This article discusses the legal notion of Indian citizenship.
The Constitution of India provides for single citizenship, which means that a person cannot be a citizen of an individual state in addition to being a citizen of India. Nor can a citizen of India be a citizen of another country at the same time. The current laws defining citizenship were enacted by the Citizenship Act in 1955.
There are four ways to become an Indian citizen: by birth, descent, registration and naturalization. The first criterion is no longer relevant (after 1992) -- a newborn is a citizen if and only if either of its parents is an Indian citizen at the time of birth, irrespective of whether or not it was born in India. Registration is for people of Indian origin or spouses/children of Indian citizens. Naturalization applies to all other people, who can acquire citizenship by residing in India for ten years.
Indian citizenship - Ministry of Home Affairs (http://mha.nic.in/citi.htm)
The provisions relating to citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution are contained in Articles 5 to 11 in Part II of the Constitution of India.
An application, for registration of the birth of a minor child, to an Indian consulate under Section 4(1) shall be made in Form I and shall be accompanied by an undertaking in writing from the parents of such minor child that he or she does not hold the passport of another country.
Citizenship of India by naturalisation can be acquired by a foreigner who is ordinarily resident in India for twelve years (continuously for the twelve months preceding the date of application and for eleven years in the aggregate in the fourteen years preceding the twelve months).
Land and citizenship are clearly separate under the conditions created by overseas empires and an evolving theory of law which finds the states coming to ownership of the idea of citizenship for their own purposes.
Indians were clearly non-citizens during this century and, so long as an Indian continued to maintain his rights as an Indian, he was considered a non-person in the eyes of U.S. law.
Indian leadership needs to understand that when they stand as Indians for Indian rights they are in direct conflict with U.S. aspirations, and that an Indian allegiance to the United States is secondary to their allegiance to their own nations because the former by nature seeks to eliminate the latter.
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