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Encyclopedia > Indian national calendar

The Indian national calendar (sometimes called Saka calendar) is the official civil calendar in use in India. It is used, alongside the Gregorian calendar, by the Gazette of India, news broadcasts by All India Radio, and calendars and communications issued by the Government of India. Beside such formal purposes, the calendar is not very widely used. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // Overview All India Radio (AIR for short), officially known as Akashwani (Devanagari: आकाशवाणी, ākāshvānī) is the radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India), an autonomous corporation of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. ... // INTELLIGENT BEHAVIOURS TO BECOME MORE RICHER AND SECURE WITHIN INDIA REMOVE POVERTY AND TO INCREASE SECURITY OF INDIA, THERE IS A NEED TO USE HIGHER INTELLIGENT, THAT IS TO SAY, TO PROMOTE FOREIGN CITIZENS OF FIRST WORLD COUNTRIES TO BECOME CITIZEN OF INDIA WHEREBY THEY HAVE RIGHTS TO PURCHASE WHOLE...


The term may also ambiguously refer to the Hindu calendar, and the Saka era is commonly used by different calendars as well. The Hindu calendar used in Vedic times has undergone many changes in the process of regionalization, and today there are several regional Indian calendars, as well as an Indian national calendar. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 Events Romans conquer the Ordovices, located in present-day northern Wales, as well as the Silures. ...

Contents


Calendar structure

Month Length Start date (Gregorian)
1 Chaitra 30/31 March 22*
2 Vaisakha 31 April 21
3 Jyaistha 31 May 22
4 Asadha 31 June 22
5 Sravana 31 July 23
6 Bhadra 31 August 23
7 Asvina 30 September 23
8 Kartika 30 October 23
9 Agrahayana 30 November 22
10 Pausa 30 December 22
11 Magha 30 January 21
12 Phalguna 30 February 20

In leap years, Chaitra has 31 days and starts on March 21 instead. The months in the first half of the year all have 31 days, to take into account the slower movement of the sun across the ecliptic at this time. Chaitra is the first month of the Hindu calendar. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (82nd in Leap years). ... Vaisakha is the second month of the Hindu calendar. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... Jyestha (Hindi: जेठ jeṭ or ज्येष्ठ jyeṣṭ) is a month of the Hindu calendar, also known as Jeth or Iethe. ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... Aashaadha is the fourth month of the Hindu calendar. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... Shraavana is the fifth month of Hindu calendar, also known as Sawan. ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... In Hinduism, Bhadra is a goddess of the hunt and one of Shivas servants. ... This is the song that never ends yes it gos on and on my friends some people started singing it not knowing what it was they just started singing it forever just becauseThis is the song that never ends yes it gos on and on my friends some... Ashvin (Hindi: क्वार kvaar) is a month of the Hindu calendar, also known as Aswayuja. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... Kaartika (Hindi: कातिक kaatik or कार्तिक kaartik) is a month of the Hindu calendar. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 69 days remaining. ... Agrahayana is the ninth month of the Hindu calendar. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pausha is the tenth month of the Hindu calendar also know as Poush or Pushya. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Maagha is the eleventh month of the Hindu calendar. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Phalguna is the twelfth month of the Hindu calendar. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... The plane of the ecliptic is well seen in this picture from the 1994 lunar prospecting Clementine spacecraft. ...


The names of the months are derived from older, Hindu lunisolar calendars, so variations in spelling exist, and there is a possible source of confusion as to what calendar a date belongs to. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. ...


Years are counted in the Saka Era, which starts its year 0 in 78. To determine leap years, add 78 to the Saka year - if the result is a leap year in the Gregorian calendar, then the Saka year is a leap year as well. Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 Events Romans conquer the Ordovices, located in present-day northern Wales, as well as the Silures. ... Gregorian and Julian calendars There is no year 0 in either the Gregorian calendar or the Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see number 78. ...


Adoption

The calendar was introduced by the Calendar Reform Committee in 1957, as part of the Indian Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac, which also contained other astronomical data, as well as timings and formulae for preparing Hindu religious calendars, in an attempt to harmonise this practice. Despite this effort, local variations based on older sources such as the Surya Siddhanta may still exist. 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hindu calendar used in Vedic times has undergone many changes in the process of regionalization, and today there are several regional Indian calendars, as well as an Indian national calendar. ... The Surya Siddhanta is the first Indian astronomical treatise where rules were laid down to determine the true motions of the luminaries, which conforms to their actual positions in the sky. ...


Usage officially started at Chaitra 1, 1879 Saka Era, or March 22, 1957. However, government officials seem to largely ignore the New Year's Day of this calendar in favour of the religious calendar [1]. March 22 is the 81st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (82nd in Leap years). ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on the movie, New Years Day, see New Years Day (film). ...


Rashtriya Panchang

The Reform Committee also formalised a religious calendar, referred to as the Rashtriya Panchang. This, like many regional calendars, defines a lunisolar calendar based on the authoritative version of the Surya Siddhanta from the 10th century. A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. ... The Surya Siddhanta is the first Indian astronomical treatise where rules were laid down to determine the true motions of the luminaries, which conforms to their actual positions in the sky. ...


The word panchang is derived from the Sanskrit panchangam (pancha, five; anga, limb), which refers to the five limbs of the calendar: the lunar day, the lunar month, the half-day, the angle of the sun and moon, and the solar day. In space exploration, a lunar day is the period of time it takes for the Moon to complete one full rotation on its axis. ... In lunar calendars, a lunar month is the time between two successive similar syzygies (new moons or full moons). ... Solar time is based on the idea that, when the sun reaches its highest point in the sky, it is noon. ...


In the Rashtriya Panchang, months are determined based on the sun's position against the fixed stars at sunrise, computed by antipodal observations of the full moon. This sidereal computation avoids fixed leap year rules, but the number of days in any given month can vary by one or two days. Conversion of dates to the Gregorian calendar, or computing the day of the week, requires one to consult the ephemeris. The lay person therefore relies on the panchangs or almanacs produced by authoritative astronomical schools. Sidereal astrology is the practice by some western and all Indian astrologers of basing their study of the sky on the actual position of the planets in relation to the starry background. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wikisource has ephemerides of several planets: Ephemeris of Sun Ephemeris of Moon Ephemeris of Mercury Ephemeris of Venus Ephemeris of Mars Ephemeris of Jupiter Ephemeris of Saturn Ephemeris of Uranus Ephemeris of Neptune Ephemeris of Pluto Ephemeris of Ceres Ephemeris of Pallas Ephemeris of Juno Ephemeris of Vesta An ephemeris... An almanac (also spelled almanack, especially in Commonwealth English) is an annual publication containing tabular information in a particular field or fields often arranged according to the calendar. ...


Over time, different Brahminical bodies producing the panchangs have varied in their geographical center and other aspects of the computation, resulting in a divergence of a few days in the different regional calendars. Even within the same region, there may be more than one competing authority, occasionally resulting in disagreement on festival dates by as much as a month. The Rashtriya Panchang seeks to resolve such differences. This page deals with the Hindu varna. ...


See also

The Hindu calendar used in Vedic times has undergone many changes in the process of regionalization, and today there are several regional Indian calendars, as well as an Indian national calendar. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 Events Romans conquer the Ordovices, located in present-day northern Wales, as well as the Silures. ... The Bangla calendar also known as Bangabda in the Bengali language, is the traditional calendar used in Bangladesh and Bangla (Bengali)-speaking regions of India. ...

External links

  • Calendars and their History (by L.E. Doggett)
  • Indian Calendars (by Leow Choon Lian, pdf, 1.22mb)
  • Positional astronomy in India
  • India Image website

 
 

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