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Encyclopedia > Indian Wars
Indian Wars in North America

An 1899 chromolithograph of U.S. cavalry pursuing American Indians, artist unknown
Date Intermittently from 1622–1890
Location United States
Result United States victory; sovereignty of United States of America extended to its present borders; Indian reservation system enforced
Belligerents
Native Americans Colonial America/United States of America

Indian Wars is the name generally used in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the colonial or federal government and the indigenous peoples of North America. India has a long military history dating back several millennia. ... Wars of the indigenous peoples of North America include: King Philips War French and Iroquois Wars Tuscarora War (1711-1715) — War between Tuscarora and British colonists and British-allied tribes Yamasee War (1715-1717) — War between South Carolina and numerous Indian tribes Chickasaw Wars (1720-1760) — Unsuccessful campaign by... Image File history File links Cavalry_and_Indians. ... Chromolithography was the first method for making true multi color prints. ... This article is about Native Americans. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Colonial America redirects here. ... North American redirects here. ...


Although the earliest English settlers in what would become the United States often enjoyed peaceful relations with nearby tribes, as early as the Pequot War of 1637, the colonists were taking sides in military rivalries between Indian nations in order to assure colonial security and open further land for settlement. The wars, which ranged from the seventeenth-century (King Philip's War, King William's War, and Queen Anne's War at the opening of the eighteenth century) to the Wounded Knee massacre and "closing" of the American frontier in 1890, generally resulted in the opening of Native American lands to further colonization, the conquest of American Indians and their assimilation, or forced relocation to Indian reservations. Modern scholars take different positions in the ongoing genocide debate. Various statistics have been developed concerning the devastations of these wars on both the American and Indian nations. The most reliable figures are derived from collated records of strictly military engagements such as by Gregory Michno which reveal 21,586 dead, wounded, and captured civilians and soldiers for the period of 1850–90 alone.[1] Other figures are derived from extrapolations of rather cursory and unrelated government accounts such as that by Russell Thornton who calculated that some 45,000 Indians and 19,000 whites were killed. This later rough estimate includes women and children on both sides, since noncombatants were often killed in frontier massacres.[2] Lion Gardiner in the Pequot War from a Charles Stanley Reinhart drawing circa 1890 The Pequot War was an armed conflict in 1636-1638 between an alliance of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies, with Native American allies (the Narragansett, and Mohegan tribe), against the Pequot tribe. ... Attack King Philips War, sometimes called Metacoms War or Metacoms Rebellion,[1] was an armed conflict between Indian inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Indian allies from 1675–1676. ... The first of the French and Indian Wars, King Williams War (1689–1697) , was the North American theater of the War of the Grand Alliance (1688–1697) fought principally in Europe between the armies of France under Louis XIV and those of a coalition of European powers including England. ... Queen Annes War (1702–1713) was the second in a series of four French and Indian Wars fought between France and Great Britain in North America for control of the continent and was the counterpart of War of the Spanish Succession in Europe. ... Belligerents Sioux United States Commanders Big Foot† James W. Forsyth Strength 120 men 230 women and children 500 men Casualties and losses 178 killed 89 wounded 150 missing 25 killed 39 wounded For other uses, see Wounded Knee (disambiguation). ... A frontier is a political and geographical term referring to areas near or beyond a boundary, or of a different nature. ... In the social sciences, assimilation is the process of integration whereby immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into a generally larger community. ... Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate American Indian (or Native American) tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... This article is about Native Americans. ... Natives of North America. ... Non-combatant is a military and legal term describing civilians not engaged in combat. ... In the long history of the English colonization of North America, the term Indian massacre was often used to describe mass killings of European-Americans (whites) by Native Americans (Indians), and, less frequently, mass killings of American Indians by whites. ...


In his book The Wild Frontier: Atrocities during the American-Indian War from Jamestown Colony to Wounded Knee, amateur historian William M. Osborn sought to tally every recorded atrocity in the area that would eventually become the continental United States, from first contact (1511) to the closing of the frontier (1890), and determined that 9,156 people died from atrocities perpetrated by Native Americans, and 7,193 people died from those perpetrated by Europeans. Osborn defines an atrocity as the murder, torture, or mutilation of civilians, the wounded, and prisoners.[3] For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


What is not disputed is that the savagery from both sides of the war — the Indians' own methods of brutal warfare and the Americans destructive campaigns — was such as to be noted in every year in newspapers, historical archives, diplomatic reports and America’s own Declaration of Independence. ("…[He] has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.") The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to...


The Indian Wars comprised a series of smaller wars. American Indians, diverse peoples with their own distinct tribal histories, were no more a single people than the Europeans. Living in societies organized in a variety of ways, American Indians usually made decisions about war and peace at the local level, though they sometimes fought as part of formal alliances, such as the Iroquois Confederation, or in temporary confederacies inspired by leaders such as Tecumseh. The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the League of Peace and Power) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... For other uses, see Tecumseh (disambiguation). ...

External images
the Indian Wars
The great Dispersion
French Era (Iroquois) 1634–1763
Pontiacs Rebellion 1763–75
Battles of the Indian Wars in the West
Map on the Sioux uprising
Events in the Southern Plains of 1868–69
The Great Plains in 1870
The Bozeman trail and its forts
Big Horn Campaign of 1876 Strategy and Principal Movements
Chief Joseph's Retreat
The Dakota(Sioux) reservation from 1890–91
Map of Wounded Knee disposition of 7th Cavalry

Contents

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_xmag. ... Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_xmag. ... Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_xmag. ... Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_xmag. ... Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_xmag. ... Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_xmag. ... Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_xmag. ... Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_xmag. ... Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_xmag. ... Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_xmag. ... Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_xmag. ... Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_xmag. ...

East of the Mississippi (1775–1842)

These are wars fought primarily by the newly established United States against the Native Americans until shortly before the Mexican-American War. Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000...

Indian Wars
East of the Mississippi

// Background Among the Acts of Parliament denounced by the Patriots as Intolerable Acts were the Proclamation of 1763, which forbade Anglo-American settlement west of the Appalachians; and the Quebec Act of 1774, which made provision for the extension of Québecs borders to the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. ... The Chickamauga Wars (1776–1794) were a series of conflicts that were a continuation of the Cherokee struggle against the encroachment into their territory by American frontiersmen from the British colonies which had broken out into open warfare in 1776 between the Cherokee led by Dragging Canoe (called the Chickamauga... Combatants United States Western Lakes Confederacy Commanders Josiah Harmar Arthur St. ... Background Following a peace treaty between Cherokee and white settlers in 1777, during the midst of the Revolutionary War, followers of the Native-American Chief Dragging Canoe, all of whom opposed the peace, separated from the tribe and relocated to East Tennessee. ... The Sabine Expedition was an expedition approved by Congress and led by Major General Edmund Pendleton Gaines. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... At Vincennes in 1810, Tecumseh loses his temper when William Henry Harrison refuses to rescind the Treaty of Fort Wayne. ... Combatants United States Lower Creeks Cherokees Red Sticks (Creek Indians) Commanders Andrew Jackson John Coffee William McIntosh William Weatherford Menawa Peter McQueen Strength 7,000 4,000 Casualties 500 Settlers 125 Soldiers 1,900 The Creek War (1813–1814), also known as the Red Stick War and the Creek Civil... The Peoria War was an armed conflict between the U. S. Army and the Native American tribes of the Potawatomi and the Kickapoo that took place in the Peoria County, Illinois area, near the current location of the city of Peoria, from September 19 to October 21, 1813. ... Osceola, Seminole leader, detail from an 1838 lithograph The Seminole Wars were three wars or conflicts in Florida between the Seminole Native American tribe and the United States. ... Governor of Illinois Ninian Edwards portrayed around the time of the Winnebago War. ... For other uses, see Black Hawk War (disambiguation). ... Osceola, Seminole leader. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

American Revolutionary War

The American Revolutionary War was essentially two parallel wars: while the war in the East was a struggle against British rule, the war in the West was an "Indian War". The newly proclaimed United States competed with the British for the allegiance of Native American nations east of the Mississippi River. The colonial interest in westward settlement, as opposed to the British policy of maintaining peace, was one of the minor causes of the war. Most Native Americans who joined the struggle sided with the British, hoping to use the war to halt colonial expansion onto American Indian land. The Revolutionary War was "the most extensive and destructive" Indian war in United States history.[4] Combatants United States American Indians, Great Britain Commanders Western Department, George Rogers Clark, William Crawford â€ , et al. ... This article is about military actions only. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ...


Many native communities were divided over which side to support in the war. For the Iroquois Confederacy, the American Revolution resulted in civil war: The Six Nations split with the Oneidas and Tuscaroras siding with the Americans and the other four nations fighting for the British. While the Iroquois tried to avoid fighting directly against one another, the Revolution eventually forced Iroquois-to-Iroquois combat. The defeated groups (as well as those who supported the Americans) lost much of their land within the United States. The Crown aided the landless Iroquois by rewarding them with a reservation at Grand River in Canada. Cherokees split into a neutral (or pro-American) faction and the anti-American faction that the Americans referred to as the Chickamaugas, led by Dragging Canoe. Many other communities were similarly divided. For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... The term Six Nations can refer to: The six nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, a union of Native American/First Nations tribes. ... The Oneida (Onayotekaono or the People of the Upright Stone) are a tribe of American Indians and comprise one of the five founding nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. ... Languages English, Tuscarora Religions Christianity, others Related ethnic groups Cherokees, other Iroquoian peoples The Tuscarora are an American Indian tribe originally in North Carolina, which moved north to New York, and then partially into Canada. ... Six Nations of the Grand River is the name applied to two contiguous Indian reserves southeast of Brantford, Ontario, Canada – Six Nations reserve no. ... Alternate meanings: Cherokee (disambiguation) The Cherokee are a people native to North America who first inhabited what is now the eastern and southeastern United States before most were forcefully moved to the Ozark Plateau. ... Chickamauga, or Chickamauga-Cherokee, was a term used by colonial and early Americans to differentiate between the pro-British Cherokee led by Dragging Canoe, and those abiding by the peace treaties signed in 1777 at DeWitts Corner with Georgia and South Carolina and at Fort Henry with Virginia and... Dragging Canoe (1730? – 1792) was an American Indian war leader who led a dissident band of young Cherokees against the United States in the American Revolutionary War. ...


Frontier warfare was particularly brutal, and numerous atrocities were committed on both sides. Both White and Indian noncombatants suffered greatly during the war, and villages and food supplies were frequently destroyed during military expeditions. The largest of these expeditions was the Sullivan Expedition of 1779, which destroyed more than 40 Iroquois villages in order to neutralize Iroquois raids in upstate New York. The expedition failed to have the desired effect: American Indian activity became even more determined. The Sullivan Expedition, also known as the Sullivan-Clinton Expedition, was a campaign led by Major General John Sullivan and General James Clinton against Loyalists (Tories) and the four nations of the Iroquois who had sided with the British in the American Revolutionary War. ... The areas highlighted in YELLOW and GREEN are those which are considered to be a bona fide part of Upstate New York from the perspective of New York City. ...


Native Americans were stunned to learn that, when the British made peace with the Americans in the Treaty of Paris (1783), the British had ceded a vast amount of American Indian territory to the United States without informing their Indian allies. The United States initially treated the American Indians who had fought with the British as a conquered people who had lost their land. When this proved impossible to enforce (the Indians had lost the war on paper, not on the battlefield), the policy was abandoned. The United States was eager to expand, and the national government initially sought to do so only by purchasing Native American land in treaties. The states and settlers were frequently at odds with this policy, and more warfare followed. Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ...


Chickamauga Wars

Main article: Chickamauga Wars

These were an almost continuous series of frontier conflicts that began with Cherokee involvement in the American Revolutionary War and continued until late 1794. The so-called Chickamauga were those Cherokee, at first from the Overhill Towns and later from the Lower Towns, Valley Towns, and Middle Towns, who followed the war leader Dragging Canoe southwest, first to the Chickamauga (Chattanooga, Tennessee) area, then to the Five Lower Towns. There they were joined by groups of Muskogee, white Tories, runaway slaves, and renegade Chickasaw, as well as well over one hundred Shawnee, in exchange for whom a hundred Chickamauga-Cherokee warriors went north, along with another seventy a few years later. The primary objects of attack were the colonies along the Watauga, Holston, and Nolichucky rivers and in Carter's Valley in upper East Tennessee, as well as the settlements along the Cumberland River beginning with Fort Nashborough in 1780, even into Kentucky, plus against the colonies, later states, of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The scope of attacks by the "Chickamauga" and their allies ranged from quick raids by small war parties of a handful of warriors to large campaigns by four or five hundred, and once over a thousand, warriors. The Upper Muskogee under Dragging's Canoe's close ally Alexander McGillivray frequently joined their campaigns as well as operating separately, and the settlements on the Cumberland came under attack from the Chickasaw, Shawnee from the north, and Delaware as well. Campaigns by Dragging Canoe and his successor, John Watts, were frequently conducted in conjunction campaigns in the Northwest. The response by the colonists were usually attacks in which Cherokee towns in peaceful areas were completely destroyed, though usually without great loss of life on either side. The wars continued until the Treaty of Tellico Blockhouse in November 1794. The Chickamauga Wars (1776–1794) were a series of conflicts that were a continuation of the Cherokee struggle against the encroachment into their territory by American frontiersmen from the British colonies which had broken out into open warfare in 1776 between the Cherokee led by Dragging Canoe (called the Chickamauga... The Little Tennessee River, looking south from the Tellico Blockhouse The term Overhill Cherokee refers to the former Cherokee settlements located in what is now Tennessee in the Southeastern United States. ... Chattanooga redirects here. ... The Creek are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chickasaw (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... The Watauga River rises in Watauga County, North Carolina, a mountainous county in western North Carolina along the Tennessee state line. ... The Holston drainage basin, located within the upper Tennessee drainage basin For other uses of Holston, see Holston (disambiguation). ... The Nolichucky River at Embreeville in Washington County, Tennessee. ... East Tennessee is a name given to approximately the eastern third of the state of Tennessee. ... The Cumberland River is an important waterway in the southern United States. ... Fort Nashborough was the original stockade for the settlement that became Nashville, Tennessee. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and the Territory North West of the Ohio, was a governmental region within the early United States. ... The Tellico Blockhouse was an early American outpost located along the Little Tennessee River in Monroe County, Tennessee. ...


Northwest Indian War

The Battle of Fallen Timbers
The Battle of Fallen Timbers

In 1787, the Northwest Ordinance officially organized the Northwest Territory for white settlement. American settlers began pouring into the region. Violence erupted as Indians resisted this encroachment, and so the administration of President George Washington sent armed expeditions into the area to put down native resistance. However, in the Northwest Indian War, a pan-tribal confederacy led by Blue Jacket (Shawnee), Little Turtle (Miami), Buckongahelas (Lenape), and Egushawa (Ottawa) crushed armies led by Generals Josiah Harmar and Arthur St. Clair. General St. Clair's defeat was the severest loss ever inflicted upon an American army by Native Americans. The Americans attempted to negotiate a settlement, but Blue Jacket and the Shawnee-led confederacy insisted on a boundary line the Americans found unacceptable, and so a new expedition led by General Anthony Wayne was dispatched. Wayne's army defeated the Indian confederacy at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794. The Indians had hoped for British assistance; when that was not forthcoming, the Indians were compelled to sign the Treaty of Greenville in 1795, which ceded modern-day Ohio and part of Indiana to the United States. Image File history File links Fallen_timbers. ... Image File history File links Fallen_timbers. ... Northwest Territory (1787). ... The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and the Territory North West of the Ohio, was a governmental region within the early United States. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Combatants United States Western Lakes Confederacy Commanders Josiah Harmar Arthur St. ... Blue Jacket or Weyapiersenwah (c. ... Michikinikwa (Little Turtle) (1752-July 14, 1812) was a chief of the Miami tribe in what is presently Indiana. ... Buckongahelas (1725?–May 1805) was a Delaware (Lenape) war leader who led his followers against the United States during the American Revolutionary War and again in the Northwest Indian War; in the latter war he helped win the most devastating military victory ever achieved by American Indians against the United... Egushawa (c. ... Josiah Harmar (November 10, 1753 - August 20, 1813) was an officer in the United States Army. ... Portrait of St. ... Anthony Wayne (January 1, 1745 - December 15, 1796), was a United States Army general and statesman. ... For the American Civil War action on April 8, 1862, see Battle of Shiloh. ... This depiction of the treaty negotiations may have been painted by one of Anthony Waynes officers. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ...


Tecumseh, the Creek War, and the War of 1812

Tecumseh
Tecumseh

The United States continued to gain title to Native American land after the Treaty of Greenville, at a rate that created alarm in Indian communities. In 1800, William Henry Harrison became governor of the Indiana Territory and, under the direction of President Thomas Jefferson, pursued an aggressive policy of obtaining titles to Indian lands. Two Shawnee brothers, Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa, organized another pan-tribal resistance to American expansion. Tecumseh's goal was to get Native American leaders to stop selling land to the United States. Portrait of Tecumseh Nineteenth-century portrait by Benjamin Lossing, after a pencil sketch by Pierre Le Dru, taken from life in 1808. ... Portrait of Tecumseh Nineteenth-century portrait by Benjamin Lossing, after a pencil sketch by Pierre Le Dru, taken from life in 1808. ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... Map of the Indiana Territory Indiana Territory was an organized territory of the United States from 1800 to 1816, created by Act of Congress and signed into law by President John Adams on May 7, 1800, effective on July 4. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... For other uses, see Tecumseh (disambiguation). ... Tenskwatawa Tenskwatawa, Tenskatawa,, Tensquatawa or Elskwatawa (1775 – November 1836) was a Native American religious and political leader known as the Shawnee Prophet (of the Shawnee tribe). ... At Vincennes in 1810, Tecumseh loses his temper when William Henry Harrison refuses to rescind the Treaty of Fort Wayne. ...


While Tecumseh was in the south attempting to recruit allies among the Creeks, Cherokees, and Choctaws, Harrison marched against the Indian confederacy, defeating Tenskwatawa and his followers at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. The Americans hoped that the victory would end the militant resistance, but Tecumseh instead chose to openly ally with the British, who were soon at war with the Americans in the War of 1812. The Creeks are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. ... This page contains special characters. ... For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Tecumsehs confederacy United States Commanders Tenskwatawa William Henry Harrison Strength 550-700 1,000 regulars and militia Casualties and losses 50+ killed 70+ wounded 62 killed 126 wounded The Battle of Tippecanoe was fought in 1811 between United States forces led by Governor William Henry Harrison of the... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ...


Like the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812 was also a massive Indian war on the western front. Encouraged by Tecumseh, the Creek War (1813–1814), which began as a civil war within the Creek (Muscogee) nation, became part of the larger struggle against American expansion. Although the war with the British was a stalemate, the United States was more successful on the western front. Tecumseh was killed by Harrison's army at the Battle of the Thames, ending the resistance in the Old Northwest. The Creeks who fought against the United States were defeated. The First Seminole War, in 1818, was in some ways a continuation of the Creek War and resulted in the transfer of Florida to the United States in 1819. Combatants United States Lower Creeks Cherokees Red Sticks (Creek Indians) Commanders Andrew Jackson John Coffee William McIntosh William Weatherford Menawa Peter McQueen Strength 7,000 4,000 Casualties 500 Settlers 125 Soldiers 1,900 The Creek War (1813–1814), also known as the Red Stick War and the Creek Civil... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... Combatants British Empire Indian Confederation United States Commanders Henry Procter Tecumseh † William Henry Harrison Strength 800 regulars 500 natives1 2,380 militia 1,000 cavalry 120 regulars 260 natives1 Casualties 155 British dead or wounded 477 captured 33 natives dead 15 dead 30 wounded The Battle of the Thames, also... Combatants United States Seminole Commanders Andrew Jackson Osceola The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three wars or conflicts in Florida between various groups of Indians collectively known as Seminoles and the United States. ...

Andrew Jackson, victor at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in the Creek War, was a major figure in Indian removal.

As in the Revolution and the Northwest Indian War, after the War of 1812, the British abandoned their Indian allies to the Americans. This proved to be a major turning point in the Indian Wars, marking the last time that Native Americans would turn to a foreign power for assistance against the United States. Image File history File linksMetadata Andrew_Jackson. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Andrew_Jackson. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Combatants Creek Indians Red Sticks United States Cherokee Creek allies Commanders Menawa Andrew Jackson Strength 1,000 Red Stick Creek about 2,000 infantry 700 mounted infantry 600 Cherokee and Lower Creeks Casualties 800 49 killed 154 wounded // Although having nothing to do with the British or Canadians, the battle... Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate American Indian (or Native American) tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ...


Removal era wars

One of the results of these wars was passage of the Indian Removal Act in 1830, which President Andrew Jackson signed into law. The Removal Act did not order the removal of any American Indians, but it authorized the President to negotiate treaties that would exchange tribal land in the east for western lands that had been acquired in the Louisiana Purchase. According to historian Robert V. Remini, Jackson promoted this policy primarily for reasons of national security, seeing that Great Britain and Spain had recruited and armed Native Americans within U.S. borders in wars with the United States.[5] The Indian Removal Act, part of a U.S. government policy known as Indian Removal, was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... The Louisiana Purchase (French: Vente de la Louisiane) was the acquisition by the United States of America of 828,000 square miles (2,140,000 km²) of French territory (Louisiana) in 1803. ... Robert V. Remini (b. ...


Numerous Indian Removal treaties were signed. Most American Indians reluctantly but peacefully complied with the terms of the removal treaties, often with bitter resignation. Some groups, however, went to war to resist the implementation of these treaties. This resulted in two short wars (the Black Hawk War of 1832 and the Creek War of 1836), as well as the long and costly Second Seminole War (1835–1842). For other uses, see Black Hawk War (disambiguation). ... The Creek War of 1836 Although the Creek people had been forced from Georgia, with many Lower Creeks moving to the Indian Territory, there were still about 20,000 Upper Creeks living in Alabama. ... Osceola, Seminole leader. ...


West of the Mississippi (1823–1890)

A painting of the attack on New Ulm.
A painting of the attack on New Ulm.
Indian Wars
West of the Mississippi

As in the East, expansion into the plains and mountains by miners, ranchers and settlers led to increasing conflicts with the indigenous population of the West. Many tribes — from the Utes of the Great Basin to the Nez Perces of Idaho — fought the whites at one time or another. But the Sioux of the Northern Plains and the Apache of the Southwest provided the most significant opposition to encroachment on tribal lands. Led by resolute, militant leaders, such as Red Cloud and Crazy Horse, the Sioux were skilled at high-speed mounted warfare. The Sioux were new arrivals on the Plains—previously they had been sedentary farmers in the Great Lakes region. Once they learned to capture and ride horses, they moved west, destroyed other Indian tribes in their way, and became feared warriors. Historically the Apache bands supplemented their economy by raiding others and practiced warfare to avenge a death of a kinsman. The Apache bands were equally adept at fighting and highly elusive in the environs of desert and canyons. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Parking meter checker stands by his police vehicle which is imprinted with the German word for police (Polizei). ... The Texas-Indian Wars were a series of armed conflicts between Anglo-Texas settlers and Plains Indians, first under the government of Mexico, then the Republic of Texas and finally the United States. ... The Great Raid of 1840 came after Texas settlers ambushed and killed 13 Comanche chiefs who had come in to negotiate a peace treaty, plus another 2 dozen of their family and followers. ... Capt. ... Combatants Texan Rangers Militia Comanche Noconi Band Commanders Sul Ross Peta Nocona reported killed by Sul Ross, but this is strongly denied by his son Quanah Parker Strength 60 men Unknown, but the best guesses are 20 in the band, including 16 women and 2 children Casualties 3 reported. ... A Kiowa ledger drawing possibly depicting the Buffalo Wallow battle in 1874, one of several clashes between Southern Plains Indians and the U.S. Army during the Red River War. ... The Puget Sound War was an armed conflict that took place in the Puget Sound area of the state of Washington in 1855–56, between the U. S. Army, local militias and members of the Native American tribes of the Nisqually, Muckleshoot, Puyallup, and Klikitat. ... Chief Taoyateduta, known as Chief Little Crow Settlers escaping the violence. ... The Colorado War (1863–1865) was an armed conflict between the United States and a loose alliance among the Kiowa, Comanche, Arapaho, and Cheyenne tribes of Native Americans (the last two were particularly closely allied). ... The Powder River Country, northeast of the Bighorn Mountains and south of the Yellowstone River, is shown in red in the western United States Red Clouds war (also referred to as the Bozeman War) was an armed conflict between the Sioux and the United States in the Wyoming Territory... The Comanche Campaign (1867–1875) was a series of conflicts which took place throughout the border regions of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, and Texas, between the Arapaho, Comanche, Kiowa, and Northern Cheyenne tribes of Native Americans and the United States Army and settlers. ... The Black Hills War was a United States civil war between the Lakota Native American tribe and the United States government from 1876 until 1877. ... The Nez Perce Wars were a series of wars between the Nez Perce and the United States government. ... The Pine Ridge Campaign (November, 1890–January, 1891) was the result of a number of unresolved grievances which led to the last major conflict with the Sioux. ... Red shows states east of the Mississippi River, pink shows states not fully eastern or western The U.S. Eastern states are the states east of the Mississippi River. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The Utes (; yoots) are an ethnically related group of American Indians now living primarily in Utah and Colorado. ... Drainage map showing the Great Basin in orange Various Definitions of the Great Basin (NPS) Wheeler Peak in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. ... The Nez Perce (IPA: ) are a tribe of Native Americans who live in the Pacific Northwest region (Columbia River Plateau) of the United States. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... The Sioux (pronounced ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Native American tribe, for other uses of the word see Apache (disambiguation). ... The Southwest could be defined as the states west, or for the most part west, of the mississippi river, with the qualification of a certain northern limit, such as the 37, or 38, or 39, or 40 degree north line. ... Red Cloud Red Cloud Standing:Red Bear, Young Man Afraid of his Horse, Good Voice, Ring Thunder, Iron Crow, White Tail, Young Spotted Tail. ... For other uses, see Crazy Horse (disambiguation). ... The Great Lakes states of the U.S. are colored red in this map. ...


Texas

Main article: Texas-Indian Wars

In the 1750s Plains Indians arrived in Texas and confrontations with the recently-arrived Europeans began. Large numbers of Anglo-American settlers reached Texas in the 1830s and from that point until the 1870s there was a series of armed confrontations mostly between Texans and Comanches. The Texas-Indian Wars were a series of armed conflicts between Anglo-Texas settlers and Plains Indians, first under the government of Mexico, then the Republic of Texas and finally the United States. ... Original range of the Plains Indians The Plains Indians are the Indians who lived on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Comanche (disambiguation). ...


The first notable battle was the Fort Parker massacre in 1836, in which a huge war party of Comanches, Kiowa, Witchitas, and Delaware attacked the settler outpost Fort Parker. Despite the small number of white settlers killed during the raid, the abduction of Cynthia Ann Parker caused widespread outrage among Texas' Anglo settlers. The Fort Parker massacre was an event in 1836 in which members of the pioneer Parker family were killed in a raid by Native Americans. ... Cynthia Ann Parker and her daughter in 1861 Cynthia Ann Parker, or Naduah (also sometimes spelled Nadua and Nauta), was an Anglo-Texas woman of Scots-Irish descent who suffered being kidnapped twice in her lifetime - once from her natural family at the age of nine by a Native American...


Once the Republic of Texas was declared and had secured some sovereignty in their war with Mexico, the Texas government under President Sam Houston pursued a policy of engagement with the Comanches and Kiowa. Ironically, since Houston had lived with the Cherokee, the Republic faced a conflict called the Cordova Rebellion, in which Cherokees appear to have joined with Mexican forces to fight the fledgling country. Houston resolved the conflict without resorting to arms, refusing to believe that the Cherokee would take up arms against his government.[6] The Lamar administration, which followed Houston, took a very different policy towards the Indians. Under Lamar, Texas attempted to remove the Cherokee to the west and in this, the Texans were successful. With that policy in place, the Texas government sought to deport the Comanches and Kiowa. This led to a series of battles, including the Council House Fight, in which at a peace parley the Texas militia seized a number of Comanche chiefs and the resulting Great Raid of 1840 and the Battle of Plum Creek. For the latter day independence movement surrounding Texas, see Republic of Texas (group). ... For other persons named Sam Houston, see Sam Houston (disambiguation). ... This article is about the tribe. ... This page contains special characters. ... Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar (August 16, 1798 – December 19, 1859) was the third president of the Republic of Texas, following David G. Burnet (1836 as interim president) and Sam Houston. ... The Council House Fight was an ambush of Comanche leaders by Republic of Texas officials. ... The Great Raid of 1840 came after Texas settlers ambushed and killed 13 Comanche chiefs who had come in to negotiate a peace treaty, plus another 2 dozen of their family and followers. ... Combatants Texan Rangers Militia Comanche all bands Commanders Matthew Caldwell Edward Burleson Buffalo Hump but effective control of the war party had broken down Strength approximately 200 Unknown, but the best guesses are 1000 in the war party, including women and children Casualties at least 30 killed at Victoria and...

Quanah Parker, son of a Comanche Chief and an Anglo-Texas settler. His family's story comprises the history of the Texas-Indian Wars.

The Lamar Administration was known for its failed and expensive Indian policy; the cost of the war with the Indians exceeded the annual revenue of the government throughout his four year term. It was followed by a second Houston administration which resumed the previous policy of diplomacy. Texas signed treaties with all of the tribes, including the Comanche. Image File history File links Chief_Quanah_Parker_of_the_Kwahadi_Comanche2. ... Image File history File links Chief_Quanah_Parker_of_the_Kwahadi_Comanche2. ...


After Texas joined the Union in 1846, the struggle between the Plains Indians and the settlers was taken up by the federal government and the state of Texas. The years 1856-1858 were particularly vicious and bloody on the Texas frontier as settlers continued to expand their settlements into the Comanche homeland, the Comancheria, and 1858 was marked by the first Texan incursion into the heart of the Comancheria, the so-called Antelope Hills Expedition, marked by the Battle of Little Robe Creek. This battle signaled the beginning of the end of the Comanche as a viable people, as they were attacked in the heart of their domain, in force. The Comancheria is the name commonly given to the historical homeland of the Comanche indian tribe. ... Capt. ... Combatants Texas Rangers, Militia, Tonkawa Indians Comanche (all bands) Commanders John Salmon Rip Ford, Placido Iron Jacket, Peta Nocona Strength Approximately 220; 100 Rangers and 120 Native Americans, 111 of them Tonkawa Between 200-600 depending on source, varying as a few as 12 warriors in the original dawn clash...


The battles between settlers and Indians continued and in 1860, at the Battle of Pease River, Texas militia destroyed an Indian camp. In the aftermath of the battle, the Texans learned that they had recaptured Cynthia Ann Parker, the little girl captured by the Comanche in 1836. She returned to live with the Parkers, but missed her children, including her son Quanah Parker. He was the son of Parker and Comanche Chief Peta Nocona and would go on to be a Comanche war chief at the First Battle of Adobe Walls. As chief of the Quahadi Comanches, he finally surrendered to the overwhelming force of the federal government and in 1875 moved to a reservation in southwestern Oklahoma. Combatants Texan Rangers Militia Comanche Noconi Band Commanders Sul Ross Peta Nocona reported killed by Sul Ross, but this is strongly denied by his son Quanah Parker Strength 60 men Unknown, but the best guesses are 20 in the band, including 16 women and 2 children Casualties 3 reported. ... Quanah Parker Quanah Parker (c. ... Peta Nocona (b. ... Combatants United States Kiowa Comanche Commanders Kit Carson Dohäsan Strength 321 soldiers 75 Indian scouts 5,000 Casualties 2 killed 10 wounded between 60 and 150 killed and wounded The First Battle of Adobe Walls was one of the largest battles between U.S. soldiers and Great Plains Indians... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ...


Plains

White conflict with the Plains Indians continued through the Civil War. The Dakota War of 1862 (more commonly called the Sioux Uprising of 1862 in older authorities and popular texts) was the first major armed engagement between the U.S. and the Sioux. After six weeks of fighting in Minnesota, lead mostly by Chief Taoyateduta (aka, Little Crow), records conclusively show that more than 500 U.S. soldiers and settlers died in the conflict, though many more may have died in small raids or after being captured. The number of Sioux dead in the uprising is mostly undocumented, but after the war, 303 Sioux were convicted of murder and rape by U.S. military tribunals and sentenced to death. Most of the death sentences were commuted, but on December 26, 1862, in Mankato, Minnesota, 38 Dakota Sioux men were hanged in what is still today the largest mass execution in U.S. history.[7] Combatants United States of America Cheyenne, Arapaho Commanders John M. Chivington Black Kettle Strength 800 soldiers 500, mostly elderly, women and children Casualties 15 killed, 50 wounded 150-184 killed The Sand Creek massacre (also known as the Chivington massacre or the Battle of Sand Creek) was an incident in... The Sioux Wars were a series of conflicts between the United States and various subgroups of the Sioux people that occurred in the latter half of the 19th century. ... The Black Hills War was a United States civil war between the Lakota Native American tribe and the United States government from 1876 until 1877. ... The Battle of the Little Bighorn, also called Custers Last Stand, was an engagement between a Lakota-Cheyenne combined force and the 7th Cavalry of the United States Army that took place on June 25, 1876 near the Little Bighorn River in the eastern Montana Territory. ... Belligerents Sioux United States Commanders Big Foot† James W. Forsyth Strength 120 men 230 women and children 500 men Casualties and losses 178 killed 89 wounded 150 missing 25 killed 39 wounded For other uses, see Wounded Knee (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Tatanka_Lyotake. ... Image File history File links Tatanka_Lyotake. ... For the western film, see Sitting Bull (film). ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Chief Taoyateduta, known as Chief Little Crow Settlers escaping the violence. ... The Sioux (pronounced ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... Taoyateduta, known as Little Crow Taoyateduta (1810?–July 3, 1863) was a chief of the Mdewakanton Sioux tribe. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... “Mankato” redirects here. ... This article is about death by hanging. ...


In 1864, one of the more infamous Indian War battles took place, the Sand Creek Massacre. A locally raised militia attacked a village of Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians in southeast Colorado and killed and mutilated an estimated 150 men, women, and children. The Indians at Sand Creek had been assured by the U.S. Government that they would be safe in the territory they were occupying, but anti-Indian sentiments by white settlers were running high. Later congressional investigations resulted in short-lived U.S. public outcry against the slaughter of the Native Americans. Combatants United States of America Cheyenne, Arapaho Commanders John M. Chivington Black Kettle Strength 800 soldiers 500, mostly elderly, women and children Casualties 15 killed, 50 wounded 150-184 killed The Sand Creek massacre (also known as the Chivington massacre or the Battle of Sand Creek) was an incident in... For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ... Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ...

George Armstrong Custer, the United States Army cavalry commander at the Battle of the Little Bighorn.
George Armstrong Custer, the United States Army cavalry commander at the Battle of the Little Bighorn.

In 1875, the last serious Sioux war erupted, when the Dakota gold rush penetrated the Black Hills. The U.S. Army did not keep miners off Sioux (Lakota) hunting grounds; yet, when ordered to take action against bands of Sioux hunting on the range, according to their treaty rights, the Army moved vigorously. In 1876, after several indecisive encounters, General George Custer found the main encampment of the Lakota and their allies at the Battle of Little Big Horn. Custer and his men — who were separated from their main body of troops — were all killed by the far more numerous Indians who had the tactical advantage. They were led in the field by Crazy Horse and inspired by Sitting Bull's earlier vision of victory. Download high resolution version (755x930, 129 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (755x930, 129 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Sioux Wars were a series of conflicts between the United States and various subgroups of the Sioux people that occurred in the latter half of the 19th century. ... This article is about the place in South Dakota. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... George Armstrong Custer George Armstrong Custer (December 5, 1839 - June 25, 1876) was an American cavalry commander in the Civil War and the Indian Wars who is best remembered for his defeat and death at the Battle of the Little Bighorn against a coalition of Native American tribes, led by... The Battle of the Little Bighorn, also called Custers Last Stand, was an engagement between a Lakota-Cheyenne combined force and the 7th Cavalry of the United States Army that took place on June 25, 1876 near the Little Bighorn River in the eastern Montana Territory. ... For other uses, see Crazy Horse (disambiguation). ... For the western film, see Sitting Bull (film). ...


Later, in 1890, a Ghost Dance ritual on the Northern Lakota reservation at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, led to the Army's attempt to subdue the Lakota. During this attempt, gunfire erupted, and soldiers killed up to 300 Indians, mostly old, women and children. The approximately 25 soldiers who died may have been killed by friendly fire during the battle. Long before this, the means of subsistence and the societies of the indigenous population of the Great Plains had been destroyed by the slaughter of the buffalo, driven almost to extinction in the 1880s by indiscriminate hunting. For other uses, see Ghost Dance (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Demonym South Dakotan Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th in the US  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ...


Southwest

The conflicts in this large geographical area span from 1846 to 1895. They involved every non-pueblo tribe in this region and often were a continuation of Mexican-Spanish conflicts. The Navajo and Apache conflicts are perhaps the best known, but they were not the only ones. The last major campaign of the U.S. military in the Southwest involved 5,000 troops in the field. This caused the Apache Geronimo and his band of 24 warriors, women and children to surrender in 1886. The Navajo Wars were fought during the nineteenth century between the U.S. military and many western tribes. ... Geronimo, before surrender to General Crook, 17 Apr 1886 The Apache Wars were fought during the nineteenth century between the U.S. military and many western tribes. ... For other uses, see Geronimo (disambiguation). ...


The tribes or bands in the southwest (including the Pueblos) had been engaged in cycles of trading and fighting each other and foreign settlers for centuries prior to the United States annexing their region from Mexico in 1840.


Wars of the West timeline

Great Plains

For other uses, see Comanche (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Chief Taoyateduta, known as Chief Little Crow Settlers escaping the violence. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... The Powder River Country, northeast of the Bighorn Mountains and south of the Yellowstone River, is shown in red in the western United States Red Clouds war (also referred to as the Bozeman War) was an armed conflict between the Sioux and the United States in the Wyoming Territory... Red Cloud Red Cloud Standing:Red Bear, Young Man Afraid of his Horse, Good Voice, Ring Thunder, Iron Crow, White Tail, Young Spotted Tail. ... Treaty signing by William T. Sherman and the Sioux at Fort Laramie, Wyoming. ... This article is about the place in South Dakota. ... The Colorado War (1863–1865) was an armed conflict between the United States and a loose alliance among the Kiowa, Comanche, Arapaho, and Cheyenne tribes of Native Americans (the last two were particularly closely allied). ... The Eastern Plains of Colorado refers to region of the U.S state of Colorado on the east side of the Rocky Mountains, and east of the population centers of the Front Range. ... For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ... Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ... Combatants United States of America Cheyenne, Arapaho Commanders John M. Chivington Black Kettle Strength 800 soldiers 500, mostly elderly, women and children Casualties 15 killed, 50 wounded 150-184 killed The Sand Creek massacre (also known as the Chivington massacre or the Battle of Sand Creek) was an incident in... John Milton Chivington (January 27, 1821 – October 4, 1892) was a 19th century United States Army officer noted for his role in the New Mexico Campaign of the American Civil War and in the Colorado War. ... The Comanche Campaign (1867–1875) was a series of conflicts which took place throughout the border regions of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, and Texas, between the Arapaho, Comanche, Kiowa, and Northern Cheyenne tribes of Native Americans and the United States Army and settlers. ... Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Department of the Missouri was a division of the United States Army that functioned through the American Civil War and the Indian Wars afterwards. ... The 5th Military District was a temporary administrative unit set up during the Reconstruction period following the American Civil War. ... The United States 4th Cavalry Regiment was a United States Army cavalry regiment, whose lineage is traced back to the mid-19th century. ... The 6th Cavalry is a historical organization within the United States Army that began as a regiment of cavalry in the American Civil War; vestiges of this historic unit remain in the modern army. ... 9th Cavalry Regiment distinctive unit insignia The 9th Cavalry Regiment is a unit of the United States Army, 1st Cavalry Division, which in turn is a component of the Third Corps. ... Combatants United States of America Arapaho Northern Cheyenne Brulé and Oglala Sioux Commanders Major George A. Forsyth War Chief Roman Nose Strength 51 600–750 (estimated) Casualties 5 killed, 17 wounded 75 killed, many wounded The Battle of Beecher Island (September 17–September 19, 1868), also known as the Battle... The 9th Cavalry Regiment is a unit of the United States Army, 1st Cavalry Division, which in turn is a component of the Third Corps. ... Combatants United States Cheyenne Commanders George A. Custer Black Kettle†, Little Rock † Strength 7th Cavalry Regiment ~250 warriors and civilians (150 warriors, 100 civilians) [2]. The children were moved by Black Kettle in an other village downstream prior to the battle. ... Custer redirects here. ... The 7th United States Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry unit, whose lineage traces back to the late 19th century. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Washita River forms in eastern Roberts County, Texas (35°38 N, 100°36 W) near the town of Miami, Texas in the Texas Panhandle. ... Cheyenne is a town located in Roger Mills County, Oklahoma, United States. ... Combatants United States of America Arapaho, Southern Cheyenne Dog Soldiers and Lakota Sioux Commanders Colonel Eugene Carr Chief Tall Bull Strength 244 U.S troops plus 50 Pawnee scouts 450 (estimated) Casualties 1 wounded 52 killed, 17 captured The Battle of Summit Springs (July 11, 1869) was an armed conflict... Buffalo Bill (February 26, 1846 – January 10, 1917) was born William Frederick Cody in the American state of Iowa. ... The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon was a significant U.S. victory that brought about the end of the Red River War. ... Image:4th Cav Crest. ... Ranald Slidell Mackenzie (July 27, 1840 – January 19, 1889) was called the most promising young officer in the entire Union army. ... A Kiowa ledger drawing possibly depicting the Buffalo Wallow battle in 1874, one of several clashes between Southern Plains Indians and the U.S. Army during the Red River War. ... Portrait of William Tecumseh Sherman by Mathew Brady William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, and author. ... Philip Sheridan Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888), a military man and one of the great generals in the American Civil War. ... The Black Hills War was a United States civil war between the Lakota Native American tribe and the United States government from 1876 until 1877. ... For the western film, see Sitting Bull (film). ... For other uses, see Crazy Horse (disambiguation). ... Treaty signing by William T. Sherman and the Sioux at Fort Laramie, Wyoming. ... Combatants Lakota Cheyenne United States Army Shoshone Crow Commanders Crazy Horse Little Wolf Col. ... Little Coyote Little Wolf is a fairly common name among American Indians. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... For other uses, see Crow (disambiguation). ... Combatants Lakota Cheyenne United States Army Shoshone Crow Commanders Crazy Horse George Crook Strength 1,500 1,300 Casualties 36 dead 63 wounded 10-28 dead 21-56 wounded The Battle of the Rosebud (also known the Battle of the Rosebud Creek) occurred June 17, 1876, in the Montana Territory... Combatants Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, Arapaho United States Commanders Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse George A. Custer â€ , Marcus Reno, Frederick Benteen, James Calhoun â€  Strength 949 lodges (probably 950-1,200 warriors) 31 officers, 566 troopers, 15 armed civilians, ~35-40 scouts Casualties At least 54 killed, ~168 wounded (according to Sitting Bull... The Sioux (pronounced ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ... Custer redirects here. ... The Cheyenne War, also known as the Cheyenne Campaign, normally refers to a conflict between the United States armed forces and a small group of Cheyenne families, which took place between 1878–1879. ... For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ... The Pine Ridge Campaign (November, 1890–January, 1891) was the result of a number of unresolved grievances which led to the last major conflict with the Sioux. ... Belligerents Sioux United States Commanders Big Foot† James W. Forsyth Strength 120 men 230 women and children 500 men Casualties and losses 178 killed 89 wounded 150 missing 25 killed 39 wounded For other uses, see Wounded Knee (disambiguation). ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Big Foot (Si Tanka) The corpse of Big Foot at Wounded Knee (1890) Big Foot (Si Thanka) (1824? - December 29, 1890), also known as Spotted Elk, was the name of a chief of a sub-group of the Lakota Sioux. ... 7th Cavalry Regiment Distinctive Unit Insignia The 7th United States Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry regiment, whose lineage traces back to the mid-19th century. ... Crow Foot was the son of Sitting Bull of the Sioux Indian Tribe. ... Flag of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe The Standing Rock Indian Reservation is a Lakota Indian reservation in North Dakota and South Dakota in the United States. ...

Southwest

The Navajo Wars were fought during the nineteenth century between the U.S. military and many western tribes. ... The Long Walk The Long Walk of the Navajo, also called the Long Walk to Bosque Redondo, was a 20 day or more foot walk many Navajos made in 1864 to a reservation in southeastern New Mexico. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The New Mexico Territory became an organized territory of the United States on September 9, 1850, and it existed until New Mexico became the 47th state on January 6, 1912. ... The Hualapai are a tribe of Native Americans who live in the mountains of Arizona. ... Geronimo, before surrender to General Crook, 17 Apr 1886 The Apache Wars were fought during the nineteenth century between the U.S. military and many western tribes. ... For other uses, see Geronimo (disambiguation). ...

Pacific Northwest-Great Basin

For the region in Southeast Asia see: Tonkin The Tonquin was an American merchant ship involved with the fur trade of the early 19th Century. ... Clayoquot Sound (usually pronounced clay-kwot or clack-kwot) is located on Vancouver Island in the Canadian province of British Columbia. ... The Cayuse War was an armed conflict that took place in the northwestern United States between 1848 and 1855 between the Cayuse people of the region and the United States Government and local white settlers. ... Seal of the Oregon Territory. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Washington history | U.S. historical regions and territories ... The Rogue River Wars was an armed conflict between the US Army, local militias and volunteers, and the Native American tribes commonly grouped under the designation of Rogue River Indians, in the Rogue River Valley area of what today is southern Oregon in 1855–56. ... The mid-nineteenth century found the Yakama Indians living along the Columbia and Yakima Rivers on the plateau in central Washington Territory, on land in the path of white settlement. ... The Spokane-Coeur dAlene-Paloos War (also known as the Coeur dAlene War, and the second phase of the Yakima War) was a series of encounters between the Coeur d’Alenes, Spokanes, Palouses and Northern Paiute tribes and US forces in the Washington and Idaho areas during 1858. ... The Nez Perce Wars were a series of wars between the Nez Perce and the United States government. ... The Nez Perce (IPA: ) are a tribe of Native Americans who live in the Pacific Northwest region (Columbia River Plateau) of the United States. ... Chief Joseph (March 3, 1840–September 21, 1904) was the chief of the Wal-lam-wat-kain (Wallowa) band of Nez Perce Indians during General Oliver O. Howards attempt to forcibly remove his band and the other non-treaty Indians to a reservation in Idaho. ... The United States 1st Cavalry Regiment is a unit in the U.S. Army that can trace its lineage to the early 19th Century when it had its genesis as the United States Regiment of Dragoons. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... Yellowstone National Park is a U.S. National Park located in the states of Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Bannock War was a 1878 United States civil war primarily between the Bannock people and the Northern Shoshone, tribes of Native Americans, and the United States government. ... The United States 1st Cavalry Regiment is a unit in the U.S. Army that can trace its lineage to the early 19th Century when it had its genesis as the United States Regiment of Dragoons. ... Bannock has more than one meaning: Bannock is a kind of bread, usually prepared by pan-frying. ... “Piute” redirects here. ... Combatants United States of America Turakina The Sheepeater Indian War of 1879 was the last Indian war fought in the Pacific Northwest portion of the United States. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ... ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry has served in the defense of the United States for over two hundred years. ... The 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment is a regiment of the United States Army currently stationed at Fort Hood, near the city of Killeen, Texas. ... The 5th Cavalry Regiment is a regiment of the United States Army. ... The Utes (; yoots) are an ethnically related group of American Indians now living primarily in Utah and Colorado. ... The 5th Cavalry Regiment is a regiment of the United States Army. ... The 9th Cavalry Regiment is a unit of the United States Army, 1st Cavalry Division, which in turn is a component of the Third Corps. ... The Fraser Canyon War, also known as the Canyon War or the Fraser River War, took place in the fall of 1858 during the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush in the newly-declared Colony of British Columbia, which would later become a province of Canada. ... The Colony of British Columbia was a crown colony of British North America from 1858 until 1871. ... Wars of the indigenous peoples of North America include: King Philips War French and Iroquois Wars Tuscarora War (1711-1715) — War between Tuscarora and British colonists and British-allied tribes Yamasee War (1715-1717) — War between South Carolina and numerous Indian tribes Chickasaw Wars (1720-1760) — Unsuccessful campaign by...

California

  • California Indian Wars (1860–65) War against Hupa, Wiyot, Yurok, Tolowa, Nomlaki, Chimariko, Tsnungwe, Whilkut, Karuk, Wintun and others.
  • Modoc War, or Modoc Campaign (1872–1873) — 53 Modoc warriors under Captain Jack held off 1,000 men of the U.S. Army for 7 months. Major General Edward Canby was killed during a peace conference&mdash.

The Modoc War, or Modoc Campaign (also known as the Lava Beds War), was an armed conflict between the Native American Modoc tribe and the United States Army in southern Oregon and northern California from 1872–1873 . ... For other uses, see Modoc (disambiguation). ... Captain Jack in 1864 Kintpuash, better known as Captain Jack (circa 1837 - October 3, 1873), was a chief of the Native American Modoc tribe of California and Oregon, and was their leader during the Modoc War. ... Major General E.R.S Canby Edward Richard Sprigg Canby (November 9, 1817 – April 11, 1873) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War and Indian Wars. ...

Last battles (1898 and 1917)

Oscar Burkard
Oscar Burkard

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Leech Lake is a lake located in north central Minnesota, United States. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... For other uses, see Medal of Honor (disambiguation). ... The 3rd United States Infantry Regiment is a unit of the United States Army which serves as Escort to the President or Presidential Guard. ... The 10th Cavalry Regiment was a unit in the United States Army. ... The Yoeme or Yaqui are a border Native American people who live in the Sonoran Desert region, comprising part of the northern Mexican state of Sonora and the southwestern U.S. state of Arizona. ... Nogales is a city in Santa Cruz County, Arizona, United States. ...

U.S. forces

Scouts

Apache scouts (U.S. Army Indian Scouts) came from different Apache tribes or bands. ... The U.S. Army employed Navajos as Indian Scouts between 1873 and 1895, which included the Apache Wars. ... 19th-century engraving depicting a Black Seminole warrior of the First Seminole War (1817–8). ... Buffalo Soldiers was the name given by the Plains Indians to the United States Army regiments composed of African-American soldiers that served on the American frontier after the Civil War. ... The Indian Scouts of the United States Army were Native Americans recruited primarily to assist and fight in the Indian Wars of the Western United States. ...

Cavalry

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... {{Infobox Military Unit |unit_name=2nd Cavalry Regiment |image= |caption=2nd CR Coat Of Arms |dates=May 23, 1836-Present. ... Top Left: Branch Insignia of the 3d ACR Top Right: Shoulder Sleve Insignia of the 3d ACR Bottom Right: Distinctive Unit Insignia of the 3d ACR (nicknamed the BUG) The 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment is a regiment of the United States Army currently stationed at Fort Carson, southwest of Colorado... Image:4th Cav Crest. ... The 5th Cavalry Regiment is a regiment of the United States Army. ... The 6th Cavalry was organized in August, 1861, where it took to the fields as part of the Army of the Potomac. the regiment took part in sixteen campaigns, among them Antietam, Gettysburg, the Wilderness Campaign and Appomattox. ... 7th Cavalry Regiment Distinctive Unit Insignia The 7th United States Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry regiment, whose lineage traces back to the mid-19th century. ... The 8th Cavalry Regiment was organized as a regiment on 21 September 1866 at Angel Island, California. ... The 9th Cavalry Regiment is a unit of the United States Army, 1st Cavalry Division, which in turn is a component of the Third Corps. ... Buffalo Soldiers was the name given by the Plains Indians to the United States Army regiments composed of African-American soldiers that served on the American frontier after the Civil War. ... The 10th Cavalry Regiment was a unit in the United States Army. ... Buffalo Soldiers was the name given by the Plains Indians to the United States Army regiments composed of African-American soldiers that served on the American frontier after the Civil War. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Infantry

See also 1st Battalion, 1st Infantry Regiments mission is to support the United States Military Academy and to furnish the enlisted garrison for West Point and Stewart Army Subpost. ... The 3rd United States Infantry Regiment is an infantry regiment of the United States Army which serves as Escort to the President or Presidential Guard. ... The 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry has served in the defense of the United States for over two hundred years. ... The Sixth United States Infantry Regiment (“The Regulars”) has a long and proud history, dating back to 1812. ... The United States army dispatched the 9th Infantry Regiment (the archaic designation of a Battalion size element) to assist the Chinese government during the Boxer Rebellion and China Relief expedition. ... // Constituted 3 March 1855 in the Regular Army as the 10th Infantry Organized in April 1855 at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania Consolidated June-July 1869 with the 26th Infantry (see ANNEX) and consolidated unit designated as the 10th Infantry Assigned July 5, 1918 to the 14th Division Relieved in February 1919... The 12th Infantry Regiment is a regiment of the United States Army. ... The 14th Infantry Regiment is a U.S. Army light infantry regiment, known as the Golden Dragons. ... The 15th Infantry Regiment is currently a parent regiment in the United States Army. ... The 1st Battalion, 18th Infantry, is a mechanized infantry battalion assigned to the 1st Infantry Division. ... The 22nd Infantry Regiment is a parent regiment of the United States Army. ... The 23rd Infantry Regiment served in the Korean War. ... The 1st Battalion, 24th Infantry has served as part of the 1st Brigade, 25th Infantry (Lighting) Division since 24 August 1995 at Fort Lewis, Washington. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

The Mississippi Rifles was a regiment headed by Jefferson Davis for the Mexican-American War. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... Combatants Creek Indians (Red Sticks) American Settlers Commanders Peter McQueen William Weatherford Daniel Beasley Captain Bailey Strength 800 Red Stick Creek 175 militia 375 non combatants Casualties 200 killed 400 to 500 killed The Fort Mims massacre occurred on 30 August 1813, when a force of Creeks, belonging to the...

Artillery

  • Company F, U.S. 4th Artillery Regiment

Historiography

In American history books, the Indian Wars have often been treated as a relatively minor part of the military history of the United States. Only in last few decades of the 20th century did a significant number of historians begin to include the American Indian point of view in their writings about the wars, emphasizing the impact of the wars on native peoples and their cultures.


A well-known and influential book in popular history was Dee Brown's Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (1970). In academic history, Francis Jennings's The Invasion of America: Indians, Colonialism, and the Cant of Conquest (New York: Norton, 1975) was notable for its reversal of the traditional portrayal of Indian-European relations. A recent and important release from the perspective of both Indians and the soldiers is Jerome A. Greene's Indian War Veterans: Memories of Army Life and Campaigns in the West, 1864–1898 (New York, 2007). Dee Brown (February 29, 1908---December 12, 2002) was an American novelist and historian. ... Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (1970). ... An academic history can mean a large, multivolume work such as the Cambridge Modern History, written collaboratively under some central editorial control. ...


Some historians now emphasize that to see the Indian wars as a racial war between Indians and White Americans simplifies the complex historical reality of the struggle. Indians and whites often fought alongside each other; Indians often fought against Indians. For example, although the Battle of Horseshoe Bend is often described as an "American victory" over the Creek Indians, the victors were a combined force of Cherokees, Creeks, and Tennessee militia led by Andrew Jackson. From a broad perspective, the Indian wars were about the conquest of Native American peoples by the United States; up close it was rarely quite as simple as that. The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... Combatants Creek Indians Red Sticks United States Cherokee Creek allies Commanders Menawa Andrew Jackson Strength 1,000 Red Stick Creek about 2,000 infantry 700 mounted infantry 600 Cherokee and Lower Creeks Casualties 800 49 killed 154 wounded // Although having nothing to do with the British or Canadians, the battle... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ...


In his book American Holocaust, David Stannard argues that the destruction of the aboriginal peoples of the Americas, in a "string of genocide campaigns" by Europeans and their descendants, was the most massive act of genocide in the history of the world.[11][12]. The genocide debate is ongoing, and about as many scholars agree with it[13][14] as don't.[15] David Edward Stannard is a writer and professor of American stidies at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. ... Natives of North America. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Native American wars

The list includes notable events about the military history of the United States. ... The Indian Campaign Medal is a decoration of the United States Army which was first created in 1905. ... Frederick Russell Burnham, DSO (May 11, 1861 – September 1, 1947), was an American scout and world traveling adventurer known for his service to the British Army in colonial Africa and for teaching woodcraft to Robert Baden-Powell, thus becoming one of the inspirations for the founding of the international Scouting... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Michno, “Encyclopedia of Indian Wars” Index.
  2. ^ Thornton, American Indian Holocaust, 48–49.
  3. ^ The Wild Frontier: Atrocities During the American-Indian War
  4. ^ Raphael, People's History, 244.
  5. ^ Remini, Jackson and his Indian Wars, 113.
  6. ^ Krenek, Thomas H.. Sam Houston. Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved on 2007-11-11.
  7. ^ Carley, Kenneth (1961). The Sioux Uprising of 1862. Minnesota Historical Society, p. 65. “Most of the thirty-nine were baptized, including Tatemima (or Round Wind), who was reprieved at the last minute.” 
  8. ^ "Named Campaigns — Indian Wars."
  9. ^ Santala. US Army.
  10. ^ 10th Cavalry Squadron History. US Army.
  11. ^ Staff. A review of American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World (by David Stannard), on the website of the Oxford University Press (the publishers)
  12. ^ David Stannard (1992). American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508557-4. "During the course of four centuries — from the 1490s to the 1890s — Europeans and white Americans engaged in an unbroken string of genocide campaigns against the native peoples of the Americas." (p.147). "[It] was, far and away, the most massive act of genocide in the history of the world."(Prologue)
  13. ^ Sharon Johnston, The Genocide of Native Americans: A Sociological View, 1996.
  14. ^ Lyman Legters, The American Genocide, Policy Studies Journal, vol. 16, no. 4, summer 1988
  15. ^ Stafford Poole, quoted in Royal, Robert 1492 and All That: Political Manipulations of History. Washington, D.C.: Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1992. p. 63.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Minnesota Historical Society is a Minnesota instutution dedicated to preserving the history of the state. ... David Edward Stannard is a writer and professor of American stidies at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. ... David Edward Stannard is a writer and professor of American stidies at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. ...

References

  • Named Campaigns — Indian Wars. United States Army Center for Military History. Retrieved on December 13, 2005.
  • Parker, Aaron. The Sheepeater Indian Campaign (Chamberlin Basin Country). Idaho Country Free Press, c1968.
  • Raphael, Ray. A People's History of the American Revolution: How Common People Shaped the Fight for Independence. New York: The New Press, 2001. ISBN 0-06-000440-1.
  • Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson and his Indian Wars. New York: Viking, 2001. ISBN 0-670-91025-2.
  • Richter, Daniel K. Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early America. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-674-00638-0.
  • Thornton, Russell. American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492. Oklahoma City: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987. ISBN 0-8061-2220-X.
  • Utley, Robert M., and Wilcomb E. Washburn. 'Indian Wars. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977, revised 1987. ISBN 0-8281-0202-3.
  • Yenne, Bill. Indian Wars: The Campaign for the American West. Yardley, PA: Westholme, 2005. ISBN 1-59416-016-3.

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert V. Remini (b. ...

Further reading

  • Jerome A. Greene, Indian War Veterans: Memories of Army Life and Campaigns in the West, 1864–1898 (Savas Beatie, New York, 2007).
  • Kip, Lawrence (1859). Army life on the Pacific : a journal of the expedition against the northern Indians, the tribes of the Cour d'Alenes, Spokans, and Pelouzes, in the summer of 1858. Redfield. Available online through the Washington State Library's Classics in Washington History collection
  • John D. McDermott, A Guide to the Indian Wars of the West (University of Nebraska Press, 1998) ISBN 0-8032-8246-X

External links

John Henry Brown (October 29, 1820–May 31, 1895) was an American historian, journalist, author, military hero, and a politician who served as a state legislator and as mayor of both Dallas and Galveston, Texas. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... 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Belligerents United States Philippine Constabulary Philippine Scouts First Philippine Republic several groups post-1902 Commanders William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt Emilio Aguinaldo Miguel Malvar several unofficial leaders post-1902 Strength 126,000 soldiers[1] First Philippine Republic: 80,000 soldiers Casualties and losses ~5,000-7,000[1][2] ~12,000... US Marines with the captured flag of Augusto César Sandino in Nicaragua in 1932 The Banana Wars is an unofficial term that refers to the United States military interventions into Central and South America. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... Combatants Panama United States Commanders Manuel Noriega Maxwell R. Thurman Strength 16,000+ 27,684+ Casualties 100-1,000 killed 24 Killed 325 Wounded 300-3,000 civilians killed Rangers from Charlie Company, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment prepare to take La Comandancia in the El Chorrillo neighborhood of Panama... This article is about military actions only. ... Shays Rebellion was an armed uprising in Western Massachusetts from 1786 to 1787. ... Washington leads his troops to western Pennsylvania (Metropolitan Museum of Art) The Whiskey Rebellion, less commonly known as the Whiskey Insurrection, was a popular uprising that had its beginnings in 1791 and culminated in an insurrection in 1794 in the locality of Washington, Pennsylvania, in the Monongahela Valley. ... Combatants United States Seminole Commanders Andrew Jackson Osceola The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three wars or conflicts in Florida between various groups of Indians collectively known as Seminoles and the United States. ... Map of the Toledo Strip, the disputed region. ... The Dorr Rebellion was a short-lived armed insurrection in Rhode Island in 1841 and 1842, led by Thomas Wilson Dorr who was agitating for changes to the states electoral system. ... The Mormon War is a name sometimes given to the 1838 conflict which occurred between Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and their neighbors in the northwestern region of the U.S. state of Missouri. ... The Honey Lands were a strip of territory disputed between the U.S. state of Missouri and the Iowa Territory. ... Bleeding Kansas, sometimes referred to in history as Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a series of violent events, involving Free-Staters (anti-slavery) and pro-slavery Border Ruffian elements, that took place in the Kansas Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri... Belligerents United States Utah Territory Commanders Pres. ... 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Combatants Local World War II Veterans, Citizens McMinn County Sheriffs Department Commanders Various GIs Sheriff Pat Mansfield, Paul Cantrell Strength * Dozens of men 3 M1 Garand rifles 5 M1911 pistols 24 M1917 Enfield rifles Other guns Dynamite * 100+ deputies One Thompson submachine gun Issued pistols Jail walls Casualties Some... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         Fort Caroline List of conflicts in the United States is a timeline of events that includes wars, battles, skirmishes, major terrorist attacks, massacres, and other related items that have occurred in the United Statess current geographical area, including overseas territories. ... This is a list of wars, conflicts, operations, and battles, in chronological order, that involve the United States during and after the American Revolutionary War. ... From 1776 to 2007, there have been hundreds of instances of the deployment of United States military forces abroad and domestically. ... For other uses, see American Empire (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
NAMED CAMPAIGNS - INDIAN WARS (4375 words)
In the late 1780's a confederacy of hostile Indians, chiefly Miamis, in the northern part of present-day Ohio and Indiana restricted settlement largely to the Ohio Valley.
Indian Bureau officials failed in attempts at negotiation, but General Canby and three civilian commissioners were able to arrange a parley with an equal number of Modoc representatives on 11 April.
The Indians were pursuaded to surrender without fighting and gave up all their arms and about 250 ponies, and marched with the troops to Fort Keogh.
French and Indian Wars. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (1165 words)
The first of the wars, King William’s War (1689–97), approximately corresponds to the European War of the Grand Alliance (1688–97).
War had thus broken out before fighting began in Europe in the Seven Years War.
In the West, the hold of Sir William Johnson over the Iroquois and the activities of border troops under his general command—most spectacular, perhaps, were the exploits of the rangers under Robert Rogers—reduced French holdings and influence.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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