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Encyclopedia > Indian literature
History of Literature
Ancient literature
Babylonian literature
Indian literature
Bengali literature
Hindi literature
Kannada literature
Marathi literature
Malayalam literature
Sanskrit literature
Tamil literature
Urdu literature
Chinese literature
Greek literature
Latin literature
Arabic literature
Persian literature
Pahlavi literature

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Indian literature is generally acknowledged, but not wholly established, as the oldest in the world. India has 22 officially recognized languages, and a huge variety of literature has been produced in these languages over the years. In Indian literature, oral and written forms are both important. Hindu literary traditions dominate a large part of Indian culture. Apart from the Vedas which are a sacred form of knowledge, there are other works such as the Hindu epics Ramayana and Mahabharata, treatises such as Vaastu Shastra in architecture and town planning, and Arthashastra in political science. Devotional Hindu drama, poetry and songs span the subcontinent. Among the best known are the works of Kalidasa (writer of the famed Sanskrit play Recognition of Shakuntala) and Tulsidas (who wrote an epic Hindi poem based on the Ramayana, called Raamcharitmaanas). Tamil poetry of the Sangam poetry which dates back to 1st century BC is well renowned. Muslim literary traditions also dominate a large part of Indian culture. In the medieval period, during which time India was mostly under Muslim rule, Indian Muslim literature flourished, most notably in the Persian and Urdu poetry of Ghalib and Amir Khusrau. Indian literature has also thrived in modern times; notable contributors to modern Indian literature include such writers as the Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore, India's first Nobel laureate, and the Persian and Urdu poet Allama Iqbal, both of whose philosophical poetry is renowned the world over. A stone tablet containing part of the Epic of Gilgamesh The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry which attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/hearer/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication... The History of literature begins with the history of writing, in Bronze Age Mesopotamia, although the oldest literary texts that have come down to us date to a full millennium after the invention of writing, to the late 3rd millennium BC. The earliest literary author known by name is Enheduanna... The Babylonians were an ancient culture located in what is now Iraq. ... It has been suggested that History of Bengali literature be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Kannada language belongs to the Dravidian family of languages and is the second oldest language currently spoken in India. ... Literature in Marathi. ... Literature written in Malayalam language. ... Literature in Sanskrit, one of Indias two oldest languages, and the basis of several modern languages in India. ... Tamil literature is literature in the Tamil language which most prominently includes the contributions of the Tamil country (or Tamizhagam) history, a large part of which constitutes the modern state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as some parts of Karnataka and Andra pradesh. ... Urdu literature has a long and colorful history that is inextricably tied to the development of that very language, Urdu, in which it is written. ... // [edit] Classical texts Main article: Chinese classic texts China has a wealth of classical literature, both poetry and prose, dating from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-256 BCE) and including the Classics attributed to Confucius. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... Arabic literature is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Oral literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद)are the main scriptural texts of Hinduism, also known as the Sanatana Dharma, and are a large corpus of texts originating in Ancient India. ... The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ... The (DevanāgarÄ«: ) is an ancient Sanskrit epic attributed to the poet Valmiki and is an important part of the Hindu canon (smá¹›ti). ... Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ), is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... Vaastu Shastra (Vaastu- physical environment and Shastra- knowledge/ text/ principles. ... The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kauá¹­ilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Abhijñānaśākuntalam (The Recognition of Sakuntala) is a well-known Sanskrit play by Kalidasa. ... GosvāmÄ« TulsÄ«dās (1532-1623; DevanāgarÄ«: तुलसीदास) was an Awadhi poet and philosopher. ... ÅšrÄ« Rāmcharitmānas (Hindi रामचरितमानस) is an epic poem composed by the great 16th-century Indian poet, Goswami Tulsidas (c. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mirza Asadullah Beg Khan Ghalib1 (also known as Mirza Ghalib) (December 27, 1797 - February 15, 1869) was an Indian poet who wrote in Urdu and Persian. ... Abul Hasan Yaminuddin Khusrau (1253-1325 AD), better known as Amir Khusro Dehlavi, is one of Indias greatest poets. ... Rabindranath Tagore in Kolkata, c. ... Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) was an important Indian Muslim poet from the colonial era, a philosopher and thinker of Kashmiri origin. ...

Contents

Sanskrit literature

History of Literature


A stone tablet containing part of the Epic of Gilgamesh The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry which attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/hearer/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Early Literature
Indian literature
Indian literature * Sanskrit literature * Tamil literature
Chinese literature
Greek literature
Latin literature
Persian literature
Pahlavi literature * Persian literature
The Medieval Period
Matter of Rome * Matter of France * Matter of Britain * Medieval literature * Arabic literature * 13th century in literature * 14th century in literature
European Renaissance Literature
European Renaissance Literature * 15th century in literature
The early modern period
16th century in literature * 17th century in literature
European literature in the 18th century
1700s * 1710s * 1720s * 1730s * 1740s * 1750s * 1760s * 1770s * 1780s * 1790s * 1800s
Modern Literature, 19th century
1800s * 1810s * 1820s * 1830s * 1840s * 1850s * 1860s * 1870s * 1880s * 1890s * 1900s
Modern Literature, 20th century
Modernism
Structuralism * Deconstruction * Poststructuralism * Postmodernism * Post-Colonialism * Hypertext fiction
1900s * 1910s * 1920s * 1930s * 1940s * 1950s * 1960s * 1970s * 1980s * 1990s * 2000s
Modern Literature in Europe
European Literature
Modern Literature in the Americas
Argentine literature * Brazilian literature * Canadian literature * Colombian literature * Cuban literature * Jamaican literature * Mexican literature * Peruvian writers * Literature of the United States
Australasian Literature
Australian literature * New Zealand literature
Modern Asian Literature
Modern Asian Literature * Chinese literature * Indian literature * Pakistani literature * Tamil literature * Hindi literature * Urdu literature * Indian writing in English * Bengali literature * Marathi literature * Malayalam literature * Japanese literature * Vietnamese literature
African Literature
African literature * Nigerian literature * Moroccan literature * South African literature * Swahili literature
Other topics
History of theatre * History of science fiction * History of ideas * Intellectual history * Literature by nationality
Main article: Sanskrit literature

There are many famous works written in Sanskrit, one of the oldest languages of India. The History of literature begins with the history of writing, in Bronze Age Mesopotamia, although the oldest literary texts that have come down to us date to a full millennium after the invention of writing, to the late 3rd millennium BC. The earliest literary author known by name is Enheduanna... Literature in Sanskrit, one of Indias two oldest languages, and the basis of several modern languages in India. ... Tamil literature is literature in the Tamil language which most prominently includes the contributions of the Tamil country (or Tamizhagam) history, a large part of which constitutes the modern state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as some parts of Karnataka and Andra pradesh. ... // [edit] Classical texts Main article: Chinese classic texts China has a wealth of classical literature, both poetry and prose, dating from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-256 BCE) and including the Classics attributed to Confucius. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... According to the mediæval poet Jean Bodel, the Matter of Rome was the literary cycle made up of Greek and Roman mythology, together with episodes from the history of classical antiquity, focusing on military heroes like Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar. ... The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle is a body of legendary history that springs from the Old French medieval literature of the chansons de geste. ... The Arthurian legend or the Matter of Britain is a name given collectively to the legends that concern the Celtic and legendary history of the British Isles, especially those focused on King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. ... Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (encompassing the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. ... Arabic literature is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ... See also: Pre 13th century in literature, other events of the 13th century, 14th century in literature, list of years in literature. ... See also: 13th century in literature, other events of the 14th century, 15th century in literature, list of years in literature. ... Renaissance literature is European literature, after the Dark Ages over an extended period, usually considered to be initiated by Petrarch at the beginning of the Italian Renaissance, and sometimes taken to continue to the English Renaissance and into the seventeenth century. ... See also: 14th century in literature, other events of the 15th century, 16th century in literature, list of years in literature. ... See also: 15th century in literature, other events of the 16th century, 17th century in literature, list of years in literature. ... See also: 16th century in literature, other events of the 17th century, 1700 in literature, list of years in literature. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... Modernism is a term which covers a variety of political, cultural and artistic movements rooted in the changes in Western society at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century. ... Structuralism is best known as school in humanities, but it is actually an approach in academic disciplines in general, that explores the relationships between some principal elements, seen to be fundamental for language, literature, etc, upon which some higher mental, linguistic, social, cultural etc. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Post-structuralism is a body of work that followed in the wake of structuralism, and sought to understand the Western world as a network of structures, as in structuralism, but in which such structures are ordered primarily by local, shifting differences (as in deconstruction) rather than grand binary oppositions and... Andy Warhols iconic Marilyn Monroe // Postmodernism is an idea that has been extremely controversial and difficult to define among scholars, intellectuals, and historians, as it connotes to many the hotly debated idea that the modern historical period has passed. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Hypertext fiction is a genre of electronic literature, characterized by the use of hypertext which provides a new context for non-linearity in literature and reader interaction. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... Jorge Luis Borges Argentine literature is placed among the most important in Spanish language, with world-famous writers such as José Hernández, Jorge Luis Borges, Manuel Puig, Julio Cortázar and Ernesto Sábato. ... Canadian literature may be divided into two parts, based on their separate roots: one stems from the culture and literature from France; the other from Britain. ... Mexican literature plays an important role in Mexican culture. ... This topic is considered to be an essential subject on Wikipedia. ... Australian literature in English began soon after the establishment of the country by Europeans. ... New Zealand claims as its own many writers, even those immigrants born overseas or those emigrants who have gone into exile. ... Pakistani literature, that is, the literature of Pakistan, as a distinct literature came into being when Pakistan gained its nationhooood as a sovereign state in 1947. ... Tamil literature is literature in the Tamil language which most prominently includes the contributions of the Tamil country (or Tamizhagam) history, a large part of which constitutes the modern state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as some parts of Karnataka and Andra pradesh. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Urdu literature has a long and colorful history that is inextricably tied to the development of that very language, Urdu, in which it is written. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Indian English Literature. ... It has been suggested that History of Bengali literature be merged into this article or section. ... Literature in Marathi. ... Literature written in Malayalam language. ... Japanese literature spans a period of almost two millennia. ... Vietnamese literature is literature, both oral and written, created by Vietnamese-speaking people. ... Moroccan Folktales by Jilali El Koudia Moroccan literature is a literature written in (Moroccan) Arabic, Berber or French, and of course particularly by people of Morocco, but also of Al-Andalus. ... South Africa has a diverse literary history. ... Swahili literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the Swahili language particularly by Swahili people of the East African coast and the neighbouring islands. ... // The origin of Asian theatre can be traced to over 3500 years ago, beginning with early forms of Indian and Chinese theatre. ... This article is on science fiction literature. ... The history of ideas is a field of research in history and in related fields dealing with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time. ... Intellectual history means either: the history of intellectuals, or: the history of the people who create, discuss, write about and in other ways propagate ideas. ... Literature in Sanskrit, one of Indias two oldest languages, and the basis of several modern languages in India. ... The Sanskrit language ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 22 official languages of India. ...


Vedic literature

Main article: Vedas

Examples of early works written in Vedic Sanskrit include the holy Hindu texts, such as the core Vedas and the Upanishads. Other examples inlcude the Sulba Sutras, which are some of the earliest texts on geometry. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद)are the main scriptural texts of Hinduism, also known as the Sanatana Dharma, and are a large corpus of texts originating in Ancient India. ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. ... The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद)are the main scriptural texts of Hinduism, also known as the Sanatana Dharma, and are a large corpus of texts originating in Ancient India. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... The Sulba Sutras or Sulva Sutras are a text of Vedic mathematics. ... Table of Geometry, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ...


Epic literature

Main article: Indian epic poetry

Vyasa's Mahabharata and Valmiki's Ramayana written in Epic Sanskrit are regarded as the greatest Indian epics. The famous poet and playwright Kālidāsa also wrote two epics: Raghuvamsha (Dynasty of Raghu) and Kumarasambhava (Birth of Kumar Kartikeya), though they were written in Classical Sanskrit rather than Epic Sanskrit. The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ), is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... Maharishi Valmiki (Sanskrit: वाल्मिकी, vālmikÄ«) is the author of the Hindu epic Ramayana. ... The (DevanāgarÄ«: ) is an ancient Sanskrit epic attributed to the poet Valmiki and is an important part of the Hindu canon (smá¹›ti). ... Kālidāsa (कािलदास) was an Indian Sanskrit poet and dramatist, his title Kavikulaguru (Preceptor of All Poets) bearing testimony to his stature. ... Kalidasas Raghuvamsha tells of the family of Rama and his descendents, including the conqueror Raghu. ... Kumarasambhava means the birth of kartikeya, Shivas first son. ...


Classical literature

Main article: Sanskrit literature

Examples of works written in Classical Sanskrit include the Pāṇini's Ashtadhyayi which standardized the grammar and phonetics of Classical Sanskrit. The Laws of Manu is an important text in Hinduism. Kālidāsa is often considered to be the greatest playwright in Sanskrit literature, and one of the greatest poets in Sanskrit literature, whose Recognition of Shakuntala and Meghaduuta are the most famous Sanskrit plays. He occupies the same position in Sanskrit literature that Shakespeare occupies in English literature. Some other famous plays were Mricchakatika by Shudraka, Svapna Vasavadattam by Bhasa, and Ratnavali by Sri Harsha. Later poetic works include Geeta Govinda by Jayadeva. Some other famous works are Chanakya's Arthashastra and Vatsyayana's Kamasutra. Literature in Sanskrit, one of Indias two oldest languages, and the basis of several modern languages in India. ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (पाणिनि; IPA ) was an ancient Indian grammarian from Gandhara (traditionally 520–460 BC, but estimates range from the 7th to 4th centuries BC). ... The Ashtadhyayi (Ạṣtādhyāyī, meaning eight chapters) is the earliest known grammar of Sanskrit, and one of the first works on descriptive linguistics, generative linguistics, or linguistics altogether. ... The Manu Smriti or Laws of Manu, is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous conduct), written c. ... Kālidāsa (कािलदास) was an Indian Sanskrit poet and dramatist, his title Kavikulaguru (Preceptor of All Poets) bearing testimony to his stature. ... Abhijñānaśākuntalam (The Recognition of Sakuntala) is a well-known Sanskrit play by Kalidasa. ... The Meghaduuta (which translates literally as cloud-messenger) is a lyrical poem written by Kalidasa, considered to be one of the greatest Sanskrit poets. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Literature stubs ... Jayadeva Goswami was a composer of Hindu hymns and poetic works, including especially the Sanskrit work, the Gita Govinda, a now-famous work on the divine love of the Hindu god Krishna. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Prime Minister Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Chanakya (c. ... The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kauá¹­ilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya. ... Vatsyayana is a scholar (Rishi) from India. ... The Kama Sutra is an ancient Indian text on sex, widely considered the standard work on love in the Sanskrit literature. ...


Prakrit literature

The most notable Prakrit language was Pali. Pali literature includes Buddhist philosophical works, poetry and some grammatical works. Major works in Pali are Jataka tales, Dhammapada, Addhakatha, and Mahavansha. Some of the major Pali grammarians were Kachvaayan, Moggalaan and Varruchi (who wrote Prakrit Prakash). Many of Ashvaghosha's plays were written in Shaurseni Prakrit. Another major work in Shaurseni was Karpoormanjari. Kalidasa, Harsha and Haal used Maharashtrian Prakrit in some of their plays and poetry. Many Shwetambar Jain works are also written in the Maharashtri Prakrit. Many plays (like those of Ashvaghosha) and Jain works were written in the Ardha Magadhi Prakrit. Prakrit (Sanskrit prāká¹›ta प्राकृत (from pra-ká¹›ti प्रकृति), original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Jataka is a voluminous body of folklore and mythic literature, primarily associated with the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as written in the Pali language (from about the 3rd century, A.D.); however, the stories found in the Jataka have been found in numerous other languages and media --many of them... The Dhammapada (Pali, translates as Path of the Dharma. ... Ashvaghosha (Aśvaghoṣa; 馬鳴; b. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Harsha or Harshavardhana (606-648) was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India as paramount monarch for over forty years. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Ashvaghosha (Aśvaghoṣa; 馬鳴; b. ... Magadhi Prakrit is of one of the three Dramatic Prakrits, the written languages of Ancient India after the decline of Sanskrit as an official language. ...


Pali literature

Main article: Pali Canon

The Pali Canon is mostly of Indian origin. Later Pali literature however was mostly produced outside the Indian subcontinent, particularly in East Asia, Southeast Asia and Central Asia. Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... For the town and district in Rajasthan, see Pali, Rajasthan For the Ganapati temple of pali and place in Maharastra, see Ballaleshwar Pali Pāli (Devanagari पालि) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


Bengali literature

Main article: Bengali literature
Further information: Bengali novels,  Bengali poetry, and History of Bengali literature

The most internationally famous Bengali writer is Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore, who received the Nobel Prize for Literature; but another poet, one generation younger is equally popular, valuable, and influential in his country, though virtually unknown in foreign countries: Kazi Nazrul Islam. Other famous Indian Bengali writers were Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay and Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. Bengali is the second most commonly spoken language in India (after Hindi). As a result of the Bengal Renaissance in the 19th and 20th centuries, many of India's most famous, and relatively recent, literature, poetry, and songs are in Bengali. It has been suggested that History of Bengali literature be merged into this article or section. ... Bengali Novels occupy a major part of Bengali literature. ... Like the Bengali language, Bengali poetry finds its lineage to Pāli and other Prakrit socio-cultural traditions. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Bangla literature. ... Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা, IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of East South Asia, evolved from Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit. ... Rabindranath Tagore in Kolkata, c. ... The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... Nazrul playing a flute, Chittagong, 1926 Kazi Nazrul Islam (Bangla: কাজী নজরুল ইসলাম) (b. ... Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay (Bangla: শরত্চন্দ্র চট্টোপাধ্যায় Shôrotchôndro Chôţţopaddhae), also known as Saratchandra Chattopadhyay or Sharat Chandra Chatterjee (15 September 1876 - 16 January 1938) was an author from India. ... Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (b. ... Bengal renaissance is the period of time that saw surge in creative and social activity in Bengal. ...


Bihari literature

Angika is a language of Anga region of India which is spoken by more than 3 crores people. ... Categories: Indo-Aryan languages | Languages of India | Language stubs ... The Magadhi language (also known as Magahi) is a language of India. ... Maithili is of the family of Indo-Aryan languages, which are part of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. ...

Marathi literature

Main article: Marathi literature

Marathi literature began with saint-poets like Dnyaneshwar, Tukaram, Ramdas, and Eknath. Modern Marathi literature was marked by a theme of social reform. Well-known figures from this phase include Mahatma Jyotiba Phule, Lokhitwadi, and others. Prominent modern literary figures include Vishnu Sakharam Khandekar, P.L. Deshpande, Vijay Tendulkar, and Vishnu Vaman Shirvadakar (Kavi Kusumagraj). Literature in Marathi. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... Sant Dnyaneshwar (1275-1296) (ज्ञानेश्वर in Marathi) (also known as Jnanadeva - ज्ञानदेव or Jnaneshvar - ज्ञानेश्वर) was a 13th century rebel saint-poet born in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra state, west India. ... Tukaram (तुकाराम), respectfully referred to as Shri Tukaram, and colloquially referred to as Tuka (तुका) was a seventeenth century Marathi poet saint of India, with a very great stature in the Bhakti movement of Maharashtra, so much so that in the popular mind he is the very peak of that centuries long... Early Life Samarth Ramdas (1608-1681) is considered one of the greatest Hindu saints of Indian history. ... Sant Eknath (1533 - 1599) was one of the remarkable saints of Maharashtra, India. ... Mahatma Jyotirao Phule (April 11, 1827 - November 28, 1890), also known as Mahatma Jyotiba Phule was an activist and social reformer from Maharashtra, critical of caste relations in Western India and noted for his work in the upliftment of widows and the lower castes in India. ... Purushottam Laxman Deshpande (November 8, 1919 - June 12, 2000) was a noted Indian writer in Marathi. ... Vijay Tendulkar (born in 1928) in Kolhapur, India. ... Vishnu Vaman Shirwadkar, popularly known in Maharashtra, India, and in the larger Marathi community as Kusumagraj, was a well-known and renowned Marathi poet. ...


South Indian literature

Tamil literature

Main article: Tamil literature
Further information: Sangam literature and The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature

Tamil literature has a rich and long literary tradition spanning more than 2000 years. The oldest extant works show signs of maturity indicating an even longer period of evolution. Tolkaappiyam is one of the world's oldest surviving grammar book has been credited as its oldest work in Tamil available today. Contributors to the Tamil literature mainly were Tamil people from Tamil Nadu, however there have been notable contributions from European authors. The history of Tamil literature follows the history of Tamil Nadu, closely following the social and political trends of various periods. The secular nature of the early Sangam poetry gave way to works of religious and didactic nature during the middle ages. Tirukkural is a fine example of such work on human behaviour and political morals. A wave of religious revival helped generate a great volume of literary output by Saivite and Vaishnavite authors. Jain and Buddhist authors during the medieval period and Muslim and European authors later also contributed to the growth of Tamil literature. Tamil literature is literature in the Tamil language which most prominently includes the contributions of the Tamil country (or Tamizhagam) history, a large part of which constitutes the modern state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as some parts of Karnataka and Andra pradesh. ... Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years 200 BCE and 300 CE.[1][2] This collection contains 2381 poems written by 473 poets, some 102 of whom are anonymous authors[3]. The period during which these poems were written is commonly referred to... Manimegalai, Seevaga Sindhamani, Valayaapathi, Kundalakesi and Silapadhigaaram constitute the Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature. ... Tamil (தமிழ் ) is a classical language and one of the major languages of the Dravidian language family. ... Tolkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம் in Tamil) is a book on the grammar of the Tamil language. ... The Tamil people are an ethnic group from South Asia with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... This article is about the continent. ... The History of Tamil Nadu dates back to the early prehistory. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years 200 BCE and 300 CE.[1][2] This collection contains 2381 poems written by 473 poets, some 102 of whom are anonymous authors[3]. The period during which these poems were written is commonly referred to... Tiruvalluvar statue at Kanyakumari Tirukural (திருக்குறள் in Tamil) is an important work of Tamil literature by Tiruvalluvar written in the form of couplets expounding various aspects of life. ... Saivite: of Saivism; belonging to Saivism, the Hindu denomination that worships God Siva as the Supreme God. ... Vaishnavites are followers of Vaishnavism in which Vishnu or His avatars are worshipped as the supreme God. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... This article is about the continent. ...


A revival of Tamil literature took place from the late nineteenth century when works of religious and philosophical nature were written in a style that made it easier for the common people to enjoy. Nationalist poets began to utilise the power of poetry in influencing the masses. With growth of literacy, Tamil prose began to blossom and mature. Short stories and novels began to appear. The popularity of Tamil Cinema has also provided opportunities for modern Tamil poets to emerge. Kollywood is a name often applied to Tamil Cinema, based in Chennai (formerly Madras) in the state of Tamil Nadu in south India. ...


Kannada literature

Kannada writer and Jnanpeeth award winner U. R. Ananthamurthy.
Kannada writer and Jnanpeeth award winner U. R. Ananthamurthy.
Main article: Kannada literature

Kannada literature is the third oldest in Indian literature next to Sanskrit literature and Tamil literature. The earliest reported work in Kannada literature dates back to 5th century. The first available literary in Kannada is Kavirajamarga written in 8th century by Amoghavarsha Nrpatunga. Kannada literature can broadly studied in three phases: Hale Kannada (Old Kannada), Nadu Kannada (Middle Kannada) and Adhunika Kannada (Modern Kannada). As of today Kannada authors have distinction of winning Jnanpeeth award, the highest literary award in India, most times, seven.
Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (750x943, 103 KB) Summary U. R. Ananthamurthy, kannada literateur. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (750x943, 103 KB) Summary U. R. Ananthamurthy, kannada literateur. ... Jnanpith Award (pronounced Gyanpeeth Award) is the highest literary honour presented by the Government of India. ... Udupi Rajagopalacharya Ananthamurthy (born december 21, 1932), is a leading contemporary writer, critic and philosopher in Kannada language. ... The Kannada language belongs to the Dravidian family of languages and is the second oldest language currently spoken in India. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Literature in Sanskrit, one of Indias two oldest languages, and the basis of several modern languages in India. ... Tamil literature is literature in the Tamil language which most prominently includes the contributions of the Tamil country (or Tamizhagam) history, a large part of which constitutes the modern state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as some parts of Karnataka and Andra pradesh. ... Sri Vijaya, the court poet of Amoghavarsha Nripathunga, the Rashtrakuta ruler, composed it in the 9 Th centuries A.D. It is considered that Sri Vijaya did the first literary works in 9th Century A.D. This work is generally held to be the earliest literary work in Kannada. ... Jnanpith Award (pronounced Gyanpeeth Award) is the highest literary honour presented by the Government of India. ...


Malayalam literature

Main article: Malayalam literature

Literature written in Malayalam language. ...

Telugu literature

Telugu, the second largest language spoken in India, is rich in literary traditions. Shortcut: WP:CSD Current list: Category:Candidates for speedy deletion There are a few, limited, cases where admins can delete Wikipedia pages on sight. Non-admins can ask for an admin to delete such a page, either by listing it on speedy deletions, or by adding either a {{delete}} or...


The earliest written literature dates back to the seventh century. The epic literary tradition started with Nannayya who is acclaimed as Telugu's 'Aadikavi' which means the first poet. He belongs to tenth or eleventh century. Kavitrayam is a Telugu expression for trinity of poets. ...


Kalapurnodayam by Pingali Suranna, a sixteenth-century poet, is the worlds first literary work in the Stream of consciousness style.[citation needed] The world had to wait for four centuries to have a major work in this tradition in the form of James Joyce's magnum opus. In psychology and philosophy stream of consciousness, introduced by William James, is the set of constantly changing inner thoughts and sensations which an individual has while conscious, used as a synonym for stream of thought. ... James Joyce James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (Irish Seamus Seoighe; 2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish writer and poet, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. ...


Vemana who lived in the fourteenth century wrote in the language of the common man. He wrote poems in a simple style. He is the first rebel in literature.[citation needed] He questioned the prevailing pseudo values and conventions and religious practices in his poems. His philosophy made him a unique poet of the masses.


Gurajada Apparao, the father of Telugu Modern poetry, created a literary marvel with his play Kanyasulkam. Kanyasulkam stands one of the best plays that have ever been written in the world literature.[citation needed]


Romantic Moment: Krishna Sastri, the wizard of Telugu Romantic poetry is said to be another Shelly.


The New Era: Sri Sri who is the only poet deserving of the title 'Mahakavi' (the greatest of the poets) in the modern era produced Mahaprasthanm. Mahaprasthanam did to Telugu people what the literature from Milton to Eliot/Frost had done to the English.


Viswanadha Satyanarayana, a doyen of conventional yet creative literature, was the first to receive the Jnanpith, the highest literary award in India, followed by C. Narayana Reddy.


The Digambara poets (Nagnamuni, Cherabanda Raju, Jwalamukhi, Nikhileshwr, Bhiravayya, and Mahaswapna) shook the stagnant literary world between 1960–1970 and their verses were translated not only into many other Indian languages but also into many European Languages. It is Telugu Literature that led whole Indian literary world in Revolutionary Literary Movement.


(dubious) short story in telugu: in the field of short story,there are so many great writers in telugu.Gurujada AppaRao,Palagummi padma raju, rachakonda viswanadha sastry, kalipatnam ramarao ,chaganti somayajulu, sripada subramanyam sastry,chintha deekshitulu, maa gokhale,sreepathi,rachamallu ramachandra reddy, k.sabha,madhurantakam rajaram,kethu viswanadha reddy,singamaneni narayana,sodum jayaram,y.c.v.reddy,kuppi reddy padmanabha reddyare the eminent short story writers in telugu. gr maharshi,olga, d.kameswary,gorunaidu,allam rajaiah, tummeti raghottam reddy,tavva obul reddy,peddinti ashok kumar,vrrasaani,narendra,sannapureddy,dadahayath,pratima, kuppili padma,palagiri viswaprasad, gorusu jagadeeswara reddy,swamy, chilukoori deva putra, sadlapalli chidambara reddy, kasula pratap reddy,chilukoori deevena,v. chandrasekhara rao, rm uma maheswara rao,sasisree,mahamood, ibrahim, gangadhar,chenna rammoorthy,cheruvu anantha krishna sarma,ns khalandhar,rahapooti ramesh,venkata krishna, hari kishan, like this the list goes on..


Thus, between Nannayya and 'Nandanodaya' of today, there stood literary giants who enriched world literature.

History of modern literature
Modern Asian literature

Arabic literature
Chinese literature
Indian literature
This article is the second in a series of The History of Literature. ... Arabic literature is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ...

Bengali literature
Hindi literature
Indian English literature
Kannada literature
Kashmiri literature
Marathi literature
Malayalam literature
Sindhi literature
Tamil literature
Urdu literature

Japanese literature
Korean literature
Pakistani literature
Vietnamese literature It has been suggested that History of Bengali literature be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Indian English Literature (IEL) refers to the body of work by writers in India who write in the English language and whose mother tongue is usually one of the numerous languages of India. ... The Kannada language belongs to the Dravidian family of languages and is the second oldest language currently spoken in India. ... Kashmiri literature has a history of at least 2,500 years, going back to its glory days of Sanskrit. ... Literature in Marathi. ... Literature written in Malayalam language. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tamil literature is literature in the Tamil language which most prominently includes the contributions of the Tamil country (or Tamizhagam) history, a large part of which constitutes the modern state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as some parts of Karnataka and Andra pradesh. ... Urdu literature has a long and colorful history that is inextricably tied to the development of that very language, Urdu, in which it is written. ... Japanese literature spans a period of almost two millennia. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... Pakistani literature, that is, the literature of Pakistan, as a distinct literature came into being when Pakistan gained its nationhooood as a sovereign state in 1947. ... Vietnamese literature is literature, both oral and written, created by Vietnamese-speaking people. ...

Hindustani Literature

Hindi literature

Main article: Hindi literature

Hindi literature started as religious and philosophical poetry in medieval periods in dialects like Avadhi and Brij. The most famous figures from this period are Kabir and Tulsidas. In modern times, the Khadi dialect became more prominent and a variety of literature was produced in Sanskrit. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Hindi (हिन्दी or हिंदी in Devanagari; pronunciation: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is the official language of the Union government of India [1][2]. It is part of a dialect continuum of the Indic family, bounded on the northwest and west by Punjabi, Sindhi, Urdu, and... Awadhi is a dialect of Hindi, spoken in the Awadh (Oudh) region of Uttar Pradesh. ... Brij or Braj or Brajbhoomi is a region in Uttar Pradesh of India. ... Depiction of saint Kabir on the cover of a Hindi magazine named Shree Kabir Gyanamrit Kabīr (also Kabīra) (Hindi: कबीर, Gurmukhī: ਕਬੀਰ, Urdu: ‎) (1398—1518)(dubious; discuss) was an Indian mystic; a Bhakti saint, a contemporary of Guru Nanak Dev, who sang the ideals of seeing all of humanity as... Gosvāmī Tulsīdās (1532-1623; Devanāgarī: तुलसीदास) was an Awadhi poet and philosopher. ... The Sanskrit language (Skt. ...


Chandrakanta, written by Devaki Nandan Khatri, is considered to be the first work of prose in Hindi. Munshi Premchand was the most famous Hindi novelist. The chhayavadi poets include Surya Kant Tripathi "Nirala", Jaishankar Prasad, Sumitranandan Pant, and Mahadevi Varma. Other renowned poets include Maithili Sharan Gupt, Agyey, Harivansh Rai Bachchan, and Dharmveer Bharti. The progressive poets of Hindi were : Kedarnath Agrawal, Shamsher, Gajanan Madhav "Muqtibodh", Ramdhari Singh "Dinkar", Nagarjun, Raghuveer Sahai, and Kedar Nath Singh. Notable poets of the young generation include Kumar Vikal, Dinesh Shukla, Uday Prakash, Mohan Daheria, Shailendra Chauhan, and Vinod Padraj. This young generation is very much extrovert in expressions and much aware of global changes. Devaki Nandan Khatri was the first author of the mystery novels in Hindi. ... Munshi Premchand (July 31, 1880-October 8, 1936) (pen name: Premchand) was one of the greatest literary figures of modern Hindi and Urdu literature. ... Jaishankar Prasad (January 30, 1889 - January 14, 1937) (Hindi: जयशंकर प्रसाद) was one of the most famous figures in modern Hindi literature. ... Sumitranandan Pant (सुमित्रानन्‍दन पंत) (1900 - December 28, 1977) was one of the most famous modern Hindi poets. ... Mahadevi Varma (1907 - 11th September 1987) was one of the most famous modern Hindi poets. ... Maithilisharan Gupt (1886-1965) was one of the most famous modern Hindi poets. ... Harivanshrai Srivastav Bachchan ( November 27, 1907 - January 18, 2003) was a Hindi poet. ... Dr. Dharamvir Bharati (धर्मवीर भारती) (December 25, 1926 - September 4, 1997), was an Indian writer. ...


Urdu literature

Main article: Urdu literature
Further information: Urdu poetry

Among other traditions, Urdu poetry is a fine example of linguistic and cultural synthesis. Arab and Persian vocabulary based on the Hindi language resulted in a vast and extremely beloved class of ghazal literature, usually written by Muslims in contexts ranging from romance and society to philosophy and devotion to Allah. Urdu soon became the court language of the Mughals and in its higher forms was once called the "Kohinoor" of Indian languages. Urdu literature has a long and colorful history that is inextricably tied to the development of that very language, Urdu, in which it is written. ... Like other languages, the history of Urdu poetry does not have a firm starting point and shares origins and influences with other linguistic traditions within the Urdu-Hindi-Hindustani mix. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب) are a heterogeneous ethnic group who are predominantly speakers of the Arabic language, mainly found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Persian, (local name: Fārsī or Pārsī), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Koh-i-noor is Persian and means Mountain of Light. The Koh-i-Noor, Koh-i-Nur, or Kohinoor is a 108 carat diamond that originated in the subcontinent of India and belonged to various Indian and Persian rulers at different points in its history. ...

See also: Progressive Writers' Movement

The Anjuman Tarraqi Pasand Mussanafin-e-Hind or Progressive Writers Movement was a literary movement in the pre-partition British India, which came into existence in 1936. ...

Indian literature in foreign languages

Indian Persian literature

Main article: Persian literature

During the early Muslim period, Persian became the lingua franca of the subcontinent, used by most of the educated and the government. Although Persian literature from Persia itself was popular, several Indians became major Persian poets, the most notable being Amir Khusro and in more modern times Allama Iqbal. Much of the older Sanskrit literature was also translated into Persian. For a time, it remained the court language of the Mughals, soon to be replaced by Urdu. Persian still held its status, despite the spread of Urdu, well into the early years of the British rule in India. Most British officials had to learn Persian on coming to India and concluded their conversations in Persian. In the early 19th century, however, the British, in an effort to expand their influence, made a government ruling to discontinue the use of Persian and commence the use of English instead. Thus started the decline of Persian as the subcontinent's lingua franca, a position to be taken up by the new language of the British Raj, English. Many modern Indian languages still show signs of heavy Persian influence, most notably Urdu and Hindi. Persian literature (in Persian: ‎) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... Persian, (local name: Fārsī or Pārsī), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Persian, (local name: Fārsī or Pārsī), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Abul Hasan Yaminuddin Khusro (1253-1325 CE), better known as Amir Khusro Dehlavi (in Persian اميرخسرو دهلوى), is one of the iconic figures in the cultural history of the Indian subcontinent. ... Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) was an important Indian Muslim poet from the colonial era, a philosopher and thinker of Kashmiri origin. ... The Sanskrit language ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 22 official languages of India. ... Persian, (local name: Fārsī or Pārsī), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Persian, (local name: Fārsī or Pārsī), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Persian, (local name: Fārsī or Pārsī), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Persian, (local name: Fārsī or Pārsī), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The British Empire at its zenith in 1919. ... Persian, (local name: Fārsī or Pārsī), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hindi (हिन्दी or हिंदी in Devanagari; pronunciation: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is the official language of the Union government of India [1][2]. It is part of a dialect continuum of the Indic family, bounded on the northwest and west by Punjabi, Sindhi, Urdu, and...


Indian English literature

In the last century, several Indian writers have distinguished themselves not only in traditional Indian languages but also in English. India's only Nobel laureate in literature was the Bengali writer Rabindranath Tagore. Other major writers in English who are either Indian or of Indian origin and derive much inspiration from Indian themes are R. K. Narayan, Vikram Seth, Salman Rushdie, Arundhati Roy, Raja Rao, Amitav Ghosh, Vikram Chandra, Mukul Kesavan, Khushwant Singh, Shashi Tharoor, Nayantara Sehgal, Anita Desai, Ashok Banker, Shashi Deshpande, Jhumpa Lahiri, Kamala Markandaya, and Bharati Mukherjee. Indian English Literature (IEL) refers to the body of work by writers in India who write in the English language and whose mother tongue is usually one of the numerous languages of India. ... The article describes the languages spoken in the Republic of India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা, IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of East South Asia, evolved from Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit. ... Rabindranath Tagore in Kolkata, c. ... R. K. Narayan (October 10, 1906 - May 13, 2001), born Rasipuram Krishnaswami Ayyar Narayanaswami,[1] is among the well known and most widely read Indian novelists writing in English. ... Vikram Seth (pronounced ), born June 20, 1952 is an Indian poet, novelist, travel writer, librettist, childrens writer, biographer and memoirist. ... Salman Rushdie (born Ahmed Salman Rushdie, Urdu: ‎, on June 19, 1947, in Bombay, India) is a British-Indian essayist and author of fiction, most of which is set on the Indian subcontinent. ... Suzanna Arundhati Roy[1] (Malayalam: അരുന്ധതി റോയ്, Bengali: অরুন্ধতী রায় Orundhoti Rae, Hindi: अरुंधती राय Arundhatī Rāy) (born November 24, 1961) is an Indian novelist, activist. ... Raja Rao (November 8, 1908 – July 8, 2006) was an Indian writer of English language novels and short stories, whose works are deeply rooted in Brahminism and Hinduism. ... Amitav Ghosh (born 1956 in Calcutta), is an Indian author, known for his work in the English language. ... Vikram Chandra, is an emerging Indian writer who has won awards and critical acclaim for his novel, Red Earth and Pouring Rain, and a collection of short stories, Love & Longing in Bombay. ... Marios caricature of Khushwant Singh, sitting next to a pile of books, a bottle of scotch, and a girlie magazine Khushwant Singh (Punjabi: , born February 2, 1915 in Punjab) is one of Indias most prominent Indian novelists and journalists. ... Young Shashi Tharoor Shashi Tharoor (Malayalam: ശശി തരൂര്‍; Born 9 March 1956 in London) is the United Nations Under-Secretary General for Communications and Public Information. ... Nayantara Sehgal is the youngest daughter of Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit and a well-regarded novelist in English. ... Anita Desai (b. ... Ashok Kumar Banker (born 1964) is a novelist and short story writer born and living in Mumbai, India. ... Shashi Deshpande (b. ... Jhumpa Lahiri Vourvoulias (born Nilanjana Sudeshna in 1967) (Bengali: ঝুম্পা লাহিড়ী Jhumpa Lahiŗi) is a contemporary Indian American (Bengali) author based in New York City. ... Kamala Markandaya (? - May 16, 2004), born Kamala Purnaiya Taylor, was an Indian novelist and journalist. ... Bharati Mukherjee (born July 27, 1940) is an Indian-American fiction writer and university professor currently teaching at the English Department of the University of California, Berkeley. ...


In the 1950s, the Writers Workshop collective in Calcutta was founded by the poet and essayist P. Lal to advocate and publish Indian writing in English. The press was the first to publish Pritish Nandy, Sasthi Brata, and others; it continues to this day to provide a forum for English writing in India. Writers Workshop is a Calcutta-based literary publisher, founded by the poet P. Lal in the early 1950s. ... Purusottama Lal, born 1929 in the state of Punjab in India, is a poet, essayist, translator, professor and publisher. ... Sasthi Brata Chakraborty (Sasthi Brata as he prefers) is an Indo-Anglian writer of fiction. ...


In recent years, English-language writers of Indian origin are being published in the West at an increasing rate. In June 1997, a special fiction issue of The New Yorker magazine devoted much space to essays by Amitav Ghosh and Abraham Verghese, a short story by Vikram Chandra, and poems by Jayanta Mahapatra and A. K. Ramanujan. John Updike profiled R.K. Narayan and Arundhati Roy's "A God of Small Things." The New Yorker is an American magazine that publishes reportage, criticism, essays, cartoons, poetry and fiction. ... Amitav Ghosh (born 1956 in Calcutta), is an Indian author, known for his work in the English language. ... Vikram Chandra, is an emerging Indian writer who has won awards and critical acclaim for his novel, Red Earth and Pouring Rain, and a collection of short stories, Love & Longing in Bombay. ... Jayanta Mahapatra is one of the best know Indian English poets. ... Attipat Krishnaswami Ramanujan (1929-1993) was an Indian author, who wrote in both English and Kannada. ... R.K. Narayan - 1906 - 2001 Rasipuram Krishnaswamy Narayan (October 10, 1906 - May 13, 2001) was an Indian novelist. ... Suzanna Arundhati Roy[1] (Malayalam: അരുന്ധതി റോയ്, Bengali: অরুন্ধতী রায় Orundhoti Rae, Hindi: अरुंधती राय Arundhatī Rāy) (born November 24, 1961) is an Indian novelist, activist. ...


Awards

The Jnanpith Award is the highest literary honour conferred in the Republic of India. ...

See also

Indian poetry, including the languages of Sanskrit and Tamil, has a long history, from the Vedic times onwards. ... The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ... Pakistani literature, that is, the literature of Pakistan, as a distinct literature came into being when Pakistan gained its nationhooood as a sovereign state in 1947. ... The Anjuman Tarraqi Pasand Mussanafin-e-Hind or Progressive Writers Movement was a literary movement in the pre-partition British India, which came into existence in 1936. ...

External links

  • Collection of Hindi poems & poets
  • Clay Sanskrit Library publishes classical Indian literature, with Sanskrit facing-page text and translation. Also offers searchable corpus and downloadable materials.
  • Indian literary scenario starting from the puranic period to the present day


  Results from FactBites:
 
Literature (408 words)
The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry which aim at providing education, entertainment and enlightenment to its readers as well the development of the literary techniques used in the communication of these pieces.
Indian English literature refers to that corpus of literature that has been written in the English language by native Indian writers who belong to one of the many regons of India and speak a different language.
Literature has the capacity to mould the thinking of a whole Age, it is the mirror of the society.
Indian literature. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (376 words)
Among the Muslims classical Persian poetry was the fountainhead of a later growth in the Urdu literature produced for the Mughal court, and elaborate Urdu verse on set themes was produced in abundance.
Foreign, particularly English, literature was eagerly studied and to some extent assimilated to classical Indian modes and themes.
Today there is a written literature in all the important languages of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, as well as a large literature in English intended to reach all the university-educated public regardless of native language.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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