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Encyclopedia > Indian coinage

The history of Indian coinage stretches back at least 2600 years. Several dynasties have come and gone, as have rulers like Alexander the Great, the British, the Portuguese and the Dutch, leaving an intricate trail of coinage behind. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


It is impossible to talk of coinage over such a long period without also talking about history, and hence this article runs parallel to the article History of India. The archaeological record in India (encompassing the territory of the modern nations of the Republic of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) shows first traces of Homo sapiens from ca. ...

Contents

Archaic Period of Janapada coinage

Punch marked coin from Madhyadesha

The first coins in India were minted around the 6th century BC by the Mahajanapadas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, and certainly before the invasion of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC. The coins of this period were punch marked coins called Puranas, Karshapanas or Pana. Several of these coins had a single symbol, for example, Saurashtra had a humped bull, and Dakshin Panchala had a Swastika. Others, like Magadha, had several symbols, which were made of silver of a standard weight but with an irregular shape. This was gained by cutting up silver bars and then making the correct weight by cutting the edges of the coin.[citation needed] They are mentioned in the Manu, Panini, and Buddhist Jataka stories and lasted three centuries longer in the south than the north (600BCE-300CE).[1] Image File history File links From [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links From [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... MiNT (MiNT is Now TOS) is an alternative operating system (OS) kernel for the Atari ST computer and its successors which is free software. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Saurashtra in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Panchala Kingdom. ... A right-facing Swastika in a decorative Hindu form The swastika (from Sanskrit ) is an equilateral cross with its arms bent at right angles, in either right-facing () or left-facing () forms. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... The Manusmriti (Sanskrit मनुस्मृति), translated Laws of Manu is regarded as an important work of Hindu law and ancient Indian society. ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (पाणिनि; IPA ) was an ancient Indian grammarian from Gandhara (traditionally 520–460 BC, but estimates range from the 7th to 4th centuries BC). ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Jataka stories are a significant body of works about the previous lives of Gautama Buddha. ...


Areas considered to have issued different coins are:

Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Kuntala is a village and a Mandal in Adilabad district in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. ... Kuru or Kurus may be: Kuru (kingdom), a powerful Indian kingdom during the Vedic period and later a republic during the Mahajanapada period Kuru Kingdom, a kingdom based on the historic Kuru kingdom in Indian epic literature Kuru (disease), neurological, and associated with New Guinea, the Fore, and cannibalism Kuru... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Panchala Kingdom. ... Śākya (Sanskrit) or Sakya (Pāli) is the name (derived from Sanskrit śakya, capable, able) of an Indo-Aryan-speaking nation or janapada of the (the so-called warrior caste). The Śākyas formed independent tribes or kingdoms near the foothills of the Himālayas. ... Saurashtra in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ...

Mauryan Period

Punch marked with an Elephant, Sun
Punch marked with an Elephant, Sun

During the Mauryan period, punch marked coins continued to be issued in large quantities, these are a continuation of the Magadha Kingdom coinage as the ruling house of this empires established the Mauryan Empire. They contained on average 50-54 grains of silver in each coin depending on wear and 32 rattis in weight Manu smruti,[9] and earlier coins are flatter than later coins. Punches on these coins count to 450 with the most common the sun and six-armed symbols, and warious forms of geometrical patterns, circles, wheels, human figures, various animals, bows and arrows, hills and trees etc. Many are barly discernible for what they could be. The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... Coin of the Mauryan empire, c. ... Coin of the Mauryan empire, c. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... The Sun (Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ...


The basic coin is called the Karshapana (pana) in numismatic terms but the Arthasastra stated there are at least 4 denominations of silver coins in pana, ardhapana (half pana), pada (quarter pana) and ashta-bhaga, or arshapadika (one-eighth pana).[citation needed] But only the Karshapana is found. There is no issues found of the other denominations even though cut coins are found. In Inuit mythology, Pana was the god who cared for souls in the underworld (Adlivun) before they were reincarnated. ... Numismatics (ancient Greek: νομισματική) is the scientific study of money and its history in all its varied forms. ... Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on economics and politics written by king maker Chanakya (also known as Kautilya) in the 4th century B.C during the rule of the Mauryan dynasty. ...


Copper coins are known but their provinences are not. They are cast and with images of a hill or mountain, crescent moon, cross, swastika and various animals.[10] General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... The panoramic view from Connors Hill, near Swifts Creek, Victoria A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain, in a limited area. ... Lyskamm, 4 527 m, Pennine Alps A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ... A Greek cross (all arms of equal length) above a saltire, a cross rotated by 45 degrees A famous Armenian khachkar at Goshavank (Notice the cross). ... A right-facing Swastika in a decorative Hindu form The swastika (from Sanskrit ) is an equilateral cross with its arms bent at right angles, in either right-facing () or left-facing () forms. ...


Satavahana

Silver coin of king Vashishtiputra Sātakarni (c. 160 CE).
Silver coin of king Vashishtiputra Sātakarni (c. 160 CE).

Obv: Bust of king. Asokan Brahmi legend Prakrit: Siri Satakanisa Rano ... Vasithiputasa. Rev: Ujjain/Sātavāhana symbol left. Crescented six-arch chaitya hill right. River below. Tamil Brahmi legend: Arahanaku Vahitti makanaku Tiru Hatakaniko. The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1202x596, 90 KB)Satavahana king Vasishtiputra Sri Satakarni. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1202x596, 90 KB)Satavahana king Vasishtiputra Sri Satakarni. ... Silver coin of king Vashishtiputra Sātakarni (c. ...




Kuninda Kingdom

Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. 1st century BCE
Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. 1st century BCE

Kuninda issued silver coins which were bilingual, bearing legends in Prakrit written in Brahmi script on one side, and Kharoshti on other.[11] The coin shown has on the obverse a Deer standing right, crowned by two cobras, attended by Lakshmi holding a lotus flower. Legend in Prakrit (Brahmi script, from left to right): Rajnah Kunindasya Amoghabhutisya maharajasya ("Great King Amoghabhuti, of the Kunindas"). On the reverse: Stupa surmounted by the Buddhist symbol triratna, and surrounded by a swastika, a "Y" symbol, and a tree in railing. Legend in Kharoshti script, from right to left: Rana Kunidasa Amoghabhutisa Maharajasa, ("Great King Amoghabhuti, of the Kunindas"). Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. ... Image File history File linksMetadata KunindaCoin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata KunindaCoin. ... Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. ... Look up multilingual, multilingualism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas used in South Asia and Southeast Asia. ... The Kharoṣṭhī script, also known as the Gāndhārī script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border... Lakshmi (Sanskrit: लक्ष्मी ) is the Hindu goddess of wealth, light, wisdom, the lotus flower and fortune, and secondarily of luck, beauty, courage and fertility. ... Binomial name Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... BrāhmÄ« refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ... Stupa at Samye Ling Monastery, Scotland A stupa (from the Sanskrit) is a type of Buddhist structure found across the Indian subcontinent, Asia and increasingly in the Western World. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Triratna or Three Jewels symbol, on a Buddha footprint. ... A right-facing Swastika in a decorative Hindu form The swastika (from Sanskrit ) is an equilateral cross with its arms bent at right angles, in either right-facing () or left-facing () forms. ... The Kharoṣṭhī script, also known as the Gāndhārī script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border...




Sunga Period

Cast bronze ½ karshapana coin of the Sunga period, Eastern India. 2nd-1st century BCE.
Cast bronze ½ karshapana coin of the Sunga period, Eastern India. 2nd-1st century BCE.

Sungan coinage issued between 185 to 73 BCE were copper ¼, ½ and 1 silver karshapana. The fractions were first punched then later cast and made of copper. Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga empire (185 BCE-73 BCE) For other uses of the term Sunga see Sunga (disambiguation) The Sunga empire (or Shunga empire) controlled the eastern part of India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 368 pixelsFull resolution (2080 × 958 pixel, file size: 350 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bronze coin of the Sunga period, Eastern India. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 368 pixelsFull resolution (2080 × 958 pixel, file size: 350 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bronze coin of the Sunga period, Eastern India. ...


On the ½ karshapana were usually pictures of a three-arched hill (chaitya) below a crescent and a railed tree to the right. The other side contained an elephant to the left. Average dimensions are 16 mm with a weight of between 2.5 and 3.1 grams.


The ¼ karshapna had an image of an elephant and rider to the left, with the opposite side containing a three arched hill or mountain called a chaitya with crescent ubove. Diammeter is on average 14 mm, and a varied wight of 1.2 and 2.7 grams. A chaitya-griha (stupa hall) is a meeting or assembly often used for purposes similar to a stupa. ...


The silver Pana was a punch marked coin and is distinguishable from the type of punch involved[citation needed], it was a continuation of the Mauriyan coinage.


The Classical Age

The classic age was the great age for India, which was a time when Indian society peaked. It was during this period that a type of Greek standard in coinage was adopted, first by the Greek influenced powers such as the Indo-scythians and Kushans and then the Indian Empires themselves.


Bactria

Agathokles, king of Bactria (ca. 200–145 BC).
Agathokles, king of Bactria (ca. 200–145 BC).

The coinage of Bactria is based on the Hellenistic Greek design, and is a descendant of the Seleucid coinage which was a descendant of Alexander the Greats coinage. There are bronze chalkoi and Oboluss and silver obal and drachm denominations. Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Image File history File linksMetadata AgathoklesCoinage. ... Image File history File linksMetadata AgathoklesCoinage. ... Koine redirects here. ... The coinage of the Seleucid Empire is based on the coins of Alexander the Great which in turn was based on Athenian coinage of the Attic weight. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... The obolus (or obol) is a Greek silver coin worth a sixth of a drachma. ... Drachma, pl. ...


Languages written on the coins were Greek and later the Bactrian language in the Greek alphabet. Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Bactrian language is an extinct language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria, also called Tocharistan, in northern Afghanistan. ... The Greek alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Greek language since about the 9th century BCE. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel and consonant alike. ...




Indo-Greeks

Silver Tetradrachm of the indo-greek king Eukratides.
Silver Tetradrachm of the indo-greek king Eukratides.

Similar to other Hellenic issues. Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... Silver Tetradrachm of the Greco-Bactrian king Eucratides. ... Silver Tetradrachm of the Greco-Bactrian king Eucratides. ...




Indo-Parthians

Coins of the Indo-Parthian king Abdagases, in which his clothing is clearly apparent. He wears baggy trousers, rather typical of Parthian clothing.
Coins of the Indo-Parthian king Abdagases, in which his clothing is clearly apparent. He wears baggy trousers, rather typical of Parthian clothing.


Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first king of the Indo-Parthians kingdom. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 404 pixels Full resolution (1300 × 656 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 404 pixels Full resolution (1300 × 656 pixel, file size: 1. ...


Yuezhi

Yuezhi prince Sapalbizes circa 20 BC.

Obverse is a bust of Sapadbizes (c 20 BC). Greek legend CAΠAΛBIZHC "Sapallizes". Reverse has a lion with Greek legend NANAIA repeated left and right (name of a goddess). Tamgha of hill & crescent. Qunduz mint, in Afghanistan. Languages Unknown, although the epigraphy ranges from Greek language to Bactrian, and often considered to have spoken a Tocharian language. ... Yuezhi prince Sapalbizes (c. ... Yuezhi prince Sapalbizes (c. ...


These coins were in the same design and presumably denomination as the Indo-Greek coins. They were a prelude to the Kushan coinage which started out the same but later changed in design.




Indo-Scythian issue

Coin of Indo-Scythian king Rajuvula.
Coin of Indo-Scythian king Rajuvula.

These coins are unique in design and contain Greek and Kharoshthi legends, and similar ones to the Indo-parthian issues. The coins issued were calkoi, drachms and tetradrachms, later silver coins were mainly debased and copper issue. Coin sizes rarely exceeds 25 mm in diameter.[12] The Indo-Scythian King of Kings Azes II (c. ... Image File history File links Coin of Indo-Scythian king Rajuvula. ... Image File history File links Coin of Indo-Scythian king Rajuvula. ... The Indo-Scythian King of Kings Azes II (c. ... The Kharoṣṭhī script, also known as the Gāndhārī script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border...




Kushan Empire

Main issue was of Gold 7.9 g, laer debased with silver, and base metals of 12-1.5g. No silver was issued.[13] Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ...

Late Kushan ruler Shaka I (325-345).
Late Kushan ruler Shaka I (325-345).

The base metal coins are usually warn so a bare image is exposed. Coins are a little stylised to make them distinct from other coins, usually picturing a deity on one side and the king on the other. MacDowell (1968) identified 3 regional copper issues of Kajula Kadphises and Vima Taktu of separate coinage in there first issue, this would correspond to three previous empires. The northern area is Bactria which had the largest sized coins of 12 g (tetradrachms)and 1.5 g, Gandharan whoes coinage weighed 9-10g for lageg and 2 g for small and Indian coins of 4 g each. MacDowell (1960) proposed a gradual reduction of all 3 issues starting with Huvishka and Chattopadhyay (1967) proposes a rapid devaluation of the issue by Kanishka. It seems that there were two reductions based on the coinage of the rulers just named.[14] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 429 pixels Full resolution (814 × 436 pixel, file size: 942 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Late Kushan coinage. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 429 pixels Full resolution (814 × 436 pixel, file size: 942 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Late Kushan coinage. ... Shaka I was a Kushan emperor around 325-345AD (See: Shaka I coin) External links: Coins of late Kushan emperors Categories: Stub | Kushan empire ... Bronze coin of Vima Takto, alias Soter Megas (r. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Gandhāra (also Ghandara, Ghandahra, Chandahara, and Persian Gandara) is the name of an ancient Mahajanapada in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Gold coin of the Kushan emperor Huvishka (126-164). ... Kanishka (Kushan language: , Ancient Chinese: 迦腻色伽) was a king of the Kushan Empire in South Asia, ruling an empire extending from Northern India to Central Asia in the 2nd century of the common era, famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements. ...


Later issues were unified into a central coinage system of weights.


Paratarajas

[15] Coin of Parataraja king Arjuna (2nd century CE). ...


Western Satraps

Coin of the Western Kshatrapa ruler Bhratadaman (278 to 295).
Coin of the Western Kshatrapa ruler Bhratadaman (278 to 295).

Coin depicts Obv: Bust of Bhratadarman, with corrupted Greek legend (Indo-Greek style).
Rev: Three-arched hill or Chaitya, with river, crescent and sun, within legend in Brahmi.]] The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (35-405) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states). ... Coin of the Western Kshatrapas Bhratadaman (278 to 295 CE). ... Coin of the Western Kshatrapas Bhratadaman (278 to 295 CE). ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 278 ... Events Roman Empire Diocletian beseiges Achilleus in Egypt, capturing him. ... Coin of the Western Kshatrapa ruler Bhratadaman (278 to 295). ... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... A chaitya-griha (stupa hall) is a meeting or assembly often used for purposes similar to a stupa. ... Brāhmī refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ...




Kalabhras

Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ...

Indo-Sassanians

Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London)
Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London)

The Sassanids replaced the Greek gods found on the verso of Parthian coins with Zoroastrian symbols, and replaced the Greek text with Middle Persian written in the Pahlavi script. Coin of the Indo-Sassanian king Varahran I (early 4th century). ... Image File history File links Coin01. ... Image File history File links Coin01. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Greek ( IPA: or IPA: — Hellenic) is an Indo-European language with a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language in that language family. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ...




Gupta Empire

The issue of the Guptas was a continuation of the Kushan and western Kshatrapas issue in style for which they replaced. The gold coins were based on the former where silver were based on the later.[16] The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... Image File history File linksMetadata ChandraguptaII.JPG‎ Coin of Chandragupta II. Guimet Museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata ChandraguptaII.JPG‎ Coin of Chandragupta II. Guimet Museum. ... Coins of Chandragupta II. The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. ...




Vakataka

The Vakataka was an Indian dynasty. ...

Pallava

The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ...

Kidarite Kingdom

Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom.
Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom.


Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom Obv: King Kidara standing. ... Image File history File links Kidara. ... Image File history File links Kidara. ...


Naga Kingdom

The various Kings of the Nagas of Narwar issued coins of 1, 1/2 and 1/4 kakini, from 5-15 mm in size and all issued in bronze. Designs were humped bull facing left, wheel peacock, trident and various other designs. The Nagas of Narwar occupied the region of Padmavati, Kantipuri, Mathura and Vidisha around the period of 200-340 AD. In this period there was substantial trade between India and Rome in spices, fabric and gold. Text used was in the Brahmi script [17] of an Early Prakrit language. Nagas were a group of people spread throughout India during the period of the epic Mahabharata. ... Look up bull in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Peacock re-directs here; for alternate uses see Peacock (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The goddess Padmavati is a popular Jain goddess. ... Mathura   (Hindi: मथुरा, Urdu: متھرا) is a holy city in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, located approximately 50 km north of Agra, and 150 km south of Delhi. ... Vidisha or Besnagar or old name Bhelsa is a city in Madhya Pradesh,near its capital Bhopal, state of central India. ... BrāhmÄ« refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ...


Kidarite Kingdom

Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom Obv: King Kidara standing. Rev: Goddess Ardoksho seated.
Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom
Obv: King Kidara standing.
Rev: Goddess Ardoksho seated.


Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom Obv: King Kidara standing. ... Image File history File links Kidara. ... Image File history File links Kidara. ... Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom Obv: King Kidara standing. ...


Indo-Hephthalites

Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. 475-576).
Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. 475-576).

Coin depics Obv: Napki Malka type bust, winged headdress with bull head in the center. Pahlavi legend "NAPKI MALKA".
Rev: Zoroastrian fire altar with attendants either side. Sun wheel, or possibly eight-spoked Buddhist Dharmacakra, above left.]] Based on the design of the Sassanid coinage but a little barbarous. Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (c. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (c. ... Billon is an alloy of a precious metal (most commonly silver, but also gold) with a majority base metal content (such as copper). ... Drachma, pl. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... See also 475 (number) Events Orestes forces western Roman emperor Julius Nepos to flee and declares his son Romulus Augustus to be emperor. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 576 ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Dharmacakra (Sanskrit) or Dhammacakka (Pāli), Tibetan , Chinese fălún 法轮, Wheel of Dharma is an auspicious Buddhist symbol representing a Buddhas teaching of the path to enlightenment. ...




Pallavas

The Pallavas were hereditary Hindu rulers who dominated southeastern India between the 4th and 9th centuries. ...

Chalukya Empire

Chaulukyas of Gujarat also known as Gadhaiya. There are different dynasties, refer to the link above for more detail. The Badami Chalukyas minted coins that were of a different standard compared to the northern kingdoms.[75] The coins had Nagari and Kannada legends. They minted coins with symbols of temples, lion or boar facing right and the lotus. The silver coins weighed 4 grams and were called honnu in old Kannada or Gadhaiya Paisa in English and had fractions such as fana and the quarter fana, whose modern day equivalent being hana (literally means, money). The coin is highly stylised so a clear definition of a portrait can not be distinguished. A gold coin called Gadyana is mentioned in some record in Pattadakal which later came to be known a varaha which was also on their emblem. The Chalukya dynasty (Kannada: ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) was a powerful Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th century C.E. They began to assert their independence at the decline of the Satavahana empire and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of... The ancient pre-Akkadian and Akkadian city of Nagar on the Khabur River in northeastern Syria, is now represented by the mound named Tell Brak, 40m high, one of the tallest archaeological mounds in the Middle East, and about a kilometer long, the remains of one of the largest urban... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Pattadakal is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka famous for its group of monuments that comprise of initial experiments in Hindu temple architecture. ... Varaha is the third avatar of Vishnu, a boar sent to defeat Hiranyaksha, a demon who had taken the Earth (prthivi) and carried it to the bottom of what is described as the cosmic ocean in the story. ...


Pala Empire

Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ...

Rashtrakuta

Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit/Maharashtri Prakrit [1]/Marathi[2][3]:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ...

Shahi

Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. Obv: Bull, symbol of Shiva. Rev: King mounted on a horse..
Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. Obv: Bull, symbol of Shiva. Rev: King mounted on a horse..


Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ... Image File history File links Coin of the Shahi. ... Image File history File links Coin of the Shahi. ...


Solanki

For the English cricketer, See Vikram Solanki The Solanki or Chalukya is a Hindu Gurjar,Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ...

Sena dynasty

The Sena dynasty ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. ...

Chola Empire

An early silver coin of Uttama Chola found in Sri Lanka showing the Tiger emblem of the cholas
An early silver coin of Uttama Chola found in Sri Lanka showing the Tiger emblem of the cholas[18]


It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cholas. ... Image File history File links Uttama_coin. ... Image File history File links Uttama_coin. ... According to Tiruvalangadu plates Parakesari Uththama Chola ruled the Chola kingdom from 969 to 985. ...


Vijayanagara Empire

The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ...

Islamic Rule

Mughal Dynasty

Issued Mohur. The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... A mohur is a gold coin that was formerly minted by several governments including British India, the Moghul Empire, Nepal, and Afghanistan. ...


Maratha Empire

This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...

Dependant and Independent states

Pudukkottai Kingdom

Madras Presidency

Madras fanam Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ... The fanam was a currency issued by the Madras Presidency until 1815. ...


Hyderabad

Hyderabad rupee Hyderabad may refer to: Hyderabad, the independent state Hyderabad State, the pre-1956 state India Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad district (India) Begumpet Airport, also known as Hyderabad Airport Hyderabad Central, a huge shopping mall in Hyderabad Hyderabad, Uttar Pradesh, a... Hyderabad state OS Rs. ...


Travancore

Travancore rupee Flag for former princely state of Travancore Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor (Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാങ്കോട് []) was a princely state in India with its capital at Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram). ... The rupee was the currency of the State of Travancore. ...


Colonial India

It has been suggested that European colonies in India be merged into this article or section. ...

British

British Indian coins The British East India Company established its initial settlement in Surat in 1612, and started minting coins from the mid 17th century. ...


Portuguese

Portuguese Indian rupia Portuguese Indian escudo The Portuguese Indian Rupia was the currency of Portuguese India until 1959. ... The escudo was the currency of Portuguese India between 1958 and 1961. ...


French

French Indian rupee Known as FIr it was introduced by the french domination in india --61. ...


The Dutch

No independent article on the coinage identified, but refer to this.Dutch India Dutch India refers to the Dutch colonial possessions on the Indian subcontinent, while Dutch Indies refers to the far wider notions of the Dutch West Indies (in the Americas) and especially the Dutch East Indies (mainly present Indonesia, the colonial jewel in the Dutch crown, confusingly often informally called Indi...


The Danes

Danish Indian rupee The rupee was the currency of Danish India. ...


Independent Countries

India became independent on 15 August 1947 and was left with a legacy of non-decimal coinage. ... The Pakistani rupee (PKR) is the currency of Pakistan. ... ISO 4217 Code BDT User(s) Bangladesh Inflation 7% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... ISO 4217 code: NPR Symbol: ₨ 1/100th unit: paisa Introduced in: 1932 Exchange Rates May 2006 USD exchange: 73. ... The ngultrum (BTN) is the currency of Bhutan, subdivided into 100 chertrums. ... ISO 4217 Code LKR User(s) Sri Lanka Inflation rate 11. ... The coins of the Maldivian rufiyaa are documented since it became a British protectorate in AH1304 (1887). ...

Miscellaneous

Pagoda (coin) Pagoda was a unit of currency, a coin made of gold or half gold minted by Indian dynasties as well as the British and the Dutch. ...


References

  1. ^ http://www.chennaimuseum.org/draft/gallery/04/01/coin1.htm Accessed 07/03/2007
  2. ^ http://home.comcast.net/~pankajtandon/galleries-gandhara.html Accessed 05/03/2007
  3. ^ http://home.comcast.net/~pankajtandon/galleries-kuntala.html Accessed 05/03/2007
  4. ^ http://home.comcast.net/~pankajtandon/galleries-kuru.html Accessed 06/03/2007
  5. ^ http://home.comcast.net/~pankajtandon/galleries-panchala.html Accessed 06/03/2007
  6. ^ http://home.comcast.net/~pankajtandon/galleries-shakya.html Accessed 06/03/2007
  7. ^ http://home.comcast.net/~pankajtandon/galleries-shurasena.html Accessed 06/03/2007
  8. ^ http://home.comcast.net/~pankajtandon/galleries-surashtra.html Accessed 06/03/2007
  9. ^ http://www.med.unc.edu/~nupam/ancient1.html accessed 15/2/2007
  10. ^ http://www.geocities.com/ancientcoinsofindia/earlym.html accessed 15/2/2007
  11. ^ http://www.zeno.ru/search.php?searchid=1370 Accessed 03/03/2007
  12. ^ http://www.forumancientcoins.com/india/sakas/iscyth_cat.html accessed 15/2/2007
  13. ^ http://www.onsnumis.org/articles/kshaharata.shtml Accessed
  14. ^ http://www.kushan.org/coins/huvishka/devaluation.htm Accessed 25/03/2007
  15. ^ http://home.comcast.net/~pankajtandon/galleries-parata-rajas.html
  16. ^ http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/india/ancientindia3.html Accessed on 23/03/2007
  17. ^ http://www.indiancoins.8m.com/naga/NagasOfPadmavati.html Accessed 2007/05/28
  18. ^ Not one of the numerous references that appear in Tamil literature tells us anything of its origin. The Telugu Cholas who claimed to have descended from the Early Cholas adapted the lion crest.

Many Telugu Choda kingdoms ruled over many regions including the cities on the banks of Krishna River in the period between the seventh and the thirteenth century. ... The Early Cholas of the pre and post Sangam period (100 C.E. – 200 C.E.) were only the three main kingdoms of the ancient Tamil country. ... Binomial name Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Lions in Africa Synonyms Felis leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The lion (Panthera leo) is a mammal of the family Felidae and one of four big cats in the genus Panthera. ...

See also

British Indian 1 Rupee, 1917 India has been one of the earliest issuers of coins in the world (circa 6th Century BC). ... The Coinage of Asia can be described as starting with Chinese cash coinage issued only in base coins from the Zhou period of China until 1912, when the Ming dynasty was overthrown. ... Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and... Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay(1885-1930) was an Indian historian and a native Indian pioneer in the fields of Indian archaeology, epigraphy and palaeography and a literateuran Indian historian, was Manindra Chandra Nandy Professor of Ancient Indian History and Culture at the Banaras Hindu University. ...

External links used as references

  • Reserve Bank of India Museum
  • World coin gallery Free to use on wikipedia
  • Indian Princely States No coin links, but a full list of princely states
  • Varun Parekh's collection Images of all coins of the Repulic of India.
  • Coins Information of Indian coins.
  • Portal on Indian coinage
  • Ancient coins of India
  • South Asia Coin Group
Copyright This image has been obtained or derived in whole or part from www.worldcoingallery.com. Permission has been received from the copyright holder to license this material under the GNU Free Documentation License, and evidence of this has been lodged with the Wikimedia PR department, under OTRS ticket number 2006080810014758.

This template should not be used to make a claim of permission or ownership, but only when a clear permission statement has been received at permissions@wikimedia.org. Image File history File links Copyright. ...


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COMMENTARY     

Jamshed
27th August 2010
I have one of the coins with the depiction of kanishka 1, and a sort of fisherman with a net on the other side. contact me if interested. kiropol_doro@list.ru

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