of nationhood is based not merely on territorial extent of its sovereignty. Nationalistic sentiments and expression encompass India's ancient history, as the birthplace of the Indus Valley Civilization, and of four major world religions - Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. Indian nationalists see India stretching along these lines across the Indian subcontinent. Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages) is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ...

Chhattrapati Shivaji Raje Bhonsle, founder of the Maratha Confederacy
Chhattrapati Shivaji Raje Bhonsle, founder of the Maratha Confederacy

Shivaji. ... Shivaji. ... Shivaji Bhosle, also known as Chatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle (Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजी राजे भोसले) was the founder of Maratha empire in western India in 1674. ... Extent of the Maratha Confederacy ca. ...

Ages of war and invasion

Extent of the Maratha Confederacy at its zenith ca. 1760(shown here in yellow)
Extent of the Maratha Confederacy at its zenith ca. 1760
(shown here in yellow)

India today celebrates many kings and queens for combating foreign invasion and domination, such as Shivaji of the Maratha Empire, Rani Laxmibai of Jhansi, Kittur Chennamma, Maharana Pratap of Rajputana, Prithviraj Chauhan, who combated the Mahmud of Ghazni and Tipu Sultan who fought the British. Download high resolution version (1154x1485, 222 KB)Extent of the Maratha Empire in 1760 Copyright Information: From The Public Schools Historical Atlas edited by C. Colbeck. ... Download high resolution version (1154x1485, 222 KB)Extent of the Maratha Empire in 1760 Copyright Information: From The Public Schools Historical Atlas edited by C. Colbeck. ... Extent of the Maratha Confederacy ca. ... Shivaji Bhosle, also known as Chatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle (Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजी राजे भोसले) was the founder of Maratha empire in western India in 1674. ... Flag of the Maratha Empire Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. ... Rani Lakshmi Bai (born-19 November 1835- died 18 June 1858), also known as Jhansi Ki Rani, was the queen of Jhansi, a Maratha-ruled princely state of northern India, was one of the great nationalist heroes of the Revolt of 1857, and a symbol of resistance to British rule... Jhansi   झांसी is a city of Uttar Pradesh state of northern India. ... Kitturu Rani Chennamma (Chennamma, the Queen of Kitturu)(1778 - 1829) was the queen of the prince state Kittur in Karnataka. ... MAHARANA PRATAP(1540-1597) The Grandson of the illustrious Rana Sanga. ... Rajputana (or Raj(prut)tana), which means Land of the Rajputs rajput love old rotten cheese wanna see whitch cheese we like go to this web page http://home. ... Prithviraj III (1165?-1192) was a king of the Rajput Chauhan (Chahamana) dynasty. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Portrait of Tippu Sultan, 1792 Tippu (Tips) Sultan (full name Sultan Fateh Ali Tippu), also known as the Tiger of Mysore (November 20, 1750, Devanahalli – May 4, 1799, Srirangapattana), was the first son of Haidar Ali by his second wife, Fatima or Fakhr-un-nissa. ...


Liberal Muslim kings are also a part of Indian pride. Akbar was a powerful Mughal emperor who admired Hinduism, forged familial and political bonds with Hindu Rajput kings, and developed for the first time in medieval India an environment of religious freedom. Akbar undid most forms of religious discrimination, and invited the participation of wise Hindu ministers and kings, and even religious scholars in his court. In his reign, India was politically powerful, prosperous and its common people secure. Opposed to his example is Aurangzeb, who sponsored pogroms against the Sikhs and the Hindus, and re-imposed the jizya tax on non-Muslims, and enslaved them as dhimmis, he is more a part of Pakistani nationalism for his spread of Islam throughout India. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages) is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Rajput is a Hindu Kshatriya caste. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


Foreign admiration

India has attracted many admirers from foreign nations. Chinese travelers and observers Hsien Tsang and Fa-hien attest to the prosperity and glory of India's ancient kingdoms. Their documentation of times in ancient India are a great source for nationalistic pride. A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler and translator that brought up the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. ... Faxian(Chinese: ; pinyin: ; also romanized as Fa-Hien or Fa-hsien) (ca. ...


Annie Besant, C. F. Andrews, Madeleine Slade and A.G. Horniman were Europeans who advocated and worked for political freedom in India. Mrs. Besant led the Theosophical Society in its studies of Indian religious thinking. German historian and writer Max Muller was a pioneer in Indian historical research, tracing the roots of human civilization in India and the origins of its diverse culture and peoples. His work remains a major influence on the common understanding of India's ancient past. Annie Besant Plaque on house in Colby Road, London SE19 where Annie Besant lived in 1874. ... Charles Freer Andrews (1871 - 1940) was an English priest who admired the philosophy of Mohandas Gandhi and worked with him in the Indian civil rights struggle in South Africa and in the Indian Independence Movement. ... Formerly Miss Slade, Mirabhen admired Gandhi so much that she dropped everything in London to come stay with him. ... A. G. Horniman was a British national who was active in the Indian Independence Movement during the early-20th century. ... The Theosophical Society was the organization formed to advance the spiritual doctrines and altruistic living known as Theosophy. ... Max Müller Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ...


In modern times, Chinese ambassador to the US, Hu Shih has commended India's cultural influence: Hu Shih (Simplified: 胡适, Traditional: 胡適, Pinyin: Hú Shì), (December 17, 1891-February 24, 1962) was a Chinese philosopher and essayist. ...

India conquered and dominated China culturally for 20 centuries without ever having to send a single soldier across her border. - Hu Shih[1][2] Hu Shih (Simplified: 胡适, Traditional: 胡適, Pinyin: Hú Shì), (December 17, 1891-February 24, 1962) was a Chinese philosopher and essayist. ...

Other notable people who have frequently praised India include Mark Twain, who has said: Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 — April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, satirist, writer, and lecturer. ...

India is, the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grand mother of tradition. Our most valuable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only.[3]

Renaissance vision

Swami Vivekananda is considered a major influence on Indian pride by his emphasis of the spiritual richness and beauty of Indian philosophy and religion.)
Swami Vivekananda is considered a major influence on Indian pride by his emphasis of the spiritual richness and beauty of Indian philosophy and religion.)

See Also: Arya Samaj, Brahmo Samaj, Ramakrishna Mission Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Swami Vivekananda (Bengali: Shami Bibekanondo) (January 12, 1863 - July 4, 1902), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta ( Nôrendrônath Dôt-tô), was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga and a major figure in the history of Hinduism... Arya Samaj (Aryan Society or Society of Nobles) is a Hindu reform movement in India that was founded by Swami Dayananda in 1875. ... Brahmo Samaj is a social and religious movement founded in Kolkata, India in 1828 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. ... The Ramakrishna Mission Emblem The Ramakrishna Mission (Bengali: ) is an association founded by Sri Ramakrishnas chief disciple and religious leader, Swami Vivekananda on May 1, 1897. ...


A new generation of Western-educated Indians sought to end practices and traditions that were responsible in their view for India's economic backwardness, social depravation and political disunity. Laying out the first definitive national vision, this generation sought to promote Western-style scientific education and democracy.


Raja Ram Mohan Roy sought to fight suttee and illiteracy. He founded the Presidency College in Bengal, and inspired the foundation of the Brahmo Samaj, as a Hindu reform society seeking to remove the ills of untouchability and casteism, as well as brahmin domination and dogmas. Syed Ahmed Khan promoted Western-style education in Muslim society, seeking to uplift Muslims in the economic and political life of British India. He founded the Aligarh Muslim University, then called the Anglo-Oriental College. Indian reformer Ram Mohan Roy died in Bristol, England, where this statue of him stands. ... Suttee is an ancient Indian funeral practice in which the widow was immolated alive on her husband’s funeral pyre. ... Presidency College could refer to: Presidency College, Chennai Presidency College, Kolkata This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Brahmo Samaj is a social and religious movement founded in Kolkata, India in 1828 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ... This page deals with the Hindu varnas. ... Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Bahadur, GCSI (Urdu: سید احمد خان بہا در; October 17, 1817 – March 27, 1898), commonly known as Sir Syed, was an Indian educator and politician who pioneered modern education for the Muslim community in India by founding the Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College, which later developed into the Aligarh Muslim University. ... Victoria gate, a prominent building at the university Aligarh Muslim University was created by the Act of Indian Parliament and is located in the city of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. ...


At the same time, Indian religious leaders like Swami Vivekananda and Sri Aurobindo emphasized the spiritual richness of Hinduism and Indian philosophy. Vivekananda asserted that the West could greatly help solve India's problems of entrenched poverty and encourage economic progress, while India could bring spiritual and cultural wealth to Western societies. Dayananda Saraswati formed the Arya Samaj to combat social evils within Hindu society, and increase the pride and purity of Hindu worship, returning to the Vedas and worship of God, not lesser deities Swami Vivekananda (Bengali: Shami Bibekanondo) (January 12, 1863 - July 4, 1902), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta ( Nôrendrônath Dôt-tô), was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga and a major figure in the history of Hinduism... Sri Aurobindo (Bangla: শ্রী অরবিন্দ Sri Ôrobindo, Sanskrit: श्री अरविन्द Srī Aravinda) (August 15, 1872–December 5, 1950) was an Indian/Hindu nationalist, scholar, poet, mystic, evolutionary philosopher, yogi and guru [1]. After a short political career in which he became one of leaders of the early movement for the freedom of India from... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages) is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Swami Dayananda Saraswati (दयानन्‍द सरस्‍वती) was born in Tamil Nadu. ... Arya Samaj (Aryan Society or Society of Nobles) is a Hindu reform movement in India that was founded by Swami Dayananda in 1875. ... The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद) are a large corpus of texts originating in Ancient India. ...


Swaraj

Main Articles: Indian Independence Movement, Indian rebellion of 1857, Indian National Congress - Freedom Era The Indian independence movement incorporated the efforts by Indians to liberate the region from British rule and form the nation-state of India. ... Combatants Indian Patriots, Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of Oudh and Jhansi, Indian civilians in some areas. ... The flag adopted in 1931 and used by the Provisional Government of Free India during the Second World War. ...

The flag adopted in 1931 by the Congress and used by the Provisional Government of Free India during the Second World War.
The flag adopted in 1931 by the Congress and used by the Provisional Government of Free India during the Second World War.

In the Indian rebellion of 1857, Indian soldiers and regional kings fought the forces allied with the British Empire in different parts of India. The war arose from the racist viewpoint and disregard the British exhibited to Indian religious traditions, and the desire for Indians to retain religious purity and freedom regardless of war or violence as its expense. There were also kingdoms and peoples, such Holkar, Scindia and the Sikhs, and Indian soldiers who supported the British. This event laid the foundation not only for a nationwide expression, but also future nationalism and conflict on religious and ethnic terms. Image File history File links The flag of India used in 1931. ... Image File history File links The flag of India used in 1931. ... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ... Combatants Indian Patriots, Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of Oudh and Jhansi, Indian civilians in some areas. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Jaswant Rao Holkar 1798-1811 AD Holkar of Indore Silver, Nazrana Rupee Minted at Indore in 1807 AD (1222 AH) Weight: 14. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Scindia Family of India. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ...


The Indian desire for complete freedom, or Swaraj, was born with Bal Gangadhar Tilak, who looked to the glories of Indian history and heritage, and condemned the racist and imperialistic discrimination of common Indians, who were not permitted a voice in the affairs of their own country. Tilak and his followers were the first to express the desire for complete independence, an idea that did not catch on until after World War I, when the British attempted to exert totalitarian power with the Rowlatt Acts of 1919. When the Amritsar Massacre of hundreds of unarmed and innocent civilians by British forces took place in the same year, the Indian public was outraged and most of India's political leaders turned against the British. The Bengal famine of 1943, regarded by some as a genocide of the ethnic Bengalis sponsored by the British Crown, further led to growing discontent between Indians and the British. Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856 - 1920), was an Indian nationalist, social reformer and freedom fighter who was the first popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919 and basically authorised the government to imprison any person living in the Raj without trial on suspicion of being a terrorist. ... The Amritsar massacre The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, was named after the Jallianwala Bagh (Garden) in Amritsar, where, on April 13, 1919, British Indian Army soldiers opened fire on an unarmed gathering of men, women and children. ... The Bengal famine of 1943 occurred in undivided Bengal (now independent Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal) in 1943. ...


The Gandhian era

Main Articles: Gandhism, Satyagraha Gandhism (or Gandhi-ism) is an informal reference to the vision, core inspirations, principles, beliefs and philosophy of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian Independence Movement. ... Mohandas Karamchand “Mahatma” Gandhi, who developed Satyagraha Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a variety of nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas Gandhi. ...

Nationalists on the Salt March.
Nationalists on the Salt March.
Quit India procession view at Bangalore.
Quit India procession view at Bangalore.

Mohandas Gandhi pioneered the art of Satyagraha, typified with a strict adherence to ahimsa (non-violence), and civil disobedience. This permitted common individuals to engage the British in revolution, without employing violence or other distasteful means. Gandhi's equally strict adherence to democracy, religious and ethnic equality and brotherhood, as well as activist rejection of caste-based discrimination and untouchability united people across these demographic lines for the first time in India's history. The masses could participate in India's freedom struggle for the first time, and the membership of the Congress grew over tens of millions by the 1930s. In addition, Gandhi's victories in the Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha in 1918-19, gave confidence to a rising younger generation of Indians that the British hegemony could be defeated. National leaders like Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Jawaharlal Nehru, Maulana Azad, Chakravarti Rajagopalachari, Rajendra Prasad and Badshah Khan brought together generations of Indians across regions and demographics, and provided a strong leadership base giving the country political direction. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3496x2418, 835 KB) en: Gandhi during the Salt March, March 1930. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3496x2418, 835 KB) en: Gandhi during the Salt March, March 1930. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1140x744, 113 KB) Summary Photo taken by me using B & W film camera. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1140x744, 113 KB) Summary Photo taken by me using B & W film camera. ... The Quit India Movement (Bharat chhodo) was a call for immediate independence of India from British rule. ... , Bangalore (BengalÅ«ru) (Kannada: ; Hindi: बंगलौर; pronunciation: in Kannada and in English) is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to... Mohandas Karamchand “Mahatma” Gandhi, who developed Satyagraha Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a variety of nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas Gandhi. ... Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ... Anti-war activist Midge Potts is arrested for civil disobedience on the steps of the Supreme Court of the United States on February 9, 2005. ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ... The first Satyagraha revolutions inspired by Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian Independence Movement occurred in Kheda district of Gujarat and the Champaran district of Bihar between the years of 1918 and 1919. ... Vallabhbhai Patel (Gujarati: , Hindi: ; IPA: ) (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950) was a political and social leader of India who played a major role in the countrys struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ... Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (1888 - August 1958) was a freedom fighter in Indias struggle for Independence from Britain. ... Rajaji Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari (December 1878 - December 25, 1972), known as or Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian lawyer, writer, statesman and a Hindu spiritualist. ... Dr. Rajendra Prasad (Hindi: डाक्टर राजेन्द्र प्रसाद) (December 3, 1884 – February 28, 1963) was the first President of India. ... Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (also known as Bacha Khan) (1890 - January 20, 1988) was a Pathan political and spiritual leader known for his nonviolent opposition to British rule during the final years of the Empire on the Indian sub-continent. ...


The INA

Main Articles: Indian National Army, Arzi Hukumate Azad Hind The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ...


While Gandhi's leadership attracted the vast majority of Indians, Subhas Chandra Bose led a forceful initiative of military revolution when he formed the Indian National Army in the early 1940s, out of Indian POWs and indentured workers in South East Asia in World War II, with the help of the Japanese. Just as Gandhi had brought Indians together for peaceful, mass revolution, Bose united Hindus, Muslims and different ethic groups in a military outfit aimed at liberating Indian territory from British control. Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: নেতাজী সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু ( सुभाष चदंर वसु ) Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), also known as Netaji (lit. ... The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The INA engaged the British Indian forces in Assam, Nagaland and parts of Bengal, but were overwhelmed by the better equipped enemy, the treacherous forest and mountainous environments, as well as lacklustre aid from the Japanese Army. Many thousands were killed and thousands others surrendered. Bose was killed in 1945 when flying in a Japanese plane, which crashed over the Taiwan Strait. However, the INA's military assault on British rule occurred concurrently with the Quit India movement, and electrified many Indians with the audacity of their effort and bravery. Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... Nagaland (Hindi: नागालैंड)   Nagaland is a vibrant hill state located in the far northeastern part of India. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Taiwan Strait Area The Taiwan Strait or Formosa Strait is a 180km-wide Strait between mainland China and the island of Taiwan. ... The Quit India Movement (Bharat Chhodo Andolan or the August Movement) was a civil disobedience movement in India launched in August 1942 in response to Mahatma Gandhis call for immediate independence of India. ...


More than just "Indian"

See Also: Demographics of India Population growth, from 443 million in 1960 to 1,004 million in 2000 Map showing the population density of each district in India Map showing the population growth over the past ten years of each distrct in India Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India Chart showing...


Indian nationalism is as much a diverse blend of nationalistic sentiments as its people are ethnically and religiously diverse. Thus the most influential undercurrents are more than just Indian in nature. The most controversial and emotionally-charged fiber in the fabric of Indian nationalism is religion. Religion forms a major, and in many cases, the central element of Indian life. Ethnic communities are diverse in terms of linguistics, social traditions and history across India.


Hindu Rashtra

Main article: Hindu nationalism
K.B.Hedgewar was the founder of the RSS, the largest public organization in India and the foundation of Hindu nationalism.

An important influence upon Hindu consciousness arises from the time of Islamic empires in India, during which many Hindu temples were destroyed and Hindus forcibly converted to Islam, and thousands killed by Muslim invaders. Entering the 20th century, Hindus formed over 75% of the population and thus unsurprisingly the backbone and platform of the nationalist movement. Modern Hindu thinking desired to unite Hindu society across the boundaries of caste, lingustic groups and ethnicity. In 1925, K.B. Hedgewar founded the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh in Nagpur, Maharashtra, which grew into the largest civil organization in the country, and more potent, mainstream base of Hindu nationalism. The main purpose of the RSS was to unite Hindu society, with its cadets from across the caste and ethnic spectrum working to alleviate Hindus from poverty and ignorance, as well as working for social and economic development. Hindu nationalism is a nationalist ideology that sees the modern state of the Republic of India as a Hindu nation (Hindu Rashtra), and seeks to preserve the Hindu heritage. ... Image File history File links Hedgewar. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ... Muslims performing salah (prayer) Kaaba and Masjid al-Haram in Mecca Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th-century Arab religious and political figure. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social restriction and social stratification, enforced by law or common practice, based on endogamy, occupation, economic status, race, ethnicity, etc. ... K.B.Hedgewar Dr. Keshava Baliram Hedgewar (April 1, 1889 - June 21, 1940) was an Indian nationalist. ... The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (Hindi: , English: ), also known as the Sangh or the RSS, is a Hindu nationalist organization in India. ... , Nāgpur   (Marathi:नागपूर) Third largest city in the western Indian state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune with a population of 2. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , English: ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Hindu nationalism is a nationalist ideology that sees the modern state of the Republic of India as a Hindu nation (Hindu Rashtra), and seeks to preserve the Hindu heritage. ...


Vinayak Damodar Savarkar coined the term Hindutva for his ideology that described India as a Hindu Rashtra, a Hindu nation. This ideology has become the cornerstone of the political and religious agendas of modern Hindu nationalist bodies like the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Vishwa Hindu Parishad. Hindutva political demands include revoking Article 370 of the Constitution that grants a special semi-autonomous status to the Muslim-majority state of Kashmir, adopting a uniform civil code, thus ending a special legal framework for Muslims. These particular demands are based upon ending laws that Hindu nationalists consider as offering special treatment to Muslims. Demands like banning cow slaughter and building a Ram Janmabhoomi temple in Ayodhya reflect in Hindu passions to assert cultural nationalism and a reversion of the destruction of Hindu temples by Muslim invaders. Vinayak Damodar Sarvakar Vināyak Dāmodar Sāvarkar (Marathi: विनायक दामोदर सावरकर) (May 28, 1883 – February 27, 1966) was an Indian revolutionary and Hindu nationalist political leader, who is credited with developing a Hindu nationalist political ideology he termed as Hindutva (Hinduness). ... For Veer Savarkars book Hindutva, see Hindutva. ... Hindu Rāshtra (Hindi : हिन्दू राष्ट्र, approx. ... The Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP] (Hindi: , English: ), created in 1980, is a major Indian political party. ... The Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP; World Hindu Council in Hindi), is a Hindu nationalist organisation in Bharat, an offshoot of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Ram Janmabhoomi (राम जन्मभूमि) refers to a tract of land in the North Indian city of Ayodhya which is believed to be the birthplace of the Rama. ... Ayodhya   (Hindi: अयोध्या, Urdu: ایودھیا IAST Ayodhyā) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ...


The Qaum

The neutrality of this article is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.
Maulana Azad strongly favored a united India.
Maulana Azad strongly favored a united India.

Main Article: Indian Muslim nationalism Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links Azad. ... Image File history File links Azad. ... Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (1888 - August 1958) was a freedom fighter in Indias struggle for Independence from Britain. ... Indian Muslim nationalism refers to the political and cultural expression of nationalism, founded upon the religious tenets and identity of Islam, of the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. ...


In 1906-1907, the All India Muslim League was founded, created due to the suspicion of Muslim intellectuals and religious leaders with the Indian National Congress, which was perceived as dominated by Hindu membership and opinions. However, Mahatma Gandhi's leadership attracted a wide array of Muslims to the freedom struggle and the Congress Party. The Aligarh Muslim University and the Jamia Millia Islamia stand apart - the former was averse to the freedom struggle, while the JMI was founded to promote Muslim education and consciousness upon nationalistic and Gandhian values and thought. Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the Great Leader of the Muslim League The All India Muslim League was a political party in British India was the driving force behind the creation of a Muslim state on the Indian subcontinent. ... Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ... Victoria gate, a prominent building at the university Aligarh Muslim University was created by the Act of Indian Parliament and is located in the city of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. ... Jamia Millia Islamia (Urdu: جامعہ ملیہ اسلامیہ, Hindi: जामिया मिलिया इस्लामिया, translation: National Islamic University) is an Indian Central University located in New Delhi. ...


While prominent Muslims like Allama Iqbal and Muhammad Ali Jinnah embraced the notion that Hindus and Muslims were distinct nations, other major leaders like Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari, Maulana Azad, Badshah Khan, Hakim Ajmal Khan strongly backed the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian freedom struggle, opposing any notion of Muslim separatism. This school of Muslim nationalism did not enjoy much support in the provinces of Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan and Bengal, where the Muslim League enjoyed extensive political power, and where Pakistan was ultimately formed. India's firm foundations of constitutional and popular secularism has brought prosperity, security and prominence to Indian Muslims who remained in India after partition. Zakir Hussain, Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed and A.P.J. Abdul Kalam were all Muslims, and holders of the Presidency of the Republic. Actors Shah Rukh Khan, Naseeruddin Shah, Aamir Khan, music legends Zakir Hussain, Amjad Ali Khan and cricketers Syed Kirmani,Irfan Pathan,Zaheer Khan, Mushtaq Ali and Mohammad Azharuddin are icons to the Indian public. Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) was an important Indian Muslim poet from the colonial era, a philosopher and thinker of Kashmiri origin. ... Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu:  ) (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. ... Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari was an Indian nationalist and political leader, and former president of the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League during the Indian Independence Movement. ... Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (1888 - August 1958) was a freedom fighter in Indias struggle for Independence from Britain. ... Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (also known as Bacha Khan) (1890 - January 20, 1988) was a Pathan political and spiritual leader known for his nonviolent opposition to British rule during the final years of the Empire on the Indian sub-continent. ... Dr Hakim Ajmal Khan was an Indian freedom fighter, a Muslim doctor and educationalist. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhÄ«, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... The Chief Commissioners Province of Baluchistan was a former province of Pakistan located in the northern parts of modern Balochistan province. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developped into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... Dr Zakir Husain (February 8, 1897 - May 3, 1969) was the third President of India from May 13, 1967 until his death. ... Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed (May 13, 1905 - February 11, 1977) was President of India of 1974 to 1977. ... Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (born October 15, 1931, Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India), usually referred to as Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, is the President of India. ... Shah Rukh Khan (born November 2, 1965) (Devanagari: शाहरुख़ ख़ान, Nastaleeq: شاہرخ خان) is a prominent Bollywood actor, producer, and was recently the host of the game show, Kaun Banega Crorepati. ... Naseeruddin Shah in the role of Mirza Ghalib Naseeruddin Shah aka Nasiruddin Shah (b. ... Aamir Hussain Khan (; Devanagari: आमिर ख़ान, Nastaliq: عامر حسین خان) born March 14, 1965, in Mumbai, India, is an Academy Award-nominated and National Film Awards-winning Indian film actor, director and producer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ustad Amjad Ali Khan is a highly acclaimed Indian sarod player and composer. ... Syed Mujtaba Hussain Kirmani (born December 29, 1949 in Madras) played cricket for the Indian cricket team as a wicket-keeper. ... Irfan Pathan (Hindi: इरफ़ान पठान, Urdu: عرفان پٹھان)  , born Irfan Khan (Hindi: इरफ़ान ख़ान, Urdu: عرفان خان on October 27, 1984 in Baroda, Gujarat, India) is an Indian cricketer who has been a member of the Indian national cricket team since late 2003. ... Zaheer Khan   (born October 7, 1978, Srirampur, Maharashtra) is an Indian cricketer who has been a member of the Indian cricket team since 2000. ... Syed Mushtaq Ali (December 17, 1914 - June 18, 2005) was a former Indian cricketer, and an aggressive Test batsman. ... Mohammad Azharuddin   (born 8 February 1963, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh) is a former captain of the Indian cricket team. ...


Most Muslims staunchly defend their identity as Indians when questioned in sensitive times. Some Indian Muslim families maintain and establish familial relations with Pakistani and Bangladeshi families, separated by partition. Some Muslim religious leaders have called for a Muslim political party to protect the rights and interests of the Indian Muslim community. The embrace of rigid forms of Islam in Muslim religious schools and mosques across India has created an atmosphere of cultural alienation in some parts of the country. Muslims performing salah (prayer) Kaaba and Masjid al-Haram in Mecca Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th-century Arab religious and political figure. ...


The Khalsa

See Also: Sikhism, Khalsa Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... Khalsa which means Pure is the name given by Guru Gobind Singh to all Sikhs who have been baptised or initiated by taking Amrit in a ceremony called Amrit Sanchar. ...


The religious and cultural pride of the Sikhs, mainly based in the state of Punjab has played an important role in the history of medieval and modern India. Sikh forces combated Muslim armies and rescued themselves and Hindus in Kashmir from religious pogroms. The Sikh Empire of Maharaja Ranjit Singh was one of the first to openly challenge and weaken the Mughals, while asserting their own glory in the Punjab. Today, Sikhs form a major proportion of officers and soldiers in the Indian military services, and Punjab is one of the most economically progressive states in the country, known as the breadbasket of India. Sikh political leaders like Master Tara Singh were responsible for politically leading Sikhs during the Partition of India, and uniting them after millions of Sikhs were displaced from Pakistan. Tara Singh and the SGPC led the demand for a Sikh-majority state in Indian Punjab, which was granted in 1966. While Sikhs pride themselves for their patriotism and a great military tradition, many other Indians feared that demands of such nature would give rise to political separatism. A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... The Sikh Empire (from 1801-1849) was formed on the foundations of the Sikh Confederacy by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. ... Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjabi: ), also called Sher-e-Punjab (The Lion of the Punjab) (1780-1839) was a Sikh ruler of the Punjab. ... Master Tara Singh (24 June 1885, Rawalpindi, Punjab - 22 November 1967, Chandigarh) was a prominent Sikh political and religious leader in the first half of the 20th century. ... This article is under construction. ... The Shiromani Gurudwara Prabhandak Committee is a sikh religious organization responsible for the upkeep of Gurudwaras. ...


Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale led a small extremist group demanding independence for Sikh-majority Punjab in the early 1980s. It was responsible for committing acts of terrorism, but when it was violently crushed during Operation Bluestar in 1984, within the sanctions of the Golden Temple, thousands of militants, civilians and Army soldiers were killed. Sikhs viewed this as a desecration and insult of the holiest Sikh shrine. These led to the assassination of the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi by two of her Sikh bodyguards. When over 5,000 Sikhs were killed in riots perpetrated in Delhi after the assassination, many millions of Sikhs in India and across the world were estranged from the Indian mainstream for some time. While the negative effects of this period and events have been greatly healed over two decades, there remains some suspicion and bitterness. Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale or Jarnail Singh (Punjabi: ; February 12, 1947–June 6, 1984) was the leader of the Damdami Taksal, a Sikh religious group based in India. ... The Operation Blue Star (also known as the Golden Temple Massacre) (June 4 to June 6, 1984) was the Indian military raid of the Golden Temple in Amritsar, Punjab, the holiest temple of the Sikh religion. ... The Golden Temple, located in Amritsar in the state of Punjab, India is the most sacred shrine of Sikhism. ... Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (November 19, 1917 – October 31, 1984) was an Indian politician who served as Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 to 1984. ... , Delhi ( , Hindi: , Punjabi: , Urdu: ) sometimes referred to as Dilli, is the second-largest metropolis in India after Mumbai with a population of 13 million. ...


Ethnic nationalism

See Also: Demographics of India, Aryan Invasion Theory, Out of India theory, Dalit, Caste Population growth, from 443 million in 1960 to 1,004 million in 2000 Map showing the population density of each district in India Map showing the population growth over the past ten years of each distrct in India Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India Chart showing... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Out of India Theory (OIT) is the hypothesis that the Indo-European languages (I-E) originated in India, from which they spread into Central and Southwestern Asia and Europe. ... In South Asias caste system, a Dalit; often called an untouchable; is a person of shudra; the lowest of the four castes. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social restriction and social stratification, enforced by law or common practice, based on endogamy, occupation, economic status, race, ethnicity, etc. ...


Post-independence India has had to deal head-on with nationalist expression based on regions, states, linguistic groups and ethnic, racial origins. Starting with secessionist tendencies in the Periyar and Anna led Tamil Nadu, in the lead up to and soon after independence, India has seen various manifestations of ethnic nationalism. The Assam guerilla movement led by the ULFA, and the Punjab Khalistan movement of the 1980s represent the more violent end of the spectrum. The rise of ethnic nationalistic sentiments took place as peoples of various regions, linguistic groups and racial origins sought to discover their place within the wider expression of Indian national consciousness. Some states like Assam deplored the fact that the revenue obtained from the export of tea grown in Assam ended up benefiting other states more than it did the Assamese people, and that it received lesser proportion of Government aid than did larger, more populated states. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... C.N.Annadurai (1909 to 1969), popularly called Anna (which means elder brother in Tamil language) was the first non Congress Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... The United Liberation Front of Asom is a separatist organization from Assam. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... A proposed flag for Khalistan Khālistān (East Punjabi: West Punjabi: ), meaning The Land of the Pure, is the name given to a proposed nation-state, officially titled the Sikh Republic of Khalistan; it is envisioned as a tolerant modern state based on the Sikh religion, democratic and egaliterian... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ...


Similarly, Tamil linguistic nationalism arose after politicians began pushing for Hindi to be adopted as the national language. Many Tamils felt that Tamil, one of the oldest languages of India and with a rich tradition of literature of its own, would be demoted into a second-level tongue and be pushed into extinction by making of Hindi as the lingua franca of India. Many non-Hindi speaking states have resented the adoption of Hindi, and regional languages are thus given official status for the respective state governments. Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is the official language of the Union along with English. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...


But ethnic nationalism also ranges all the way back to 3000 BC, when the Indus Valley Civilization flourished in western India, and the Indo-Aryans first introduced themselves to the subcontinent. Some believe that Indo-Aryans, the aryas, pushed Dravidians (the Dasyus) south. It is even today a matter of debate whether it is true that the Aryans invaded India, as per the widely-debated Aryan Invasion Theory, or if they were actually indigenous peoples of India and spread Out of India. The latter possibility is actively championed by Hindu nationalists in politics, seeking to amend the history curriculum in state-sponsored textbooks. At the same time, many Dravidian and Dalit politicians describe the Aryans as foreign and racist, and equate possible Aryan wars with indigenous peoples as ethnic cleansing. The conflict of modern day Indo-Aryans with the darker-skinned, South-based Dravidian peoples, although more subtle and less important to many, still plays an interesting and indirect role in the progress and problems of India. However, this division of "Aryans" and "Dravidians" is played up only by corrupt politicians and few colonial-era historians of today. (31st century BC - 30th century BC - 29th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2925 - 2776 BC - First Dynasty wars in Egypt 2900 BC - Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... Ārya is a Sanskrit (आर्य) and Avestan word used by Hindus, Jains, Zoroastrians, and Buddhists. ... The Dasa are a tribe identified as the enemies of the Aryans in the Rig-Veda. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Out of India Theory (OIT) is the hypothesis that the Indo-European languages (I-E) originated in India, from which they spread into Central and Southwestern Asia and Europe. ... In South Asias caste system, a Dalit; often called an untouchable; is a person of shudra; the lowest of the four castes. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ... Languages Dravidian languages Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Traditional religions Related ethnic groups Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Dravidian people, Dravidian race or Dravidians are terms that are some times given to people of mainly Southern India, Northeastern Sri Lanka, and parts of Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal who currently...


Nationalism and politics

See Also: Politics of India Politics of India takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of India is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...

Prime Minister Indira Gandhi led India to victory in 1971 against Pakistan, imposed the Indian Emergency, led it to become a nuclear power state in 1974 and is blamed for the Khalistan insurgency and Operation Bluestar - a controversial blend of nationalism and hard politics.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi led India to victory in 1971 against Pakistan, imposed the Indian Emergency, led it to become a nuclear power state in 1974 and is blamed for the Khalistan insurgency and Operation Bluestar - a controversial blend of nationalism and hard politics.

The political identity of the Indian National Congress, India's largest political party and one which controlled government for over 45 years, is reliant on the connection to Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, and the Nehru-Gandhi family which has controlled the Congress since independence. The Congress Party's fortunes up till the 1970s were single-handedly propelled by its legacy as the flagship of India's Independence Movement, and the core platform of the party today evokes that past strongly, considering itself to be the guardian of India's freedom, democracy and unity. Muslims have remained loyal voters of the Congress Party, seen as defender of Nehruvian secularism. Small religious parties have arisen, and Muslim frustrations with communal violence and the aggressive attitudes of Hindu nationalists might lead to the development of a party solely on Islamic religious lines. In contrast, the Bharatiya Janata Party employs a more aggressively nationalistic expression. The BJP seeks to defend the culture and heritage of India and the majority of its people, the Hindu population. It ties nationalism with the aggressive defence of India's borders and interests against archrivals China and Pakistan, with the defence of the majority's right to be a majority. The party's fortunes arose primarily in the 1990s, with the frustration of the people with over 40 years of Congress domination, corruption, sycophant leaders and lack of direction. Arrival ceremony for Prime Minister Indira Gandhi , 11/04/1971; Public Domain; http://www. ... Arrival ceremony for Prime Minister Indira Gandhi , 11/04/1971; Public Domain; http://www. ... Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (November 19, 1917 – October 31, 1984) was an Indian politician who served as Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 to 1984. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A proposed flag for Khalistan Khālistān (East Punjabi: West Punjabi: ), meaning The Land of the Pure, is the name given to a proposed nation-state, officially titled the Sikh Republic of Khalistan; it is envisioned as a tolerant modern state based on the Sikh religion, democratic and egaliterian... The Operation Blue Star (also known as the Golden Temple Massacre) (June 4 to June 6, 1984) was the Indian military raid of the Golden Temple in Amritsar, Punjab, the holiest temple of the Sikh religion. ... Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ... The family of Motilal Nehru, who is seated in the centre. ... The Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP] (Hindi: , English: ), created in 1980, is a major Indian political party. ... A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


Ethnic nationalist parties include the Shiromani Akali Dal, which is closely identified with the creation of a Sikh-majority state in Punjab and includes many Sikh religious leaders in its organization. In Maharashtra, the Shiv Sena uses the legacy of the independent Maratha kingdom under heroes like Shivaji to stir up support, and has adopted Hindutva as well. In Assam, the Asom Gana Parishad is a more state-focused party, arising after the frustration of the ULFA as a benevolent expression of Assamese nationalism. In Tamil Nadu came the first of such parties, the DMK. Today the DMK stands for a collection of parties, with the DMK, the AIADMK, the PMK and the MDMK. Caste-based politics invite the participation of the Bahujan Samaj Party and the party of Laloo Prasad Yadav, who build upon the support of poor low-caste and dalit Hindus in the northern, and most populated states of India like Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Almost every Indian state has a regional party devoted solely to the culture of the native people. Unlike the Akali Dal and the AGP, these mostly cannot be called nationalist, as they use regionalism as a strategy to garner votes, building on the frustration of common people with official status and the centralization of government institutions in India. Akali Dal, also termed as Shiromani Akali Dal (Akali Religious Party), is a Sikh political party mainly based in Punjab, India. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , English: ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ... SS election symbol Shiv Sena or शिव सेना (meaning Army of Shiva, referring to Shiva) is a political party in India founded on June 19, 1966 by Bal Thackeray, who is the president of the party. ... The Marāthās (Marathi: , also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a the expansive Maratha Empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ... Shivaji Bhosle, also known as Chatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle (Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजी राजे भोसले) was the founder of Maratha empire in western India in 1674. ... For Veer Savarkars book Hindutva, see Hindutva. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... Asom Gana Parishad (Assam Peoples Association), political party in Assam, India. ... The United Liberation Front of Asom is a separatist organization from Assam. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) is a regional political party in the Tamil Nadu state of India. ... All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) is a regional political party in India. ... Executive President Prime Minister The Union Ministries Legislative Parliament Rajya Sabha Chairman of the Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha Speaker of the House Judicial Supreme Court Chief Justice of the Supreme Court High Courts District Courts Constitution Fundamental Rights and Directive principles Regions States and territories Elections General Elections State Assembly... மறுமலர்ச்சித் திராவிட முன்னேற்றக் கழகம் (Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, abbreviated MDMK), a political party in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... For the Nepalese party, see Bahujan Samaj Party, Nepal. ... Laloo Yadav Laloo Prasad Yadav (Devanagari:लालू पृसाद य़ादव)(officially spelt Lalu Prasad) (born 1947-06-11) is the chief of the Rashtriya Janata Dal political party of India. ... In South Asias caste system, a Dalit; often called an untouchable; is a person of shudra; the lowest of the four castes. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), often referred to as U.P., is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... , Bihar (Hindi: बिहार, Urdu: بہار, IPA: ,  ) is a state of the Indian union situated in the eastern part of the country. ...


Nationalism and military conflicts

See Also: Indo-Pakistani Wars, Military History of India Since both nations achieved independence in August 1947, there have been three major wars and one minor war between India and Pakistan. ... India has a long military history dating back several millennia. ...

The Indian Army, over a million troops strong, is the 3rd largest army in the world

India has a long military histoy, establishing empires such as the Chola Empire, Gupta Empire, Magadhan Empire, Maratha Empire, Mauryan Empire, Mogul Empire and Vijayanagara Empire. Republic Day Military Parade, New Delhi. ... Republic Day Military Parade, New Delhi. ... The Indian Army is one of the armed forces of India and has responsibility for land-based military operations. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cholas. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... Magadha was one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of Buddha, having risen to power during the reigns of Bimbisara (c. ... Flag of the Maratha Empire Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ...


During the modern times, Indian armed forces have pursued both objectives of national importance and operations for the UN Peacekeeping Forces. Indian armed forces have achieved goals like destroying most tanks in a post World War II battle theatre during battle of Asal Uttar, taking the maximum number of post World War II prisoners of war during the Bangladesh Liberation War and capturing the world's highest battlefield, the Siachen glacier. Military history, both past and present, serves as a source of nationalist sentiment in India. The Indian Armed Forces is the primary military organization responsible for the territorial security and defence of India. ... The United Nations has authorized 61 peacekeeping missions as of 2005. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Pakistan India Commanders Maj. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Mukti Bahini India Aided By  Soviet Union Pakistan Aided By United States People’s Republic of China Commanders • Col. ... The Siachen Glacier is located in the East Karakoram/ Himalayas, at approximately 35. ...


The Kashmir issue

Main Article: History of the Kashmir conflict This article encapsulates the history of a border issue between India and Pakistan, generally termed as the Kashmir conflict. ...


The Kashmir question stands as a perpetual roadblock to the rise of India's economic and political power. While the Indian government is prepared to respond to attempts by other countries to seize areas currently controlled by India, it is openly questionable whether India's people would support an offensive operation to take areas that are not currently controlled by India. And as both China and Pakistan have nuclear weapons, this possibility has become even more remote.


The building of stronger commercial and culture relations may possibly point to both India and Pakistan coming closer a solution, which might involve partitioning Kashmir along the Line of Control. The military solution has weakened in practicality and popular imagination ever since the end of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 in 1971 and the signing of the Shimla Agreement. Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 500,000+ troops 400,000+ troops Casualties 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] c. ... The Shimla Agreement on bilateral relations between India and Pakistan was signed by Prime Minister of India, Mrs. ...


New visions

India's economy has rapidly expanded since 1991, and it boasts a huge skilled labor resource pool that has deeply influenced the rise of technology-based industries in India and across the world. Pictured here is the Tidel Park in Chennai, one of the largest software parks in India.
India's economy has rapidly expanded since 1991, and it boasts a huge skilled labor resource pool that has deeply influenced the rise of technology-based industries in India and across the world. Pictured here is the Tidel Park in Chennai, one of the largest software parks in India.

A wide-spread economic boom and industrial expansion, a rising Indian middle-class and a whole new generation of young Indians hold interesting potentials to the changing expression of nationalism in India, and for Indians around the world. What issues and attitudes these new Indians hold important are considerably different from what their forefathers in the 19th and 20th centuries held as important or inviolable. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 715 KB) Tidel Park, Chennai, as seen from the MRTS station near it. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 715 KB) Tidel Park, Chennai, as seen from the MRTS station near it. ... Tidel Park Tidel Park is an IT Park situated in the city of Chennai, India. ... , “Madras” redirects here. ...


India's Growth

See Also: Foreign relations of India; India as an emerging superpower The Republic of India, the second most populous country and one of the fastest growing economies in the world, is considered as a major power and a potential superpower. ...


Many young Indians envisage that by 2020, the Indian economy would be strong enough for India to command a formidable position in world affairs, given that India is already the world's largest democracy, a nuclear power, with the 3rd largest military services in the world and a population exceeding 1 billion. It is one of the few nations that have been considered by media as possible future superpower. It currently meets many of the characteristics of a superpower to the extent that it is labelled an emerging superpower and great power. This growth is a source of pride and nationalism amongst young Indians who foresee living in an advanced Indian society. President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam released a book India 2020, outlining the necessary policies to promote India's social, economic and scientific advancement. India has conducted a major diplomatic campaign to obtain a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council with veto powers. In recent years India and the United States have increased their influence. Some believe that the United States would prefer India over China as a new global power. 2020 (MMXX) will be a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... India has had robust economic growth since 1991 when the government reversed its socialist-inspired policy of a large public sector with extensive controls on the private sector and began to liberalize the economy. ... The USA and USSR were the two superpowers during the Cold War. ... An emerging superpower or potential superpower is a country showing the potential to become a superpower in the foreseeable future. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (born October 15, 1931, Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India), usually referred to as Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, is the President of India. ... “UNSC” redirects here. ...


Emanating from Cold War times suspicions and close ties with Russia, portions of the Indian public perceive the United States as an arrogant superpower. The Indian government criticized the U.S. for what it saw as attempts to impose the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty upon all nations despite its eventual rejection by American politicians themselves. India also perceives the U.S. economic and military aid to Pakistan as fueling its rival's aggressive designs, and criticizes the U.S. for ignoring Pakistan's long-standing aid to terrorism in Kashmir. Indian public opinion also sees its neighbor China, the most populated nation in the world as its biggest competitor in economic, political and military influence, and the leadership of Asia. The continuing territorial dispute over Aksai Chin and China's military aid to Pakistan contributes to bringing a serious military aspect to this rivalry. However, India and China have created strategic partnerships over energy and oil, and are pursuing extensive trade relations that have created a positive atmosphere. The United States have been increasingly acceptive of India's power and the stepping stones have been laid for a positive relationship with the United States as well. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Opened for signature September 10, 1996[1] in New York Entered into force Not yet in force Conditions for entry into force The treaty will enter into force 180 days after it is ratified by all of the following 44 (Annex 2) countries: Algeria, Argentina... World map showing the location of Asia. ...


Akhand Bharat

It is the vision of many nationalists to one-day see the reversal of the Partition of India, and the reunification of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh into one nation. While the idea of a wide-scale war, and employing violence to force this re-unification is distasteful to all save the most hardcore, and that even hardline Hindu nationalists see the reversal to pre-1947 boundaries as impossible (especially due to the vast proportional majority enjoyed by Muslims in the populations of both Pakistan and Bangladesh), it remains the dream of many[POV] mainstream Indians, Hindus and Muslims. And while Akhand Bharat is a term used only by Hindu nationalists, many young Indians and some Pakistanis have envisaged a possible loose constitutional union in the future, such as Lal Krishna Advani, the senior leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party. This article is under construction. ... Akhanda Bharatam (literally undivided India) is the historic homeland of the Hindus, before Islamic conquest and colonial partition, which resulted in the subsequent conversion of a significant number to Islam and Christianity. ... Lal Krishna Advani (Sindhi: लाल कृष्ण आडवाणी, لال ڪرشنا آڏواڻي) ( ਲਾਲ ਕ੍ਰਿਸ਼ਨ ਆਡਵਾਨੀ ), also known as Lal Kishenchand Advani (Sindhi: लाल किशेन्चन्द आडवाणी, لال ڪشن چند آڏواڻي) (b. ... The Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP] (Hindi: , English: ), created in 1980, is a major Indian political party. ...


Support for a reversal of partition exists in some intellectual circles in Pakistan, who view partition as a great loss for the Muslim community being divided into three nations, rather than utilizing the opportunities and power presented by a united population of 400 million in one, united country. The South Asia Free Trade Agreement and the possible success of the peace process over Kashmir may make this dream feasible one-day in the distant future, which today remains too fantastic to contemplate practically. Countries under the South Asian Free Trade Area The Agreement on the South Asian Free Trade Area is an agreement reached at the 12th South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) summit at Islamabad, capital of Pakistan on 6 January 2004. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...


See also: Undivided India It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Greater India. ...


Trans-national expression

Main article: Non-resident Indian and Person of Indian Origin

The large expatriate Indian communities in the United States, Western Europe, South East Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Australia have played a role in Indian nationalism as long ago as the Ghadar Party and as recently as the Californian Hindu textbook controversy. As the Indian government's own Singhvi commission notes, "the sun never sets on the Indian diaspora." Yet the cultural transmission model is rapidly transforming from a one-way street, in which the Motherland gives and the diaspora receives, to a two-way street, in which the diaspora is as confidently Indian, sometimes more so, than India itself. Bollystan ("Bolly-" for Bollywood, and "Stan", the Urdu suffix for "land" comprise this term) is a neologism which recognizes this changing balance of power between the home country and its diaspora. Technology has enabled the diaspora to manufacture "Indian-ness" as competently as their home-bound relatives through film, dance, music and even religious practices. These externally produced symbols of Indian-ness have in many ways become the primary representation of India in the West and around the world. The term was first used by Parag Khanna, when he guest edited the UK's ethnic lifestyle magazine Another Generation in Fall 2004 (www.anothergeneration-mag.com). The entire issue was based on the theme of Bollystan, This was subsequently then used in an article in The Globalist.[4] The London-based Foreign Policy Centre think-tank has also recognized Bollystan as a form of "diasporic diplomacy".[5] In the January/February 2005 issue of Foreign Policy magazine, Mitra Kalita of the Washington Post writes, "Finally there is a name for where I live: Bollystan."[6] Languages Indian languages, English Religions Hindu, Islam, Christianity, Budhism, Jainism A non-resident Indian (NRI) is an Indian citizen who has migrated to another country, a person of Indian origin who is born outside India, or a person of Indian origin who resides outside India. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Ghadar Party was an organization founded by the Indians(mostly Punjabis, of the United States and Canada in June, 1913 with the aim to liberate India from British rule. ... A controversy in the US state of California concerning the portrayal of Hinduism in history textbooks began in 2005. ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi language film industry in India. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ...


The world's largest democracy

Indians take pride in freedom and democracy reaching to the very grassroots of Indian nation, the noisy Indian political elections are enthusiastically followed by leigons of voters across rural India with the Indian media covering some of the largest political exercises in human history.[citation needed]


See also

Notes

  1. ^ Spritual Journeys Quotes About India
  2. ^ ThinkExist Hu Shih Quotes
  3. ^ Pittsburgh Indian Welcome to India
  4. ^ http://www.theglobalist.com/DBWeb/storyid.aspx?StoryId=4279
  5. ^ http://fpc.org.uk/fsblob/377.pdf
  6. ^ http://www.foreignpolicy.com/users/login.php?story_id=2761&URL=http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/cms.php?story_id=2761

References

Raja Ram Mohan Roy. ... Swami Dayananda Saraswati (स्‍वामी दयानन्‍द सरस्‍वती) (1824 - 1883) is an important Hindu religious scholar born in Gujarat, India. ... Indian postal stamp on Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar (Bangla: ঈশ্বর চন্দ্র বিদ্যাসাগর) (1820-1891) (born Ishwar Chandra Bandopadhyay) was a Bengali polymath. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Swami Vivekananda (Bengali: Shami Bibekanondo) (January 12, 1863 - July 4, 1902), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta ( Nôrendrônath Dôt-tô), was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga and a major figure in the history of Hinduism... Statue of Naoroji in Mumbai Dadabhai Naoroji (4 September 1825–30 June 1917) was a Parsi intellectual and educator, and an early Indian political leader. ... Jonah Blank is an American author, journalist and foreign policy expert, specializing in the culture, history and affairs of the Indian subcontinent. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ... The Story of My Experiments with Truth (or My Experiments with Truth) – the autobiography of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (or Mahatma Gandhi) covers his life from early childhood through to 1920, and is a popular and influential book. ... Rajmohan Gandhi is a biographer and grandson of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ... Prof. ... BusinessWeek is a business magazine published by McGraw-Hill. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Subhash Kak (सुभाष काक) (born March 26, 1947, Srinagar, Kashmir) is Delaune Distinguished Professor of Electrical Engineering and Professor in the Asian Studies and Cognitive Science Programs at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. ... arXiv (pronounced archive, as if the X were the Greek letter χ) is an archive for electronic preprints of scientific papers in the fields of physics, mathematics, computer science and quantitative biology which can be accessed via the Internet. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hindu nationalism Summary (4216 words)
Hindu nationalism is the political and cultural expression, histriographical and political theories of Indian nationalism distinctive to Hindu society in India, which asserts being Hindu as not merely a religious identity, but a national identity.
This article endeavors to explore the roots of religious nationalism in the history of India and Hinduism, the political and cultural expression of nationalism of the mainstream Hindu population, as well as fundamentalism and the contemporary revival of Hinduism.
The main inspiration of Hindu nationalism arises from the glories of the Mauryan Empire and the Gupta Empire, under whom India was politically and military dominant and prosperous, and Hindu religion and culture at its greatest heights.
Perversion Of India's Political Parlance - Chapter 8 - Towards A Language of Indian Nationalism (2469 words)
A second and supplementary note in the symphony of Indian nationalism is the vast complex of a culture and civilisation created and sustained by the spiritual vision of Sanatana Dharma.
The national genius and tradition of experimenting with a variety of social and political institutions and cultural patterns should be preserved.
The basic notes and their implications being clear, it should not be difficult ot develop a language of Indian nationalism such as would not only enshrine India's eternal aspirations but also challenge and defeat the several languages of imperialism which have been ruling the roost for some time.
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