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Encyclopedia > Indian caste system

The Indian caste system describes the social stratification and social restrictions in the Indian subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous, hereditary groups often termed as jātis or castes. Within a jāti there exist exogamous groups known as gotras, the lineage or clan of a person, although in a handful of sub-castes like Shakadvipi endogamy within a gotra is permitted and alternative mechanisms of restricting endogamy are used (e.g. banning endogamy within a surname). social stratification is the division of people of a particular society on the basis if occupation, income, power, prestige, authority, status, dignity, education, class, castle, gender, race and ethnicity In sociology, social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of social classes, castes and strata within a society. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a social group. ... Jātis (the word literally means births) comprise the subcastes found within the four major castes, or varnas, of the Indian caste system. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... Exogamous group is a section of society within which marriages are prohibited. ... A Gotra indicates lineage in the Hindu community. ... ŚākadvÄ«pÄ«(ShakadvÄ«pÄ«, also known as ŚākaladvÄ«pÄ«) or Bhojaka is a class of Brahmin priests in Western India, Bihar and western Uttar Pradesh [1]. The term Bhojaka is popular in western India and ŚākadvÄ«pÄ« or ŚākaladvÄ«pÄ« is in vogue in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. ...


Although generally identified with Hinduism, the caste system was also observed among followers of other religions in the Indian subcontinent, including some groups of Muslims and Christians[1]. The Indian Constitution has outlawed caste-based discrimination, in keeping with the socialist, secular, democratic principles that founded the nation.[2]. Caste barriers have mostly broken down in large cities[3], though persist in rural areas of the country. The caste system, in various forms, does continue to play a major role in the Indian society and politics.[4][5] There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ...

Contents

History

There is no universally accepted theory about the origin of the Indian caste system.[6]. A 2001 genetic study, led by Michael Bamshad of the University of Utah, found that the affinity of Indians to Europeans is proportionate to caste rank, the upper castes being most similar to Europeans, whereas lower castes are more like Asians. The researchers believe that the Indo-Aryans entered India from the Northwest and may have established a caste system, in which they placed themselves primarily in higher castes."[7]. Because the Indian samples for this study were taken from a single geographical area, it remains to be investigated whether its findings can be safely generalized.[8] An earlier 1995 study by Joanna L. Mountain et al. of Stanford University had concluded that there was "no clear separation into three genetically distinct groups along caste lines", although "an inferred tree revealed some clustering according to caste affiliation".[9] History of the Indian caste system dates back to the Vedic period. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... The University of Utah (also The U or the U of U or the UU), located in Salt Lake City, is the flagship public research university in the state of Utah, and one of 10 institutions that make up the Utah System of Higher Education. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... Stanford redirects here. ...


A 2006 study by Ismail Thanseem et al. of Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (India) concluded that the "lower caste groups might have originated with the hierarchical divisions that arose within the tribal groups with the spread of Neolithic agriculturalists, much earlier than the arrival of Aryan speakers", and "the Indo-Europeans established themselves as upper castes among this already developed caste-like class structure within the tribes."[10] The study indicated that the Indian caste system may have its roots much before the arrival of the Indo-Aryans; a rudimentary version of the caste system may have emerged with the shift towards cultivation and settlements, and the divisions may have become more well-defined and intensified with the arrival of Indo-Aryans.[11] The Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) is a pioneer organization in the field of biotechnology in India. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ...


The Indian classes are similar to the Iranian classes ("pistras")[12], wherein the priests are Athravans, the warriors, Rathaestha, the merchants, Vastriya, and the artisans, Huiti.[13][14]


Varna and jati (Class and caste)

Main articles: Varna in Hinduism and Jāti

According to the ancient Hindu scriptures, there are four "varnas." The Bhagavad Gita says varnas are decided based on Guna and Karma. Manusmriti and some other shastras mention four varnas: the Brahmins (teachers, scholars and priests), the Kshatriyas (kings and warriors), the Vaishyas (traders), and Shudras (agriculturists, service providers, and some artisan groups). Offspring of different varnas belong to different Jātis. Another group excluded from the main society was called Parjanya or Antyaja. This group of former "untouchables" (now called Dalits) was considered either the lower section of Shudras or outside the caste system altogether. Passages from scriptures such as Manusmriti indicate that the varna system was originally non-hereditary.[15] Varna is a Sanskrit term derived from the root meaning to choose (from a group). ... Jātis (the word literally means births) comprise the subcastes found within the four major castes, or varnas, of the Indian caste system. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Template:Hindu scriptures - Vedic Scriptures Hindu scripture, which is known as Shastra is predominantly written in Sanskrit. ... Varna is a Sanskrit term derived from the root meaning to choose (from a group). ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... The Sanskrit word guna () has the basic meaning of string or a single thread or strand of a cord or twine. In more abstract uses, it may mean a subdivision, species, kind, and generally quality. // In Classical literature (e. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... The Manu Smriti or Laws of Manu, is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous conduct), written c. ... Shastra is a Sanskrit word used (to be pronoucned (shaastra) to denote education/knowledge in a general sense. ... The term Brahmin denotes both a member of the priestly class in the Hindu varna system, and a member of the highest caste in the caste system of Hindu society. ... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shudra (IAST: ) is the fourth Varna in the traditional four-section division in historic Hindu society. ... This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... Jātis (the word literally means births) comprise the subcastes found within the four major castes, or varnas, of the Indian caste system. ... In the Indian caste system, a Dalit, often called an untouchable,or an outcaste, is a person who according to traditional Hindu belief does not have any varnas. Varna refers to the Hindu belief that most humans were supposedly created from different parts of the body of the divinity Purusha. ...


Several critics of Hinduism state that the caste system is rooted in the varna system mentioned in the ancient Hindu scriptures.[16] However, many groups such as ISKCON consider the modern Indian caste system and the varna system as two distinct concepts.[17][18] Many European scholars from the colonial era regarded the Manusmriti as the "law book" of the Hindus and thus concluded that the caste system is a part of Hinduism, an assertion that is rejected by many Hindu scholars, who state that it is an anachronistic social practice, not a religious one.[19][20][21][22] This does not cite its references or sources. ... Varna is a Sanskrit term derived from the root meaning to choose (from a group). ... Template:Hindu scriptures - Vedic Scriptures Hindu scripture, which is known as Shastra is predominantly written in Sanskrit. ... The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) is a new religious movement based on Bengali, or more specifically Gaudiya, Vaishnavism founded by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, referred to by followers as His Divine Grace, in New York in 1966. ... The Manu Smriti or Laws of Manu, is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous conduct), written c. ...


Although many Hindu scriptures contain passages that can be interpreted to sanction the caste system, they also contain indications that the caste system is not an essential part of Hinduism. The Vedas place very little importance on the caste system, mentioning caste only rarely and in a cursory manner. In the Vedic period, there was no prohibition against the Shudras (which later on became the low-castes) listening to the Vedas or participating in any religious rite[23]. Veda redirects here. ... Map of early Iron Age Vedic India after Witzel (1989). ...


In Early Evidence for Caste in South India, George L. Hart stated that "the earliest Tamil texts show the existence of what seems definitely to be caste, but which antedates the Brahmins and the Hindu orthodoxy". He believes that the origins of the caste system can be seen in the "belief system that developed with the agricultural civilization", and was later profoundly influenced by "the Brahmins and the Brahmanical religion". These early Tamil texts also outline the concept of equality. Saint Valluvar has stated "pirapokkum ella uyirkkum which means "all are equal at birth". Likewise Saint Auvaiyaar has stated that there are only two castes in the world: those who contribute positively and those who contribute negatively. From these it can be inferred that the caste system is more of a socio-economic class system. I have been a Professor of Tamil at the University of California, Berkeley, since 1975 and am currently holder of the Tamil Chair at that institution. ... Tamil literature is literature in the Tamil language which most prominently includes the contributions of the Tamil country (or Tamizhagam) history, a large part of which constitutes the modern state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as some parts of Karnataka and Andra pradesh. ... The term Brahmin denotes both a member of the priestly class in the Hindu varna system, and a member of the highest caste in the caste system of Hindu society. ... Brahmanism, also Brahminism, is the name given to Hinduism by some authors in the 19th century CE.[1] The term is considered derogatory by many Hindus. ...


Caste and social status

Traditionally, although the political power lay with the Kshatriyas, historians portrayed that the brahmins as keepers and interpreters of religion enjoyed much prestige and many advantages.[24]. Some scholars, however, point that the relative ranking of other castes was fluid or differed from one place to another prior to the arrival of the British.[25] The castes did not constitute a rigid description of the occupation or the social status of a group. Since the British society was divided by class, the British attempted to equate the Indian caste system to the class system. They saw caste as an indicator of occupation, social standing, and intellectual ability.[26] Intentionally or unintentionally, the caste system became more rigid during the British Raj, when the British started to enumerate castes during the ten year census and codified the system under their rule. Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858...


The Dalits or the people outside the varna system had the lowest social status. The Dalits, earlier referred to as "untouchables" by some, worked in what were seen as unhealthy, unpleasant or polluting jobs. In the past, the Dalits suffered from social segregation and restrictions in addition to extreme poverty. They were not allowed temple worship with others, nor water from the same sources. Persons of higher castes would not interact with them. If somehow a member of a higher caste came into physical or social contact with an untouchable, the member of the higher caste was defiled, and had to bathe thoroughly to purge themself of the impurity. The social discrimination developed even among the Dalits. Upper sub-castes among Dalits like dhobi, nai etc. would not interact with lower-order Bhangis, described as "outcasts even among outcastes". In the Indian caste system, a Dalit, often called an untouchable,or an outcaste, is a person who according to traditional Hindu belief does not have any varnas. Varna refers to the Hindu belief that most humans were supposedly created from different parts of the body of the divinity Purusha. ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ... A dhobi is a washerman in Pakistan and India. ... NAI may mean: Network Associates, Inc. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Reforms

There have been challenges to the caste system from the time of Buddha[2] Many Bhakti period saints rejected the caste discriminations and accepted all castes, including untouchables, into their fold. During the British Raj, this sentiment gathered steam and many Hindu reform movements such as Brahmo Samaj and Arya Samaj renounced caste-based discrimination. The inclusion of so-called untouchables into the mainstream was argued for by many social reformers (see Historical criticism, below). Mahatma Gandhi called them "Harijans" (children of God) although that term is now considered patronizing and the term Dalit ("downtrodden") is the more commonly used. Gandhi's contribution toward the emancipation of the untouchables is still debated, especially in the commentary of his contemporary Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, an untouchable himself, who frequently saw Gandhi's activities as detrimental to the cause of upliftment of his people.[citation needed] Media:Example. ... Bhakti movements are Hindu religious movements in which the main spiritual practice is the fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... Hinduism is going through a phase of regeneration and reform through the vehicle of several contemporary movements, collectively termed as Hindu reform movements. ... Brahmo Samaj is a social and religious movement founded in Kolkata, India in 1828 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. ... Arya Samaj (Aryan Society or Society of Nobles) is a Hindu reform movement in India that was founded by Swami Dayananda in 1875. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ... In the Indian caste system, a Dalit, often called an untouchable,or an outcaste, is a person who according to traditional Hindu belief does not have any varnas. Varna refers to the Hindu belief that most humans were supposedly created from different parts of the body of the divinity Purusha. ... Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (April 14, 1891 or 1892 - December 6, 1956) was the most prominent Indian Untouchable leader of the 20th century. ...


The practice of untouchability was formally outlawed by the Constitution of India in 1950, and has declined significantly since then. K. R. Narayanan, who became the President of India in 1997 and K. G. Balakrishnan (the present Chief Justice of India) have belonged to castes formerly considered untouchable. The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ... Kocheril Raman Narayanan (Malayalam: കോച്ചേരില്‍ രാമന്‍ നാരായണന്‍; 4 February 1921 — 9 November 2005), also known as K. R. Narayanan, was the tenth President of the Republic of India. ... The President of India (Hindi: Rashtrapati) is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ... Justice K.G. Balakrishnan; First Dalit cheif justice of India Konakuppakatil Gopinathan Balakrishnan aka Justice K G Balakrishnan, an Indian Judge and member of the Indian Supreme Court, has been appointed as the next Chief Justice of India. ... The Chief Justice of India is the highest position obtainable by a judge in India. ...


British Rule

The fluidity of the caste system was affected by the arrival of the British. Prior to that, the relative ranking of castes differed from one place to another.[27] The castes did not constitute a rigid description of the occupation or the social status of a group. Since the British society was divided by class, the British attempted to equate the Indian caste system to the class system. They saw caste as an indicator of occupation, social standing, and intellectual ability.[28] During the initial days of British East India Company's rules, caste privileges and customs were encouraged,[29] but the British law courts disagreed with the discrimination against the lower castes. However British policies of divide and rule as well as enumeration of the population into rigid categories during the 10 year census contributed towards the hardening of caste identities.[30] The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... For the collection of novellas by L. Sprague de Camp, see Divide and Rule (collection). ...


During the period of British rule, India saw the rebellions of several backward-castes, mainly tribals that revolted against British rule. These were:[31].

  1. Halba rebellion (1774-79)
  2. Bhopalpatnam Struggle (1795)
  3. Bhil rebellion (1822-1857)[32]
  4. Paralkot rebellion (1825)
  5. Tarapur rebellion (1842-54)
  6. Maria rebellion (1842-63)
  7. First Freedom Struggle (1856-57)
  8. Bhil rebellion, begun by Tantya Tope in Banswara (1858)[33]
  9. Koi revolt (1859)
  10. Gond rebellion, begun by Ramji Gond in Adilabad (1860)[34]
  11. Muria rebellion (1876)
  12. Rani rebellion (1878-82)
  13. Bhumkal (1910)

Modern status of the caste system

**NFHS Survey estimated only Hindu OBC population.Total OBC population derived by assuming Muslim OBC population in same proportion as Hindu OBC population)
**NFHS Survey estimated only Hindu OBC population.Total OBC population derived by assuming Muslim OBC population in same proportion as Hindu OBC population)

Though inter-caste marriages are now relatively common in India[original research?], many Indians consider caste a major criterion for matrimonial choices. Almost all Indian matrimonial websites and matrimonial columns in Indian newspapers contain caste-based categories and it is common to see matrimonial advertisements openly stating the caste as a criterion of choice.[35]. Image File history File links PopulationEstimations. ... Image File history File links PopulationEstimations. ...


In rural areas and small towns, the caste system is still very rigid. The total elimination of caste system seems distant, if ever possible, due to caste politics. Caste is one of the major factors in politics of India. ...


The Government of India has officially documented castes and subcastes, primarily to determine those deserving reservation (positive discrimination in education and jobs) through the census. The Indian reservation system, though limited in scope, relies entirely on quotas. The Government lists consist of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes: The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of... Reservation in Indian law is a term used to describe the governmental policy whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the Parliament of India, State Legislative Assemblies, Central and State Civil Services, Public Sector Units, Central and State Governmental Departments and in all Public and Private Educational Institutions, except... Affirmative action (US English), or positive discrimination (British English), is a policy or a program providing advantages for people of a minority group who are seen to have traditionally been discriminated against. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... A quota is a prescribed number or share of something. ...

Scheduled castes (SC)
Scheduled castes generally consist of former "untouchables" (the term "Dalit" is now preferred). Present population is 16% of total population of India i.e. around 160 million. For example, the Delhi state has 49 castes listed as SC.[36]
Scheduled tribes (ST)
Scheduled tribes generally consist of tribal groups. Present population is 7% of total population of India i.e. around 70 million.
Other Backward Classes (OBC)
The Mandal Commission covered more than 3000 castes under OBC Category and stated that OBCs form around 52% of the Indian population. However, the National Sample Survey puts the figure at 32%.[37]. There is substantial debate over the exact number of OBCs in India. It is generally estimated to be sizable, but many believe that it is lower than the figures quoted by either the Mandal Commission or the National Sample Survey[38]

The caste-based reservations in India have led to wide-spread protests, with many complaining of reverse discrimination against the forward castes (the castes that do not qualify for the reservation). In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ... In the Indian caste system, a Dalit, often called an untouchable,or an outcaste, is a person who according to traditional Hindu belief does not have any varnas. Varna refers to the Hindu belief that most humans were supposedly created from different parts of the body of the divinity Purusha. ... Tribal peoples in India comprise a substantial minority of the population of India. ... The Mandal Commission in India was established in 1979 by the Janata Party government under Prime Minister Morarji Desai with a mandate to identify the socially or educationally backward. ... Reservation in Indian law is a term used to describe the governmental policy whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the Parliament of India, State Legislative Assemblies, Central and State Civil Services, Public Sector Units, Central and State Governmental Departments and in all Public and Private Educational Institutions, except... Reverse discrimination is a term that is used to describe policies or acts that are seen to benefit a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically minorities or women), at the expense of a historically socio-politically dominant group (typically men and majority races). ... Forward caste (or upper caste) is used in India to denote people from any religion who do not currently qualify for Government of India Reservation benefits (that is, set quotas for political representation) for backward castes, scheduled castes and tribes. ...


Caste Based discrimination

A recent study conducted by Princeton University researchers and Indian scholars showed that there is, statistically significant, discrimination on candidates with an Islamic name and those with a Dalit name when applying for private industry jobs. Researchers, using logistic regression, found that for every 100 candidates with upper-caste sounding name who received calls for interviews, only 67 candidates with Dalit sounding names and 33 candidates Muslim sounding names were called[39]. Although statistically insignificant, this study also found that some candidates with upper-caste sounding names who were not well qualified got better responses than applicants of Dalit sounding names with higher degrees. This study did not provide details on the percentage of Dalits having a name that can identify them as a Dalit.


Caste System among non-Hindus

In some parts of India, the Christians are stratified by sect, location, and the castes of their predecessors[40], usually this refers only to the Catholic churches, not the Protestant, and could be in reference to nasrani who were bestowed caste-like status. Presently in India, more than 70% of Christians are Dalits, but the higher caste Christians (30% by estimates) control 90% of the Catholic churches administrative jobs [3]. Out of the 156 Catholic bishops, only 6 are from lower castes[41][40]. Many Dalit Catholics have spoken out against discrimination against them by the Catholic Church[42]. Christians in Goa are certainly likely to mention their caste in matrimonial ads [4]. However, things are different in Kerala where the non-catholic population tend to be higher in the caste ladder. Caste system among South Asian Muslims refers to units of social stratification that have developed among Muslims in South Asia(largely the region that comprises India and Pakistan), despite Islams egalitarian tenets[1][2]. // Sources indicate that the castes among Muslims developed as the result of close contact with... In some parts of India, Christians are stratified by sect, location, and the castes of their predecessors. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Nestorianism is the Christian doctrine that Jesus existed as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, rather than as a unified person. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... Lower may refer to: Lower Township, New Jersey Lower Receiver (firearms) Lower Wick Gloucestershire, England Category: ... The word Caste is derived from the Portuguese word casta, meaning lineage, breed or race. ...


Units of social stratification, termed as "castes" by many, have developed among Muslims in some parts of South Asia[43][44]. Several sources have attemted to put the blame on Hinduism by claiming that the castes among Muslims developed as the result of close contact with Hindu culture and Hindu converts to Islam[43][44][45][46]. The Sachar Committee's report commissioned by the government of India and released in 2006, documents the continued stratification in Muslim society. A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Justice Rajindar Sachar The Rajinder Sachar Committee, appointed by the Prime Minister Manmohan Singh of India was a High Level Committee For Preparation of Report on Social, Economic and Educational Status of the Muslim Community of India. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Muslims too have sections of washermen, tailors, smiths, and other backward castes [47] It is notable that the world-famous Mukhtaran Bibi, who stood up for women, especially the backward-caste women of Pakistan was first raped for walking together with a boy of a 'higher' caste.[48] In modern India there have been brutal clashes amongst Muslims belonging to rival castes.[49] Mukhtaran Bibi, Glamour Magazine Woman of the Year 2005 Mukhtaran Bibi (مختاران بی‌بی, born c. ...


Among Muslims, those who are referred to as Ashrafs are presumed to have a superior status derived from their foreign Arab ancestry[50][51], while the Ajlafs are assumed to be converts from Hinduism, and have a lower status. In addition, there is also the Arzal caste among Muslims, who were regarded by anti-caste activists like Babasaheb Ambedkar as the equivalent of untouchables[52][53]. In the Bengal region of India, some Muslims also stratify their society according to 'Quoms'[54]. While some scholars have asserted that the Muslim Castes are not as acute in their discrimination as that among Hindus,[46][55] Ambedkar argued otherwise, writing that the social evils in Muslim society were "worse than those seen in Hindu society"[52][53]. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (April 14, 1891 or 1892 - December 6, 1956) was the most prominent Indian Untouchable leader of the 20th century. ... Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (April 14, 1891 or 1892 - December 6, 1956) was the most prominent Indian Untouchable leader of the 20th century. ...


The nastik Buddhists too have a caste system. In Sri Lanka, the Rodis have always been despised and they might have been out-casted by the Lankan Buddhists due the absence of "ahimsa" (non-violence), which Buddhism heavily depends on. The writer Raghavan notes: "That a form of worship in which human offerings formed the essential ritual would have been anathema to the Buddhist way of life goes without saying; and it needs no stretch of imagination that any class of people in whom the cult prevailed or survived even in an attenuated form would have been pronounced by the sangha (i.e. the Buddhist clergy) as exiles from the social order." Savarkar too believed that the status of the backward castes (e.g. Chamar) that performed non-violence only worsened.[56] When Ywan Chwang traveled to South India after the period of the Chalukyan Empire, he noticed that the caste system had existed among the Buddhists and Jains.[57] Nastika is a Sanskrit term meaning: It is the antonym of Astika, or one who sees. ... Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ... This article is about the Indian caste. ...


The Jains too have castes in places such as Bihar. For example, in the village of Bundela, there are severals 'jats' (groups) amongst the Jains. A person of one jat cannot intermingle with a Jain or another jat. They also cannot eat with the members of other jats.[58]


Although the Sikh Gurus rejected the caste system, caste is still observed in some areas of the Sikh society such as marriage, and establishment and functioning of gurdwaras.[59][60] The castes among Sikhs include Jats (which constitute majority of Sikhs), the Sikh Rajput, the Khatris, the Aroras, the Ramgarhias, the Ahluwalias, and the Mazhabis (Punjabi Dalit castes including Churas and the Ramdasias). In Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee, out of 140 seats, twenty are reserved for low caste Sikhs.[61] Sikhism was established by ten Gurus, teachers or masters, over the period 1469 to 1708. ... The Harimandir Sahib. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... There are many Sikhs or followers of Sikhism today who call themselves Sikh Rajputs. // Sikhism is traditionally seen as a religion of warriors who were protectors of Hindus against marauding Islamic invaders who seeked to convert Hindus to Islam by lethal force. ... Khatri (Punjabi: ਖੱਤਰੀ, khatrī) is the Punjabi adaptation of Sanskrit word Kshatriya (Hindi: क्षत्रिय, kşhatriya). ... Aroras (Hindi: आरॊरा, Punjabi: ਆਰੋਰਾ) (or Aror-vanshis) are an urban mercantile community of the Punjab and Sindh. ... The Ramgarhia community is a tribe of the Punjab region in India which started from the Ramgarhia Misl (army). ... Jassa Singh Ahluwalias Samadhi near Burj Baba Atal Sahib, Amritsar Ahluwalia Fort Ahluwalia is one of twelve Sikh Misls, or fighting clans, founded by baron Jassa Singh Ahluwalia in mid-eigteenth century Punjab. ... A Mazhabi person is one belonging to the Dalit population of Punjab and Haryana in Northern India. ... Chura is a caste in India whose traditional occupation is sweeping. ... Ramdasia sikh is a caste in India. ... The Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee (Punjabi: , ) is a Sikh religious organisation responsible for the upkeep of gurdwaras. ...


Caste-related violence

Main article: Caste-related violence in India

Independent India has witnessed considerable amount of violence and hate crimes motivated by caste. Ranvir Sena, a caste-supremacist fringe paramilitary group based in Bihar, has committed violent acts against Dalits and other members of the scheduled caste community. Phoolan Devi, who belonged to Mallah lower-caste, was mistreated and raped by upper-caste Thakurs at a young age. She then became a bandit and carried out violent robberies against upper-caste people. In 1981, her gang massacred twenty-two Thakurs, most of whom were not involved in her kidnapping or rape. Phoolan Devi went on to become a politician and Member of Parliament. Caste-related violence and hate crimes in India. ... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... Ranvir Sena is an anti-communistis resistance paramilitary group based in Bihar, India. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ... Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are communities that are accorded special status by the Constitution of India. ... Phoolan Devi (Phūlan Devī) August 10, 1963 – July 25, 2001), popularly known as The Bandit Queen, was an Indian dacoit, who later turned politician. ... ...


Over the years, various incidents of violence against Dalits, such as Kherlanji Massacre have been reported from many parts of India. At the same time, many violent protests by Dalits, such as the 2006 Dalit protests in Maharashtra, have been reported as well. It should be noted that most Judicial commisions including Mandal commision have stated that no Brahmin participates in any violent acts. In the Indian caste system, a Dalit, often called an untouchable,or an outcaste, is a person who according to traditional Hindu belief does not have any varnas. Varna refers to the Hindu belief that most humans were supposedly created from different parts of the body of the divinity Purusha. ... The Kerlanji Massacre (or Khairlanji Massacre) refers to a series of murders that took place in 2006 in a small village in India named Kherlanji (also spelled Khairlanji), located in the Bhandara district of the state of Maharashtra. ... In November-December 2006, the desecration of a Ambedkar statue in Kanpur triggered off violent protests by Dalits in Maharashtra, India. ...


Caste politics

Mahatma Gandhi, B. R. Ambedkar and Jawaharlal Nehru had radically different approaches to caste especially over constitutional politics and the status of "untouchables"[62]. Till the mid-1970s, the politics of independent India was largely dominated by economic issues and questions of corruption. But since 1980s, caste has emerged as a major issue in the Politics of India[62]. Caste is one of the major factors in politics of India. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (Marathi: डा. भीमराव रामजी आंबेडकर) (April 14, 1891 — December 6, 1956) was an Indian jurist, scholar, Bahujan political leader and a Buddhist revivalist, who is the chief architect of the Indian Constitution. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Mandal Commission was established in 1979 to "identify the socially or educationally backward"[63], and to consider the question of seat reservations and quotas for people to redress caste discrimination. In 1980, the commission's report affirmed the affirmative action practice under Indian law whereby members of lower castes were given exclusive access to a certain portion of government jobs and slots in public universities. When V. P. Singh Government tried to implement the recommendations of Mandal Commission in 1989, massive protests were held in the country. Many alleged that the politicians were trying to cash in on caste-based reservations for purely pragmatic electoral purposes. The Mandal Commission in India was established in 1979 by the Janata Party government under Prime Minister Morarji Desai with a mandate to identify the socially or educationally backward. ... Reservation in Indian law is a term used to describe the governmental policy whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the Parliament of India, State Legislative Assemblies, Central and State Civil Services, Public Sector Units, Central and State Governmental Departments and in all Public and Private Educational Institutions, except... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Vishwanath Pratap Singh (विश्वनाथ प्रताप सिंघ, born 25 June 1931) was the tenth Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ... The Mandal Commission in India was established in 1979 by the Janata Party government under Prime Minister Morarji Desai with a mandate to identify the socially or educationally backward. ...


Many political parties in India have openly indulged in caste-based votebank politics. Parties such as Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), the Samajwadi Party and the Janata Dal claim that they are representing the backward castes, and rely primarily on OBC support, often in alliance with Dalit and Muslim support to win the elections.[64]. Remarkably, what is called a landmark election in the history of India's biggest state of Uttar Pradesh, the Bahujan Samaj Party was able to garner majority in the State assembly Elections with the support of the brahmin community. Look up Votebank in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Nepalese party, see Bahujan Samaj Party, Nepal. ... Samajwadi Party flag Samajwadi Party (Socialist Party) is a political party in India. ... Janata Dal is an Indian political party which was formed through the merger one of the major Janata Party factions, the Lok Dal and a group of Congressmen led by V.P. Singh. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... For the Nepalese party, see Bahujan Samaj Party, Nepal. ...


Criticism

There has been strong criticism[65] of the caste system, both within and outside India. Criticism of the Caste system in Hindu society came both from the Hindu fold and from without.


Historical criticism

It is generally believed that Gautama Buddha and Mahavira, the founders of Buddhism and Jainism respectively, were perhaps against any kind of caste structure.It is also said that rejection of caste may have developed before these religions within Hinduism.[citation needed] Many bhakti period saints such as Nanak, Kabir, Caitanya, Dnyaneshwar, Eknath, Ramananda, Ramanuja and Tukaram rejected all caste-based discrimination and accepted disciples from all the castes. Many Hindu reformers such as Swami Vivekananda and Sathya Sai Baba believe that there is no place for the caste system in Hinduism. The 15th century saint Ramananda also accepted all castes, including untouchables, into his fold. Most of these saints subscribed to the Bhakti movements in Hinduism during the medieval period that rejected casteism. Nandanar, a low-caste Hindu cleric, also rejected casteism and accepted Dalits[66]. Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... Idol of Lord Mahavira at Shri Mahaveerji (the holy town in Rajasthan named after Mahavira. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Bhakti movements are Hindu religious movements in which the main spiritual practice is the fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... Guru Nanak (गुरु नानक) (20 October 1469 - 7 May 1539), the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Gurus of the Sikhs, was born in the village of Talwandi, now called Nankana Sahib, near Lahore in present-day Pakistan. ... A painting of Kabir KabÄ«r (also KabÄ«ra) (Hindi: कबीर, GurmukhÄ«: ਕਬੀਰ, Urdu: ) (1440—1518[1]) (born in 1398 according to some accounts[1][2]) was a mystic poet or poet sants of India, whose literature has greatly influenced the Bhakti as well as Sufi movements of India. ... Deities of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu (right) and Sri Nityananda (left) at Radha-Krishna temple in Radhadesh, Belgium Caitanya Mahaprabhu (also transliterated Chaitanya) (1486 - 1534), was an ascetic Hindu monk and social reformer in 16th century Bengal, India (present-day West Bengal and Bangladesh). ... Sant Dnyaneshwar (1275-1296) (ज्ञानेश्वर in Marathi) (also known as Jnanadeva - ज्ञानदेव or Jnaneshvar - ज्ञानेश्वर) was a 13th century rebel saint-poet born in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra state, west India. ... Sant Eknath (1533 - 1599) was one of the remarkable saints of Maharashtra, India. ... Ramananda was a vaishnava saint, a Ramayat - devotee of Lord Rama. ... Ramanuja Tamil: ,  [?] (traditionally 1017–1137) was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... Sant Tukaram (तुकाराम) (c. ... Hinduism is going through a phase of regeneration and reform through the vehicle of several contemporary movements, collectively termed as Hindu reform movements. ... Swami Vivekananda (Sanskrit: , Svāmi Vivekānanda) (January 12, 1863 – July 4, 1902), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta (Bengali: , Nôrendrônath Dôt-tô), was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga. ... Sathya Sai Baba (born Sathyanarayana Raju on 23 November 1926,[1][2] — with the family name of Ratnakara) is a guru from southern India, religious leader, orator and philosopher often described as a godman[3][4] and a miracle worker. ... Ramananda was a vaishnava saint, a Ramayat - devotee of Lord Rama. ... Bhakti movements are Hindu religious movements in which the main spiritual practice is the fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... Nandanar was a Nayanar saint born in South India who became a great devotee of Lord Shiva. ...


Some other movements in Hinduism have also welcomed lower-castes into their fold, the earliest being the Bhakti movements of the medieval period. Early Dalit politics involved many Hindu reform movements which arose primarily as a reaction to the advent of Christian Missionaries in India and their attempts to mass-convert Dalits to Christianity under the allure of escaping the caste system. Bhakti movements are Hindu religious movements in which the main spiritual practice is the fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... Hinduism is going through a phase of regeneration and reform through the vehicle of several contemporary movements, collectively termed as Hindu reform movements. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


In the 19th Century, the Brahmo Samaj under Raja Ram Mohan Roy, actively campaigned against untouchability and Casteism. The Arya Samaj founded by Swami Dayanand also renounced discrimination against Dalits.Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa founded the Ramakrishna Mission that participated in the emancipation of Dalits. Upper caste Hindus, such as Mannathu Padmanabhan also participated in movements to abolish Untouchability against Dalits, opening his family temple for Dalits to worship.Narayana Guru, a pious Hindu and an authority on the Vedas, also criticized casteism and campaigned for the rights of lower-caste Hindus within the context of Hinduism. Brahmo Samaj is a social and religious movement founded in Kolkata, India in 1828 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. ... Indian reformer Ram Mohan Roy died in Bristol, England, where this statue of him stands. ... Arya Samaj (Aryan Society or Society of Nobles) is a Hindu reform movement in India that was founded by Swami Dayananda in 1875. ... Swami Dayananda Saraswati (स्‍वामी दयानन्‍द सरस्‍वती) (1824 - 1883) is an important Hindu religious scholar born in Gujarat, India. ... Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (Bangla: রামকৃষ্ণ পরমহংস Ramkrishno Pôromôhongsho), born Gadadhar Chattopadhyay (Bangla: গদাধর চট্টোপাধ্যায় Gôdadhor Chôţţopaddhae) [1], (February 18, 1836–August 16, 1886) was a Hindu religious teacher and an influential figure in the Bengal Renaissance of the Nineteenth century. ... The Ramakrishna Mission Emblem The Ramakrishna Mission (Bengali: ) is an association founded by Sri Ramakrishnas chief disciple and religious leader, Swami Vivekananda on May 1, 1897. ... Mannathu Padmanabhan (1878-1970) Mannathu Padmanabhan was a great social reformer who hailed from the State of Kerala. ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ... Narayana Guru It has been suggested that the section Sri Narayana Guru from the article Ezhava be merged into this article or section. ... Veda redirects here. ...


The first "upper-caste" temple to openly welcome Dalits into their fold was the Laxminarayan Temple in Wardha in the year 1928 (the move was spearheaded by reformer Jamnalal Bajaj). Also, the Satnami movement was founded by Guru Ghasidas, a Dalit himself. Wardha is a city in Maharashtra, India. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portrait of Jamnalal Bajaj Jamnalal Bajaj (1886 – 11 February 1942) was an industrialist, a philanthropist, and Indian freedom fighter. ... Guru Ghasidas (1756-1836) was the founder of the Satnami sect in Chhatisgarh. ...


The caste system has also been criticized by many Indian social reformers. Some reformers, such as Jyotirao Phule and Iyothee Thass argued that the lower caste people were the original inhabitants of India, and were conquered in the ancient past by "Brahman invaders." Mahatma Gandhi coined the term "Harijan", a euphemistic word for untouchable, literally meaning Sons of God. B. R. Ambedkar, born in Hindu Dalit community, was a heavy critic of the caste system. He pioneered the Dalit Buddhist movement in India, and asked his followers to leave Hinduism, and convert to Buddhism.India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, based on his own relationship with Dalit reformer Ambedkar, also spread information about the dire need to eradicate untouchability for the benefit of the Dalit community. Another example was the Temple Entry Proclamation issued by the last Maharaja of Travancore in the Indian state of Kerala in the year 1936. The Maharaja proclaimed that "outcastes should not be denied the consolations and the solace of the Hindu faith". Even today, the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple that first welcomed Dalits in the state of Kerala is revered by the Dalit Hindu community[citation needed]. Jyotirao Govindrao Phule (Marathi:ज्योतिराव गोविंदराव फुले) (April 11, 1827 — November 28, 1890), also known as Mahatma Jyotiba Phule was an activist, thinker, social reformer and revolutionary from Maharashtra in the nineteenth century. ... This article is about historical, ideological and socio-political aspects of this controversy. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ... A euphemism is a word or phrase used in place of a term that originally could not be spoken aloud (see taboo) or, by extension, terms which they consider to be disagreeable or offensive. ... In South Asias caste system, a Dalit; often called an untouchable; is a person of shudra; the lowest of the four castes. ... Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (Marathi: डा. भीमराव रामजी आंबेडकर) (April 14, 1891 — December 6, 1956) was an Indian jurist, scholar, Bahujan political leader and a Buddhist revivalist, who is the chief architect of the Indian Constitution. ... In the Indian caste system, a Dalit, often called an untouchable,or an outcaste, is a person who according to traditional Hindu belief does not have any varnas. Varna refers to the Hindu belief that most humans were supposedly created from different parts of the body of the divinity Purusha. ... The Dalit Buddhist movement (Pāli नवयान navayāna as dubbed by certain Ambedkerites)[1] in India began with support of Sri Lankan Buddhist monks. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ... Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (April 14, 1891 or 1892 - December 6, 1956) was the most prominent Indian Untouchable leader of the 20th century. ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ... The Temple Entry Proclamation issued by Maharaja Shri Chithira Thirunnal Baala Rama Varma in 1936 abolished the ban on the untouchable or avarnas from entering Hindu Temples in the state of Thiruvathamkoor (now part of Kerala, India). ... Maharaja Chithira Thirunal Shri Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma (November 7, 1912 –July 19, 1991) was the last maharajah (ruler) of the Indian princely state of Travancore before Indias independence. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple, (Malayalam: ശ്രീ പത്മനാഭ സ്വാമി ക്ഷേത്രം) is a famous Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Vishnu, located inside the East Fort in city of Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. ... In the Indian caste system, a Dalit, often called an untouchable,or an outcaste, is a person who according to traditional Hindu belief does not have any varnas. Varna refers to the Hindu belief that most humans were supposedly created from different parts of the body of the divinity Purusha. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ...


Contemporary Criticism

Kancha Ilaiah, a professor at Osmania University is known for his polemical attacks on Hindus and the caste system and is considered an anti-Hindu by his critics. Similarly, radicals such as Udit Raj, who have attacked Hindus in polemical speeches, have achieved some popularity among evangelical Christian groups such as the Dalit Freedom Network in their attacks on Hindus. Christian Missionaries of the fundamentalist persuasion often employ such tactics to convert Hindus to their fold. The website Dalitstan (presently taken down), once banned by the Indian government, is an example of anti-Brahmin and anti-Hindu rhetoric by Dalit extremists, allegedly supported by Christian missions. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Kancha Ilaiah Kancha Ilaiah is the Chairman of the Political Science department at Osmania University, a social activist and author. ... Osmania University (also known as OU in short) is a public university situated in the city of Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh, India. ... Anti-Hindu leaflet launched by fundamentalist Christian churches Anti-Hindu prejudice is a negative perception against Hinduism, Hindus and Indian or Hindu culture. ... Udit Raj (born Ram Raj 1st Jan 1958, Ramnagar, Distt. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Dalit Freedom Network is an evangelical Christian organization whose official mission is to The Dalit Freedom Network exists to empower the Dalits in their quest for social freedom and human dignity by networking human, financial, and informational resources. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the... The Dalitstan Organization is an anti-Brahminanism organisation that advocates misdeeds done by brahmins agains Dalits in India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Anti-Hindu leaflet launched by fundamentalist Christian churches Anti-Hindu prejudice is a negative perception against Hinduism, Hindus and Indian or Hindu culture. ... Since the Lausanne Congress of 1974, a widely-accepted definition of a Christian mission has been to form a viable indigenous church-planting movement. ...


Many Hindus point out that the caste system is related to the Indian society, and not Hinduism (as is evident by presence of caste among Indian Christians and Muslims)[original research?]. Hindu Nationalist organizations such as the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh have actively criticized the caste system. Hindu nationalism is a nationalist ideology that sees the modern state of the Republic of India as a Hindu polity [1] (Hindu Rashtra), and seeks to preserve the Hindu heritage. ... The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (Hindi: , English: ), also known as the Sangh or the RSS, is a Hindu nationalist organization in India. ...


Some activists consider that the caste system is a form of racial discrimination[67]. The participants of the United Nations Conference Against Racism in Durban, South Africa in March 2001, condemned discrimination due to the caste system, and tried to pass a resolution declaring that caste as a basis for the segregation and oppression of peoples in terms of their descent and occupation is a form of apartheid.However, no formal resolution was passed to that effect[68]. An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... For other uses, see Durban (disambiguation). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


India's treatment of Dalits has been described by some authors as as "India's hidden apartheid".[69][70] Eric Margolis has claimed that India "frantically tr[ied] to prevent its caste system, which is often called "hidden apartheid" from being put on the agenda of the 2001 World Conference against Racism in Durban.[71] Critics of the accusations point out the substantial improvements in the rights of Dalits (former "Untouchables") enshrined in the Constitution of India (primarily written by a Dalit, Ambedkar), which is the principal object of article 17 in the Constitution as implemented by the Protection of Civil rights Act, 1955 [72] and the fact that India has had a Dalit, K.R. Narayanan, for a president, as well as the disappearance of the practise in urban public life[73].[page # needed] Sociologists Kevin Reilly, Stephen Kaufman, Angela Bodino, while being critical of casteism, conclude that modern India does not practice any "apartheid" since there is no state sanctioned discrimination.[74] They write that Casteism in India is presently "not apartheid. In fact, untouchables, as well as tribal people and members of the lowest castes in India benefit from broad affirmative action programmes and are enjoying greater political power."[74] Eric Margolis is a journalist born in New York City and holding degrees from Georgetown and New York Universities. ... The World Conference against Racism (WCAR) are international events organized by the UNESCO in order to struggle against racism ideologies and behaviours. ... For other uses, see Durban (disambiguation). ... The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ... In the Indian caste system, a Dalit, often called an untouchable,or an outcaste, is a person who according to traditional Hindu belief does not have any varnas. Varna refers to the Hindu belief that most humans were supposedly created from different parts of the body of the divinity Purusha. ... Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (April 14, 1891 or 1892 - December 6, 1956) was the most prominent Indian Untouchable leader of the 20th century. ... In the Indian caste system, a Dalit, often called an untouchable,or an outcaste, is a person who according to traditional Hindu belief does not have any varnas. Varna refers to the Hindu belief that most humans were supposedly created from different parts of the body of the divinity Purusha. ... Kocheril Raman Narayanan, usually known just as K. R. Narayanan (b. ... The President of India (Hindi: Rashtrapati) is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... Reservation in Indian law is a term used to describe the governmental policy whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the Parliament of India, State Legislative Assemblies, Central and State Civil Services, Public Sector Units, Central and State Governmental Departments and in all Public and Private Educational Institutions, except...


According to William A. Haviland, however:

Although India's national constitution of 1950 sought to abolish cast discrimination and the practice of untouchability, the caste system remains deeply entrenched in Hindu culture and is still widespread throughout southern Asia, especially in rural India. In what has been called India's "hidden apartheid", entire villages in many Indian states remain completely segregated by caste. Representing about 15 percent of India's population—or some 160 million people—the widely scatter Dalits endure near complete social isolation, humiliation, and discrimination based exclusively on their birth status. Even a Dalit's shadow is believed to pollute the upper classes. They may not cross the line dividing their part of the village from that occupied by higher castes, drink water from public wells, or visit the same temples as the higher castes. Dalit children are still often made to sit in the back of classrooms.[75]

.


However, such allegations of apartheid are regarded by academic sociologists as a political epithet, since apartheid implies state sponsored discrimination, and no such thing exists in India.India is a sovereign, secular, socialist, democratic republic, and the Constitution of India places special emphasis on outlawing caste discrimination, especially the practice of untouchability[76]. In addition, the Indian penal code inflicts severe punishments on those who discriminate on the basis of caste. Anti-dalit prejudice and discrimination is a social malaise that exists primarily in rural areas, where small societies can track the caste lineage of individuals and discriminate accordingly. Sociologists Kevin Reilly, Stephen Kaufman, Angela Bodino, while being critical of casteism, conclude that modern India does not practice any "apartheid" since there is no state sanctioned discrimination.[74] They write that Casteism in India is presently "not apartheid. In fact, untouchables, as well as tribal people and members of the lowest castes in India benefit from broad affirmative action programmes and are enjoying greater political power."[74] See also Alternative political spellings and the list of pejorative political puns. ... Look up sovereign in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... Reservation in Indian law is a term used to describe the governmental policy whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the Parliament of India, State Legislative Assemblies, Central and State Civil Services, Public Sector Units, Central and State Governmental Departments and in all Public and Private Educational Institutions, except...


Such allegations have also been rejected by many sociologists such as Andre Béteille, who writes that treating caste as a form of racism is "politically mischievous" and worse, "scientifically nonsense" since there is no discernible difference in the racial characteristics between Brahmins and Scheduled Castes. He writes that "Every social group cannot be regarded as a race simply because we want to protect it against prejudice and discrimination"[77]. Andre Béteille is an Indian sociologist and writer. ... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ...


The Indian government also rejects the claims of equivalency between Caste and Racial discrimination, pointing out that the caste issues as essentially intra-racial and intra-cultural. Indian Attorney General Soli Sorabjee insisted that "[t]he only reason India wants caste discrimination kept off the agenda is that it will distract participants from the main topic: racism. Caste discrimination in India is undeniable but caste and race are entirely distinct"[67]. Many scholars dispute the claim that casteism is akin to racism. The view of the caste system as "static and unchanging" has been disputed. Sociologists describe how the perception of the caste system as a static and textual stratification has given way to the perception of the caste system as a more processual, empirical and contextual stratification. Others have applied theoretical models to explain mobility and flexibility in the caste system in India[78]. According to these scholars, groups of lower-caste individuals could seek to elevate the status of their caste by attempting to emulate the practices of higher castes.


Sociologist M. N. Srinivas has also debated the question of rigidity in Caste[79][80]. For details see sanskritization. M.N. Srinivas, 1916-1999 Mysore Narasimhachar Srinivas is Indias foremost sociologist. ... Sanskritisation is the process by which castes placed lower in the caste hierarchy seek upward mobility by emulating the rituals and practices of the upper or dominant castes. ...


Pakistani-American sociologist Ayesha Jalal also rejects these allegations. In her book, "Democracy and Authoritarianism in South Asia", she writes that "As for Hinduism, the hierarchical principles of the Brahmanical social order have always been contested from within Hindu society, suggesting that equality has been and continues to be both valued and practiced."[81] Dr. Ayesha Jalal (Urdu: عائشہ جلال) is a Pakistani historian. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages)[1] is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


In India,[82] some observers felt that the caste system must be viewed as a system of exploitation of poor low-ranking groups by more prosperous high-ranking groups. In many parts of India, land is largely held by high-ranking property owners of the dominant castes that economically exploit low-ranking landless labourers and poor artisans, all the while degrading them with ritual emphases on their so-called god-given inferior status.


Matt Cherry,[83] claims that karma underpins the caste system, and the caste system traditionally determines the position and role of every member of Hindu society. Caste determines an individual's place in society, the work he or she may carry out, and who he or she may marry and meet. According to him, Hindus believe that the karma of previous life will determine the caste an individual will be (re)born into. For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ...


On 29 March 2007, the Supreme Court of India, as an interim measure, stayed the law providing for 27 percent reservation for Other Backward Classes in educational institutions like IITs and IIMs. This was done in response to a public interest litigation — Ashoka Kumar Thakur vs. Union of India . The Court held that the 1931 census could not be a determinative factor for identifying the OBCs for the purpose of providing reservation. The court also observed, "Reservation cannot be permanent and appear to perpetuate backwardness".[84] is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. ... The Ashoka Kumar Thakur vs Union of India is a public interest litigation challenging the conclusion of the Mandal Commission that about 52% of the total population of India belonged to OBC segment. ...


See also

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... A list of Indian castes: Adi Andhra Mala Madiga Adi Dravida Arunthathiyar Chakkili Paraiah Pallas Ancient Kshatriya Tribes (still surviving with their ancient identity intact) Ahirs | Abhiras Gujjars | Gurjaras Kamboj | Kambojas (Descendants of ancient Kambojas--an Indo-Iranian Aryan tribe having Indian & Iranian affininties) Khash | Khasas Pahlav Yadavs | Yadavas Ahluwalia... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... In Hinduism, it is usually the Brahmin or priestly caste in Hinduism that becomes Brahmana. ... // Ahilyabai Holkar - Daugther in Law of Malhar Rao, the Holkars were from the tribal Dhangar caste of Maharashtra. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Francis Buchanan, Indian Census Record, 1883
  2. ^ BBC profile, India
  3. ^ BBC, Religion and ethics, Hinduism
  4. ^ Bayly, Susan (July 1999). Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age. Cambridge University Press. DOI:10.2277/0521264340. ISBN-13: 9780521264341. 
  5. ^ Caste-Based Parties. Retrieved on 2007-05-17.
  6. ^ George L. Hart. Early Evidence for Caste in South India. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  7. ^ Bamshad, Michael; Kivisild T, Watkins WS, Dixon ME, Ricker CE, Rao BB, Naidu JM, Prasad BV, Reddy PG, Rasanayagam A, Papiha SS, Villems R, Redd AJ, Hammer MF, Nguyen SV, Carroll ML, Batzer MA, Jorde LB (June 2001). "Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations". Gnome Research 11 (6): 994-1004. doi:10.1101/gr.GR-1733RR. ISSN 1088-9051/03. PMID 11381027. Retrieved on 2007-09-09. 
  8. ^ Basu, Analabha; Namita Mukherjee, Sangita Roy, Sanghamitra Sengupta, Sanat Banerjee, Madan Chakraborty, Badal Dey, Monami Roy, Bidyut Roy, Nitai P. Bhattacharyya, Susanta Roychoudhury and Partha P. Majumder (2003). "Ethnic India: A Genomic View, With Special Reference to Peopling and Structure". Gnome Research 13 (10): 2277-2290. doi:10.1101/gr.1413403. ISSN 1088-9051/03. PMID 14525929. Retrieved on 2007-09-09. 
  9. ^ Mountain, Joanna L.; J M Hebert, S Bhattacharyya, P A Underhill, C Ottolenghi, M Gadgil, and L L Cavalli-Sforza (April 1995). "Demographic history of India and mtDNA-sequence diversity". American Journal of Human Genetics 56 (4): 979–992. ISSN 0002-9297. PMID 7717409. Retrieved on 2007-09-09. 
  10. ^ Thanseem, Ismail; Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Gyaneshwer Chaubey, Vijay Kumar Singh, Lakkakula VKS Bhaskar, B Mohan Reddy, Alla G Reddy, and Lalji Singh (August 2006). "Genetic affinities among the lower castes and tribal groups of India: inference from Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA". BMC Genetics 7: 42. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-7-42. Retrieved on 2007-09-09. 
  11. ^ G.S. Mudur (January 01, 2007). Caste in the genes. The Telegraph, Calcutta. Retrieved on 2007-08-31.
  12. ^ P. 651 The Cambridge History of Iran By Ilya Gershevitch
  13. ^ P. 226 The World Year Book of Education By Columbia University. Teachers College, University of London Institute of Education
  14. ^ P. 39 Origin and Growth of Caste in India By Nripendra Kumar Dutt
  15. ^ ManuSmriti X:65: "As the son of Shudra can attain the rank of a Brahmin, the son of Brahmin can attain rank of a shudra. Even so with him who is born of a Vaishya or a Kshatriya"
  16. ^ David Haslam (2006-11-18). Face to faith. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  17. ^ Varnashrama-dharma and Caste. ISKCON. Retrieved on 2007-04-12.
  18. ^ The Varnasrama Social System. Hare Krishna News Network. Retrieved on 2007-04-12.
  19. ^ Axel Michaels, Hinduism: Past and Present 188-97 (Princeton 2004) ISBN 0-691-08953-1
  20. ^ Hindu Wisdom: The Caste System. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  21. ^ Nitin Mehta (2006-12-08). Caste prejudice has nothing to do with the Hindu scriptures. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  22. ^ M V Nadkarni (2003-11-08). Is Caste System Intrinsic to Hinduism? Demolishing a Myth. Economic and Political Weekly. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  23. ^ White Yajurveda 26.2
  24. ^ Brahman. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  25. ^ Govind Sadashiv Ghurye: Ghurye's Views about Indian Society. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  26. ^ Kevin Hobson. The Indian Caste System and The British: Ethnographic Mapping and the Construction of the British Census in India. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  27. ^ Govind Sadashiv Ghurye: Ghurye's Views about Indian Society. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  28. ^ Kevin Hobson. The Indian Caste System and The British: Ethnographic Mapping and the Construction of the British Census in India. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  29. ^ Alavi, Seema (1998). Sepoys And The Company Tradition and transition in Northern India 1770-1830. Oxford University Press India, 5. ISBN 0-195-63484-5. 
  30. ^ Corbridge, Staurt; Harriss, John (2000). Reinventing India: Liberalization, Hindu Nationalism and Popular Democracy. Polity press, 8. 
  31. ^ [http://www.chhattisgarhnris.com/chhattisgarh_heaven.htm "Tribal Protests and Rebellions']
  32. ^ P. 111 The Freedom Struggle in Hyderabad: A Connected Account By Hyderabad (India : State)
  33. ^ P. 32 Social and Political Awakening Among the Tribals of Rajasthan By Gopi Nath Sharma
  34. ^ P. 420 Who's who of Freedom Struggle in Andhra Pradesh By Sarojini Regani
  35. ^ Vikas Kamat. India's Arranged Marriages. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.
  36. ^ List of Scheduled Castes Delhi Govt.
  37. ^ Reply to SC daunting task for government, Tribune India
  38. ^ What is India's population of other backward classes?,Yahoo News
  39. ^ Thorat, Sukhadeo; Paul Attewell (October 2007). "The Legacy of Social Exclusion A Correspondence Study of Job Discrimination in India". Economic and Political Weekly: 4141. 
  40. ^ a b Christian Castes Encyclopedia Britannica
  41. ^ Problems and Struggles Dalitchristians.com
  42. ^ A palmyra leaf that sears us, The Hindu
  43. ^ a b "Islamic caste." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 18 Oct. 2006
  44. ^ a b Burton-Page, J. "Hindū." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzeland W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2006. Brill Online.
  45. ^ Muslim Caste in Uttar Pradesh (A Study of Culture Contact), Ghaus Ansari, Lucknow, 1960, Page 66
  46. ^ a b Singh Sikand, Yoginder. Caste in Indian Muslim Society. Hamdard University. Retrieved on 2006-10-18.
  47. ^ Madani, Mohsen Saeidi, P. 93, Impact of Hindu Culture on Muslims
  48. ^ Six men found guilty in gang rape Thursday, December 12, 2002 Posted: 2:16 AM EST (0716 GMT)
  49. ^ Muslim caste clash: One killed in exchange of fire, Monday, September 22, 2003, Chandigarh, India
  50. ^ Aggarwal, Patrap (1978). Caste and Social Stratification Among Muslims in India. Manohar. 
  51. ^ Social Stratification Among Muslims in Indiaby Zarina Bhatty
  52. ^ a b Ambedkar, Bhimrao. Pakistan or the Partition of India. Thackers Publishers. 
  53. ^ a b Web resource for Pakistan or the Partition of India
  54. ^ Leach, Edmund Ronald (November 24, 1971). Aspects of Caste in South India, Ceylon and North-West Pakistan (Pg 113). Cambridge University Press. 
  55. ^ Muslim Communities of South Asia: Culture and Society Edited by T.N. Madan. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House, 1976 pp. 114
  56. ^ "Are neo-Buddhists- Hindus?" By Koenraad Elst
  57. ^ Durga Prasad, P. 115, History of the Andhras upto 1565 A. D.
  58. ^ Martin, Robert Montgomery, P. 216, The History, Antiquities, Topography, and Statistics of Eastern India
  59. ^ Sikhism: The rejection of caste. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  60. ^ Praveen Swami. Dalits' battle in a Punjab village. Frontline. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  61. ^ Dr. Sewa Singh Kalsi. Problems of Defining Authority in Sikhism. DISKUS Vol.3 No.2 (1995) pp.43-58. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  62. ^ a b Danny Yee. Book review of Caste, Society and Politics in India: From the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
  63. ^ Bhattacharya, Amit. "Who are the OBCs?". Retrieved on 2006-04-19. Times of India, April 8, 2006.
  64. ^ Caste-Based Parties. Country Studies US. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.
  65. ^ India's caste system discriminates
  66. ^ Shaivam.org
  67. ^ a b An Untouchable Subject?
  68. ^ Final Declaration of the Global Conference Against Racism and Caste-based Discrimination
  69. ^ Gopal Guru, with Shiraz Sidhva. India’s "hidden apartheid"
  70. ^ Rajeev Dhavan. India's apartheid
  71. ^ India's 'Hidden Apartheid'
  72. ^ The Constitution of India by P.M. Bakshi, Universal Law Publishing Co, ISBN 8175345004
  73. ^ Mendelsohn, Oliver & Vicziany, Maria, "The Untouchables, Subordination, Poverty and the State in Modern India", Cambridge University Press, 1998
  74. ^ a b c d Kevin Reilly, Stephen Kaufman, Angela Bodino, Racism: A Global Reader P21, M.E. Sharpe, 2003 ISBN 0765610604.
  75. ^ William A. Haviland, Anthropology: The Human Challenge, 10th edition, Thomson Wadsworth, 2005, ISBN 0534623611, p. 575.
  76. ^ [1]
  77. ^ Race and caste by Andre Beteille
  78. ^ James Silverberg (November 1969). "Social Mobility in the Caste System in India: An Interdisciplinary Symposium". The American Journal of Sociology 75 (3): 443-444. 
  79. ^ Srinivas, M.N, Religion and Society among the Coorgs of South India by MN Srinivas, Page 32 (Oxford, 1952)
  80. ^ Caste in Modern India; And other essays: Page 48. (Media Promoters & Publishers Pvt. Ltd, Bombay; First Published: 1962, 11th Reprint: 1994)
  81. ^ A. Jalal,Democracy and Authoritarianism in South Asia: A Comparative and Historical Perspective (Contemporary South Asia), Cambridge University Press (May 26, 1995), ISBN 0521478626
  82. ^ India - A Country Study, USA Library of Congress, 1995, Chapter 5
  83. ^ Matt Cherry, "Humanism In India", Free Inquiry magazine, Vol 16 Num 4
  84. ^ "Supreme Court stays OBC quota in IITs, IIMs", rediff.com, Rediff.com India Limited, March 29 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-01. 

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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Since its inception in 1948, The American Journal of Human Genetics has provided a record of research and review relating to heredity in humans and to the application of genetic principles in medicine and public policy, as well as in related areas of molecular and cell biology. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (April 14, 1891 or 1892 - December 6, 1956) was the most prominent Indian Untouchable leader of the 20th century. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Frontline (ISSN 0970-1710)is a fortnightly English language magazine published by The Hindu Group of publications from Chennai, India. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Andre Beteille is an Indian sociologist and writer. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Aggarwal, Patrap. Caste and Social Stratification Among Muslims in India. Manohar. 1978.
  • Ambedkar, Bhimrao. Pakistan or the Partition of India. Thackers Publishers.
  • Ansari, Ghaus. Muslim Caste in Uttar Pradesh: A Study of Culture Contact. Lucknow, 1960.
  • Bayly, Susan. Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age. Cambridge University Press. 1999. DOI:10.2277/0521264340. ISBN-13: 9780521264341.
  • Michaels, Axel, Hinduism: Past and Present 188-97 (Princeton 2004) ISBN 0-691-08953-1
  • Srinivas, M. N. Religion and Society among the Coorgs of South India. Oxford, 1952.

Further reading

  • Ambedkar, B.R. (1946). The Untouchables: Who Were They and Why They Became Untouchables? as reprinted in Volume 7 of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Writings and Speeches, published by Government of Maharashtra 1990; Complete Writings
  • Ambedkar, B.R. (1946) Who were the Shudras[85]
  • Atal, Yogesh (1968) "The Changing Frontiers of Caste" Delhi, National Publishing House
  • Atal, Yogesh (2006) "Changing Indian Society" Chapter on Varna and Jati. Jaipur, Rawat Publications.
  • Baines, Jervoise Athelstane (1893). General report on the Census of India, 1891, London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office
  • Blunt, E.A.H. (1931). The Caste System of Northern India, republished 1964, S. Chand, Delhi.
  • Crooke, William (1896). Tribes and Castes of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh, 4 vols.
  • Duiker/Spielvogel. The Essential World History Vol I: to 1800. 2nd Edition 2005
  • Dumont, Louis. Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and Its Implications. Complete English edition, revised. 540 p. 1970, 1980 Series: (Nature of Human Society)
  • Ghurye, G. S. (1961). Caste, Class and Occupation. Popular Book Depot, Bombay.
  • Ghurye, G. S. (1969). Caste and Race in India, Popular Prakashan, Mumbai 1969 (1932)
  • Jaffrelot, Christophe (2003). India's Silent Revolution: The Rise of the Lower Castes, C. Hurst & Co
  • Kane, Pandurang Vaman: History of Dharmasastra: (ancient and mediaeval, religious and civil law) — Poona : Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 1962-1975
  • Lal, K. S. Growth of Scheduled Tribes and Castes in Medieval India (1995)
  • Murray Milner, Jr. (1994). Status and Sacredness: A General Theory of Status Relations and an Analysis of Indian Culture, New York: Oxford University Press
  • Ranganayakamma (2001). For the solution of the "Caste" question, Buddha is not enough, Ambedkar is not enough either, Marx is a must, Hyderabad : Sweet Home Publications
  • Russell, R.V. and R.B. Hira Lal (1916). The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India, 4 vols., London.

Who were the Shudras? is a book written by B.R. Ambedkar. ... Louis Dumont (1911–1998), was a French anthropologist, associate professor at Oxford University during the 1950s, and director at the École des hautes études en sciences sociales in Paris. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Dr. Pandurang Vaman Kane (1880-1972) was a famous Indologist and Sanskrit scholar. ... K.S. Lal is an Indian historian. ...

External links

  • Jati system in India
  • The Caste System in India
  • Annihilation of Caste with a Reply to Mahatma Gandhi Part I & Part II by Dr.B.R.Ambedkar
  • Varna Ashram and Hindu Scriptures (pdf)
  • Articles on Caste by Koenraad Elst: Caste in India, Buddhism and Caste, Indian tribals and Caste, Physical anthropology and Caste, Etymology of Varna
  • India's Caste System at Kamat's Potpourri
  • Hidden Apartheid Caste Discrimination against India's "Untouchables"

  Results from FactBites:
 
Caste System in india, Indian Caste System, Caste in India (1737 words)
The pattern of social classes in Hinduism is called the "caste system." The chart shows the major divisions and contents of the system.
Basic caste is called varn.a, or "color." Subcaste, or jâti, "birth, life, rank," is a traditional subdivision of varn.a.
Today the status of the Shudras, Untouchables, and other "scheduled castes," and the preferential policies that the Indian government has designed for their advancement ever since Independence, are sources of serious conflict, including murders and riots, in Indian society.
Indian caste system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3693 words)
The Indian caste system is highly complex and assumedly traditional hereditary system of social stratification of India, in which social classes are defined by a number of hierarchical endogamous groups often termed as Jati.
The caste system was first exposed to the modern Western world during the Portuguese occupation and rule of sections of India.
Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and Its Implications.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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