FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Indian martial arts

The Indian subcontinent is home to a variety of martial arts, including Pehlwani, Kalarippayattu, Vajra Mushti and Gatka. Satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia (see note) The Indian subcontinent is a peninsular landmass of the Asian continent occupying the Indian Plate and extending into the Indian Ocean, bordered on the north by the Eurasian Plate. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... The Ancient Indian Art of Wrestling Pehlwani (also spelled as pahlwani) is a form of wrestling native to India. ... Sword fighting in Kalarippayattu. ... Vajra Mushti (or Vajra Mukti)/Diamond Fist is one of the oldest martial arts of India . ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Contents

[edit]

Introduction

Ancient India was one of the centres of several martial traditions and practices. Most of the centers were in the Southern region, including present-day Kerala and the ancient Kingdom of Tamilakam. Some of the older traditions include organised martial systems as practiced by the Kshatriya caste of Hinduism, these systems include armed and unarmed combat and aspects such as meditation, conditioning etc. Many ancient hindu temples have statues of deities and warriors in various postures related to combat. Ancient India may refer to: the ancient History of India, which generally includes the ancient history of the whole Indian subcontinent the legendary Kingdoms of Ancient India in Sanskrit literature the Iron Age Mahajanapadas the Middle kingdoms of India of Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages Category: ... Kerala ( (Anglicised) or (native); Malayalamകേരളം, — ) is a state on the tropical Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... The ancient Tamil country of the classical era extended from River Krishna to the Cape Comorin(Kanyakumari). ... Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is the title of the princely military order in the Vedic society. ... Hinduism (Sanskrit: , , also known as , ) is a religion that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A Hindu temple is a house of worship for the followers of Hinduism. ... This list of deities aims at giving information about deities in the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world. ...

Statues in an ancient hindu temple, showing warriors in combat
Statues in an ancient hindu temple, showing warriors in combat

Organised martial arts in India include the ancient martial art of Malla-yuddha (more commonly known as Mallayuddha), a form of combat wrestling codified into four forms, [1] which is described in the Indian epics as the fighting style of warriors such as Bhima. The art is supposed to have gained maximum prominence in ancient India at the time when the oral tradition of the Mahabharata epic was conceived, the Mahabharata was compiled in textual form during the 5th century BC, the epic's setting has a historical precedent in Vedic India, where the Kuru kingdom was the center of political power in the late 2nd and early 1st millennia BCE. It is believed that mallayuddha was regarded as a prominent martial art in that era. Image File history File links Matemple. ... Image File history File links Matemple. ... Mallayuddha (literally wrestling combat)[1] is the martial art of classical Indian wrestling. ... A motif depicting Bheema in the battle ready posture. ... Ancient India may refer to: the ancient History of India, which generally includes the ancient history of the whole Indian subcontinent the legendary Kingdoms of Ancient India in Sanskrit literature the Iron Age Mahajanapadas the Middle kingdoms of India of Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages Category: ... Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ), is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ), is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... The Vedic civilization is the Indo-Aryan culture associated with the Vedas, the earliest known records of Indian history. ... The position of the Kuru kingdom in Iron Age Vedic India. ... (3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – 1st millennium BC – other millennia) // Events To grasp the spirit of the 2nd millennium BC, we must divide it in two parts, for there is a period of change around its middle so important that it creates two separate sub-millennia. First half (2000... (2nd millennium BC – 1st millennium BC – 1st millennium – other millennia) // Events The Iron Age spread to Western Europe Egypt declined as a major power The Tanakh was written Buddhism was founded by Siddharta Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha (6th century BC) Jainism was founded by Mahavira (6th century BC...

the Great Gama carries a gadha, the weapon of mythological warriors of India
Enlarge
the Great Gama carries a gadha, the weapon of mythological warriors of India

Martial arts of the Indian subcontinent are diverse in nature and have origins of different times from various different ethnic groups. A number of ancient and sophisticated Dravidian martial arts were developed in South India, including Kuttu Varisai (empty hand combat), Varma Kalai (the art of vital points) in Tamil Nadu, Kalari Payattu (way of the arena) and Adithada (Hit And Block), in Kerala. Image File history File links Gama1916. ... Image File history File links Gama1916. ... Ghulam Mohammad Gama Pehlwan (1885-1953), populary referred to as the Great Gama, is the most famous practitioner of the sport of pehlwani and the greatest ever wrestler to come out of India. ... Assorted maces This article is about the personal weapon. ... Satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia (see note) The Indian subcontinent is a peninsular landmass of the Asian continent occupying the Indian Plate and extending into the Indian Ocean, bordered on the north by the Eurasian Plate. ... // [edit] List of Dravidian Martial Arts by state or province [edit] Kerala Kalarippayattu (ക്അലരിപ്പയത്തു) Marma Adi (മര്മ അദി) [edit] Tamil Nadu & Northeast Sri Lanka Adithada (அடிதட) Kuttu Varisai (குத்துவரிசை) Malyutham (மல்யுதம்) Varma Kalai (வர்மக்கலை) [edit] See also Tamil Martial Arts Categories: | ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... Kuttu Varisai (Empty Hand Combat) (Tamil: ) is a Tamil Indian martial art practiced in Tamil Nadu, South India and in Northeastern Sri Lanka, formerly known as Thamizhakkam. ... Varma Kalai Varma Kalai (also spelled Varmakalai or Varmakkalai) is an ancient martial art which has its origins in the southern part of India, more specifically, around Tamil Nadu state. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Sword fighting in Kalarippayattu. ... Adithada (Adi means kick and thada means block) is a martial art originating from the south of India that is similar to Japanese Karate and Kickboxing. ... Kerala ( (Anglicised) or (native); Malayalamകേരളം, — ) is a state on the tropical Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ...

[edit]

Influence of Indian martial arts

The martial arts of India have influenced the martial arts of other countries, particularly within the Indosphere, those regions outside India influenced by Indian culture. Examples of such arts include Bando, Silat, Escrima and Muay Thai. Dark blue: the Indian subcontinent, Light Blue: Other countries culturally linked to India, notably Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Indonesia and Malaysia, Purple: Regions not included in Indosphere, but with significant current or historical Indian cultural influence, notably Afghanistan, Tibet, and Yunnan province of China. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Eskrima or Escrima refers in a general way to Filipino martial arts. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Rickson Gracie during a Yoga session
Rickson Gracie during a Yoga session

The Indian wrestling form of Pehlwani has influenced both catch wrestling and it's derivative system of shoot wrestling. Karl Istaz travelled to India to train with Indian wrestlers and incorporated their training methods in shoot wrestling, wrestlers like Yoshiaki Fujiwara have applied these methods to train shoot wrestlers around the world. Image File history File links Ricksongraciechoke. ... Image File history File links Ricksongraciechoke. ... Rickson Gracie (pronounced Hickson; born in Brazil, November 20, 1958[1]) is a martial artist and a mixed martial arts fighter who holds a 7th degree black belt in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu[2]. He is a member of the Gracie family: the son of Hélio Gracie, brother to Rorion... It has been suggested that Urban yoga be merged into this article or section. ... The Ancient Indian Art of Wrestling Pehlwani (also spelled as pahlwani) is a form of wrestling native to India. ... Catch wrestling is a popular style of wrestling with origins in a variety of styles, most notably those of Lancashire, England, collar-and-elbow, and catch-as-catch-can (which is the immediate source of its name). ... Shootfighting // Introduction Shoot wrestling is a general term that describes a range of hybrid fighting systems originating in Japan in the late 1970s, in close association with Japanese professional wrestling. ... Karl Istaz (born in 1924) is a German professional wrestler who is best known by his ring name Karl Gotch. ... Yoshiaki Fujiwara applying the Fujiwara armbar Yoshiaki Fujiwara (藤原喜明 Fujiwara Yoshiaki) is a Japanese professional wrestler who has worked for New Japan Pro Wrestling, Pro Wrestling ZERO-ONE, and UWF. // Career Fujiwara was the first graduate of the New Japan Pro Wrestling dojo (Mr. ...


The conditioning methods of Indian martial arts have also been applied to contemporary mixed martial arts. Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a combat sport in which two competitors attempt to achieve dominance over one another by utilizing a wide variety of permitted martial arts techniques, including striking and grappling. ...


India has also influenced the Portuguese martial art of Jogo do Pau. Tamil immigrants to Malaysia brought with them the staff fighting art Silambam. Jogo do Pau. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


K. Voroshilov travelled to India, under the employ of NKVD physical training center, "Dinamo", to observe its native matial arts. The collection of techniques from martial arts of various countries — including India — formed the basis of the Russian martial art Sambo. Dinamo, also Dynamo, (Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: Дына́ма) was the oldest sports and physical training society of the Soviet Union, created in 1923. ... Look up Sambo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In addition, modern martial arts such as Brazilian Jiu Jitsu credit India to be the origin of their fighting principles. [2] Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ), also known as Gracie Jiu-Jitsu (GJJ), is a martial art that was developed in Brazil by the Gracie family during the mid-20th century. ...

[edit]

Indian martial arts under colonialism

Indian martial arts declined as Western colonialism disrupted the livelihoods of India's martial castes.


Rajputs who sought service with rulers as their ancestors had done found their sources of patronage limited by British restrictions; unable to find employment in their traditional line of work, some joined the Pindari.[1] Rajputs (anonymous, c. ... Pindari is a word of uncertain origin, applied to the irregular horsemen who accompanied the Maratha armies in central India during the 18th century when the Mughal Empire was breaking up. ...


Kalarippayattu underwent a period of decline after the introduction of firearms and especially after the full establishment of British colonial rule in the 19th century.[2]


More European modes of organizing police, armies and governmental institutions, and the increasing use of firearms, gradually eroded the need for traditional martial training associated with caste-specific duties.[3]


The British Raj banned kalarippayattu in 1804 in response to a series of revolts.[4] The British Empire at its zenith in 1919. ...


The resurgence of public interest in kalarippayattu began in the 1920s in Tellicherry as part of a wave of rediscovery of the traditional arts throughout South India which characterized the growing reaction against British colonial rule.[5]

[edit]

Various Indian martial arts

[edit]

Adithada (Adi means kick and thada means block) is a martial art originating from the south of India that is similar to Japanese Karate and Kickboxing. ... But Marma Atti involves a pattern of encircling an attacker psychologically as well as exhausting him mentally. ... Sikhs with chakrams, inscribed Nihang Abchal Nagar (Nihangs from Hazur Sahib), 1844 The chakram is a throwing weapon that was used by the ancient Indians; it is a flat metal ring with a sharp outer edge from 5 to 12 inches in diameter. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Inuban is is a form of wrestling native to the people of Mizoram in India. ... Kabaddi (sometimes written Kabbadi or Kabadi) is a team pursuit sport from South Asia. ... Sword fighting in Kalarippayattu. ... Image File history File links Varmakalai1. ... Image File history File links Varmakalai1. ... Varma Kalai Varma Kalai (also spelled Varmakalai or Varmakkalai) is an ancient martial art which has its origins in the southern part of India, more specifically, around Tamil Nadu state. ... Kuttu Varisai (Empty Hand Combat) (Tamil: ) is a Tamil Indian martial art practiced in Tamil Nadu, South India and in Northeastern Sri Lanka, formerly known as Thamizhakkam. ... Lathi is an ancient armed martial art of India. ... Mallayuddha (literally wrestling combat)[1] is the martial art of classical Indian wrestling. ... This is a form of Martial Arts that concentrates on diversion and quick strking in case of a sucsessful diversion. ... A Pata or sword gauntlet is a bladed weapon from Northern India much like a short sword, except that the blade is integrated in a gauntlet. ... The Ancient Indian Art of Wrestling Pehlwani (also spelled as pahlwani) is a form of wrestling native to India. ... Shastar Vidiya, also called Sanatan Sikh Shastar Vidiya is a form of weapon training practised by Sikhs. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Varma Kalai Varma Kalai (also spelled Varmakalai or Varmakkalai) is an ancient martial art which has its origins in the southern part of India, more specifically, around Tamil Nadu state. ... Vajra Mushti (or Vajra Mukti)/Diamond Fist is one of the oldest martial arts of India . ...

External links

[edit]

References

  1. ^ Bayly, C.A. [1988] (2002). Indian Society and the making of the British Empire, Sixth printing, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 103. ISBN 0521386500.
  2. ^ Zarrilli, P. (1992). "To heal and/or harm: The vital spots (marmmam/varmam) in two south Indian martial traditions--Part I: Focus on Kerala's kalarippayattu". Journal of Asian Martial Arts 1 (1).
  3. ^ Zarrilli, Phillip B. (1998). When the Body Becomes All Eyes: Paradigms, Discourses and Practices of Power in Kalarippayattu, a South Indian Martial Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  4. ^ Luijendijk, D.H. (2005). Kalarippayat: India's Ancient Martial Art. Boulder: Paladin Press. ISBN 1581604807.
  5. ^ Zarrilli 1998
Indian Martial Arts
Adithada • Bothati • But Marma AttiChakramGatkaInbuan WrestlingKabaddiKalarippayattuKuttu VarisaiLathi • Mallak-rida • Malla-yuddha • Mizo Inchai • Mukna • Niyuddha-kride • Pancavarunum • PataPehlwaniShastar VidiyaSilambam • Savasu • Thang Ta • Varma KalaiVajra Mushti

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m