FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Indian Space Research Organisation
Indian Space Research Organisation

Established
1969
Acronym
ISRO
Administrator
G. Madhavan Nair
Budget
815 million USD(2006)[1]
URL
http://www.isro.org/

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is India's national space agency. With its headquarters in Bangalore, the ISRO employs approximately 20,000 people, with a budget around 815 million USD at March 2006 exchange rate.[1] Its mandate is the development of technologies related to space and their application to India's development. The current Chairman of ISRO is G. Madhavan Nair. In addition to domestic payloads, it offers international launch services. ISRO currently launches satellites using the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. India Space Research Organization (ISRO) logo File links The following pages link to this file: Indian Space Research Organisation ... G Madhavan Nair is the Chairman of Indian Space Research Organisation and Secretary of Department of Space. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Space agency can refer to: NASA, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Canadian Space Agency China National Space Administration Korea Aerospace Research Institute European Space Agency Iranian Space Agency Italian Space Agency Indian Space Research Organisation Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Russian Aviation and Space Agency Soviet space program (historical) National... , Bangalore (Bengalūru) (Kannada: ; pronunciation: in Kannada and in English) is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... G Madhavan Nair is the Chairman of Indian Space Research Organisation and Secretary of Department of Space. ... The PSLV or Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle is an expendable launch system operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). ...

Contents

History of Indian space research

India's experience in rocketry began in ancient times when fireworks were first used in the country, a technology invented in neighbouring China, and which had an extensive two-way exchange of ideas and goods with India, connected by the Silk Road. Military use of rockets by Indians during the Mysore War against the British inspired William Congreve to invent the Congreve rocket, predecessor of modern artillery rockets, in 1804. After India gained independence from British occupation in 1947, Indian scientists and politicians recognized the potential of rocket technology in both defence applications, and for research and development. Recognizing that a country as demographically large as India would require its own independent space capabilities, and recognising the early potential of satellites in the fields of remote sensing and communication, these visionaries set about establishing a space research organisation. Dr. Vikram Sarabhai. ... Dr. Vikram Sarabhai. ... Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai (August 12, 1919 – December 31, 1971) was an Indian physicist. ... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ... The Anglo-Mysore Wars were a series of eighteenth-century wars fought in India between the Kingdom of Mysore (then a French ally) and the British East-India Company, represented chiefly by the Madras Presidency. ... William Congreve Sir William Congreve (May 20, 1772-May 16, 1828), was an English inventor and rocket pioneer. ... Congreve rocket from Congreves original work The Congreve Rocket was a British weapon designed by William Congreve in 1804. ...


1960-1970

Dr. Vikram Sarabhai was the founding father of the Indian space program, and is considered a scientific visionary by many, as well as a national hero. After the launch of Sputnik in 1957, he recognized the potential that satellites provided. India's first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, who saw scientific development as an essential part of India's future, placed space research under the jurisdiction of the Department of Atomic Energy in 1961. The DAE director Homi Bhabha, who was father of India's atomic programme, then established the Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) with Dr. Sarabhai as Chairman in 1962. Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai (August 12, 1919 – December 31, 1971) was an Indian physicist. ... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik program was a series of unmanned space missions launched by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s to demonstrate the viability of artificial satellites. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ... An Indian government department responsible for administration of Indias nuclear programme. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This page is about the physicist, Homi J. Bhabha. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Unlike every other major space programme with the exception of Japan and Europe, India's capabilities were not born out of an existing military ballistic missile programme, but instead out of the practical goal of eventually having satellite launch capabilities. From its establishment in 1962, the Indian space programme began establishing itself with the launch of sounding rockets, which was complimented by India's geographical proximity to the equator. These were launched from the newly-established Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS), built near Thiruvananthapuram in southern Kerala. Initially, American sounding rockets like the Nike-Apache, and French sounding rockets like the Centaure, were fired and used for studying the upper atmospheric electrojet, which until then had only been studied from ship-based sounding rocket launches in the Pacific Ocean. These were soon followed by British and Russian rockets. However, since day one, the space programme had grand ambitions of developing indigenous technology and India soon began developing its own sounding rockets, using solid propellants - these were called the Rohini family of sounding rockets. The Ariane Family The name Ariane refers to a series of a civilian European expendable launch vehicles for space launch use. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A sounding rocket, sometimes called an elevator research rocket, is an instrument-carrying suborbital rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its flight. ... Thumba is a small fishing village near Thiruvananthapuram, capital of Kerala, India. ... , Thiruvananthapuram   (Malayalam: തിരുവനന്തപുരം TiruvanÅ­ntapuraṁ), formerly known as Trivandrum, is the capital of the Indian state of Kerala and the headquarters of the Thiruvananthapuram District. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Centaure is the designation of a two-stage French sounding rocket consisting of a Belier starting stage and a Venus upper stage. ... Aurora borealis Polar aurorae are optical phenomena characterized by colorful displays of light in the night sky. ... Rohini may refer to any of the following - Rohini as in Rohini Nakshatram (see also Nakshatra), in Hindu mythology a daughter of Daksha and a consort of the moon-God Chandra; symbolised as the star Rohini. ...


Recognizing the need for indigenous technology, and the possibility of future instability in the supply of parts and technology, the Indian space programme endeavoured to indigenize every material supply route, mechanism and technology. As the Indian Rohini programme continued to launch sounding rockets of greater size and complexity, the space programme was expanded and eventually given its own government department, separate from the Department of Atomic Energy. In 1969 the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was created from the INCOSPAR programme under the DAE, continued under the Space Commission and finally the Department of Space, created in June of 1972. An Indian government department responsible for administration of Indias nuclear programme. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... An Indian government department responsible for administration of Indias space program. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


1970-1980

In the 1960s, Sarabhai had taken part in an early study with NASA regarding the feasibility of using satellites for applications as wide as direct television broadcasting, and this study had found that it was the most economical way of transmitting such broadcasts. Having recognized the benefits that satellites could bring to India from the very start, Sarabhai and the ISRO set about designing and creating an independent launch vehicle, capable of launching into orbit, and providing the valuable experience needed for the construction of larger launch vehicles in future. Recognizing the advanced capability India had in building solid motors with the Rohini series, and that other nations had favoured solid rockets for similar projects, the ISRO set about building the technology and infrastructure for the Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV). Inspired by the American Scout rocket, the vehicle would be a four-stage all-solid vehicle. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States federal government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Scout launch (NASA) The Scout-rocket was an American rocket for launching small satellites. ...


Meanwhile, India also began developing satellite technology, anticipating the remote sensing and communication needs of the future. India's first foray into space began with the launch of its satellite Aryabhata in 1975 by a Soviet booster. By 1979, the SLV was ready to be launched from a newly-established second launch site, the Shriharikota Rocket Launching Station (SRLS). The first launch in 1979 was a failure, attributed to a control failure in the second stage. By 1980 this problem had been worked out. The first indigenous satellite launched by India was called Rohini-1. Aryabhata was Indias first satellite, named after the great Indian astronomer of the same name. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Sriharikota (also Sriharikote) is a barrier island off the coast of Andhra Pradesh in India. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Rohini is the name given to a series of satellites launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation. ...


1980-1990

Following the success of the SLV, ISRO was keen to begin construction of a satellite launch vehicle that would be able to put truly useful satellites into polar orbits. Design of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) was soon underway. This vehicle would be designed as India's workhorse launch system, taking advantage of both old technology with large reliable solid-stages, and new liquid engines. At the same time, it was decided by the ISRO management that it would be prudent to develop a smaller rocket, based on the SLV, that would serve as a testbed for many of the new technologies that would be used on the PSLV. The Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV) would test technologies like strap-on boosters and new guidance systems, so that experience could be gained before the PSLV went into full production. This was in line with advice that Wernher von Braun had given when paying a visit to ISRO: "If you have to do anything in rocketry do it yourself, SLV-3 is a genuine Indian design and you may be having your own troubles. But you should always remember that we do not just build on success, we also build on failure". A satellite in a polar orbit passes above or nearly above both poles of the planet (or other celestial body) on each revolution. ... The PSLV or Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle is an expendable launch system operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV), was a 5-stage solid propellant rocket with the capability of placing a 150 kg satellite into LEO. This project was started by the Indian space research organisation(ISRO) during the early 1980s to develop technologies needed for a payload to be placed into a... Wernher von Braun stands at his desk in the Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama in May 1964, with models of rockets developed and in progress. ...


Rather than indigenously develop liquid engines for the PSLV, the ISRO managed to strike a deal which would cut a couple of years from the development of a new engine. In exchange for a modest sum of money, and some Indian help with minor aspects of the production of the engine, France agreed to transfer technology for the Viking liquid engine to India. The deal was probably motivated in part by goodwill, but also by the fact that the French were at the time receiving little interest from the European community in the development of the Ariane launcher, forcing them to look elsewhere for support. The Indian version of this engine would be called Vikas. The Ariane Family The name Ariane refers to a series of a civilian European expendable launch vehicles for space launch use. ...


Eventually, the ASLV was flight tested in 1987, but this launch was a failure. After minor corrections, another launch was attempted in 1988, this launch again failed, and this time a full investigation was launched into the cause, providing valuable experience, specifically because the ASLV's failure had been one of control - the vehicle could not be adequately controlled on removal of the stabilizing fins that were present on the SLV, so extra measures like improved manoeuvring thrusters and flight control system upgrades were added. The ASLV development had also proven useful in the development of strap-on motor technology. Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


1990-2000

It was not until 1992 that the first successful launch of the ASLV took place. At this point the launch vehicle, which could only put very small payloads into orbit, had achieved its objective. In 1993, the time had come for the maiden flight of the PSLV. The first launch was a failure. The first successful launch took place in 1994, and since then, the PSLV has become the workhorse launch vehicle - placing both remote sensing and communications satellites into orbit, creating the largest cluster in the world, and providing unique data to Indian industry and agriculture. Continual performance upgrades have increased the payload capacity of the rocket significantly since then. Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ...


By this time, with the launch of the PSLV not far away, it had been decided that work should begin on the next class of launch vehicles, intended to place larger satellites into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO), and thus a launcher partly derived from the PSLV design, but featuring large liquid strap-on motors and a cryogenic upper-stage motor, was devised - the Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle. Following the success of the Viking engine acquisition, ISRO had planned to acquire booster technology from the Russian space organization Glavkosmos. The United States, which had begun imposing restrictions on the Indian Space programme when India moved closer to the Soviet Union in the 1970s, opposed the technology transfer on non-proliferation grounds and imposed sanctions against ISRO in May, 1992. It is debatable as to whether this action by the US was relevant in terms of preventing proliferation, as cryogenic engines are never used in the construction of ballistic missiles, and India had plenty of technical capability to construct rockets anyway - some cite the incident as an example of rules being followed without reason. The GSLV or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle was developed by India (Indian Space Research Organization) to launch satellites into geostationary orbit. ... The Russian Federal Space Agency (Russian: Федеральное космическое агентство России, commonly known as Roskosmos), formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство, commonly known as Rosaviakosmos) or RKA, is the government agency responsible for Russias space science programme and general aerospace research. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


Under pressure, Glavkomos halted the transfer of the associated manufacturing and design technology to India. Until then, ISRO had not been affected by technology transfer restrictions thanks to the political foresight of Sarabhai in indigenizing technology. However, when elements of the ISRO management cancelled indigenous cryogenic projects in anticipation of the Russian deal. Instead of cancelling the deal, Russia agreed to provide fully built engines instead, and India began developing an indigenous cryogenic engine to replace them, in the GSLV-II. There is still some controversy over the issue of the cryogenic engine acquisition, with many pointing to the decision to cancel indigenous projects as being a grave mistake - India would have likely had a fully indigenous engine operating by the time the GSLV launched if indigenous development had started from day one. Despite this one uncharacteristic slip in an otherwise extremely successful programme, and the loss of potential payload capacity over the decade that occurred as a result, ISRO pressed on. The GSLV or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle was developed by India (Indian Space Research Organization) to launch satellites into geostationary orbit. ...


2000-2010

The GSLV at Sriharikota, just before lift off.

In 2001, the first development flight of the GSLV took place. Despite this, the GSLV has had to suffer payload cutbacks, and has been delayed, leading some to question its usefulness as a launch vehicle. The indigenous cryogenic engine for the GSLV's upper stage will be flown in 2007. It is currently the most powerful Indian launch vehicle in operation. Due to the questionable effectiveness of the GSLV for the needs of the current decade, ISRO began development of a new launch vehicle, the GSLV Mark III (gsLVM3), which despite its name, is not at all related to the GSLV-I/II, but is in fact a new heavy launch vehicle, that will incorporate larger versions of proven technology, and be indigenously built. Based around the proven format of liquid main stages and two solid strap-on boosters, the GSLV Mark III (GSLV-Mk.3) will resemble the Ariane-5 and several other modern launchers. The first flight is scheduled for 2008. Although India has expressed the opinion that it can fulfil space interests without the need for manned missions, the GSLV-M3 would provide more than enough payload capacity for manned spaceflight. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (816x1644, 70 KB)ISRO.org http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (816x1644, 70 KB)ISRO.org http://www. ... The GSLV or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle was developed by India (Indian Space Research Organization) to launch satellites into geostationary orbit. ... Sriharikota (also Sriharikote) is a barrier island off the coast of Andhra Pradesh in India. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The GSLV-III or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III is a launch vehicle currently under development by the Indian Space Research Organization to launch heavy satellites into geostationary orbit, and will allow India to be less dependent on foreign rockets for heavy lifting. ... The GSLV-III or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III is a launch vehicle currently under development by the Indian Space Research Organization to launch heavy satellites into geostationary orbit, and will allow India to be less dependent on foreign rockets for heavy lifting. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


India is developing a project to send an unmanned probe to the moon in 2008, as a first attempt at exploration of the solar system. This project, called Chandrayaan, will use a modified PSLV rocket to send a small probe into lunar orbit, from where it will survey the surface of the moon in greater detail than ever before, in an attempt to locate resources - other countries including the US have expressed interest in attaching their own payloads to the mission. Recently, during the visit of NASA chief Mike Griffin to India, ISRO and NASA entered into an agreement for carrying two NASA probes as a payload. Another more long-term project that has been underway, is the effort to develop a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) called AVATAR, similar to many other countries, but only for the launch of satellites. Theoretically such a vehicle, designed on the basis of scramjet technology, would be able to launch small satellites into orbit for a fraction of the cost of current launches, opening up many potential commercial avenues, and making certain satellite technologies feasible for the first time. A scaled-down technology demonstrator is scheduled to fly around 2008. Recently ISRO tested a scramjet air breathing engine which produced Mach 6 for seven seconds and it was successful. ISRO is continuing research related to using scramjets in RLVs after 2010. Chandrayaan I (Sanskrit चंद्रयान-1), which literally means Moon Craft, is an unmanned lunar mission by the Indian Space Research Organization. ... Avatar RLV concept Avatar is a Reusable launch vehicle proposed and designed by Indias premier defence research organisation Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO) along with Indian space research organisation (ISRO) and other research institutions, which can be used for cheaper military and civilian satellite launches. ... X-43A with scramjet attached to the underside at Mach 7 A scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) is a variation of a ramjet with the key difference being that the flow in the combustor is supersonic. ...


ISRO has also entered the lucrative market of launching payloads of other nations upon its rockets from Indian soil. The upcoming launches of a spy satellite of Israel Space Agency in mid 2007, and of the Israeli Tauvex-II satellite, scheduled for launch in mid-2007. The CARTOSAT-II, launched on the July 2006, carries a small Indonesian payload of 56 kg. Israeli Space Agency - ISA (Hebrew: סוכנות החלל הישראלית) is a governmental body, that coordinates all Israeli programs of Space Research with scientific and commercial purposes. ...


ISRO centres

These centres are related to the ISRO:

The Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) is located at Thumba near Trivandrum, a city of the Kerala state in India. ... Vikram Varabhai Space Centre(VSSC) is located in Trivandrum city of Kerala state in India. ... The ISRO Satellite centre (ISAC) (Hindi:ISRO Upagraha Kendra) is the lead ISRO centre for technology testing and spacecraft assembly integration. ... The Satish Dhawan Space Centre, located in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, in India, is the launch centre for the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). ... Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) is the research centre under Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). ... The Space Applications Centre is an institution of research in Ahmedabad, India under the aegis of the Indian Space Research Organization. ... ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) Provides mission support to near-earth satellites and launch vehicle missions. ... INSAT Master Control Facility is one of the centers of Indian Space Research Organisation, which is responsible for post-launch operations on INSAT satellites including orbit manoeuvres, station keeping and on-orbit operations. ... The ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU) is a research and development unit of the Indian Space Research Organisation located in Thiruvananthapuram that specialises in inertial sensors and systems in satellite technology. ... National Remote Sensing Agency is an autonomous institution supported by Department of Space of India. ... [[History of PRL]] 1947: Founded in 1947 by Dr. Vikram A. Sarabhai, the Physical Research Laboratory had a modest beginning at his residence, the RETREAT, with research on Cosmic Rays. ... The Semi-Conductor Complex Limited, Chandigarh, is a public sector undertaking by the Government of India under the Department of Information Technology. ...

Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology Thiruvananthapuram

Main article Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology Thiruvananthapuram

The Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology is the national institute for the study and development of space science. Located in Ponmudi near Thiruvananthapuram, it offers undergraduate and graduate courses, and also serves as a research center. It is sponsored by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) under the Government of India Department of Space. The Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology is the national institute for the study and development of space science. ...


Major achievements

  • 1962: Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR); formed by the Department of Atomic Energy, and work on establishing Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) near Trivandrum began.
  • 1963: First sounding rocket launched from TERLS on November 21, 1963.
  • 1965: Space Science & Technology Centre (SSTC) established in Thumba.
  • 1967: Satellite Telecommunication Earth Station set up at Ahmedabad.
  • 1972: Space Commission and Department of Space set up.
  • 1975: First Indian Satellite, Aryabhata, launched (April 19, 1975).
  • 1976: Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) conducted.
  • 1979: Bhaskara-1, an experimental satellite launched. First experimental launch of SLV-3 with Rohini satellite on board failed.
  • 1980: Second experimental launch of SLV-3 Rohini satellite successfully placed in orbit.
  • 1981: APPLE, an experimental geostationary communication satellite successfully launched on June 19.
  • 1981: Bhaskara-II launched on November 20.
  • 1982: INSAT-1A launched (April); deactivated in September.
  • 1983: Second launch of SLV-3. RS-D2 placed in orbit. INSAT-1B launched.
  • 1984: Indo-Soviet manned space mission (April). Rakesh Sharma became the first Indian to reach space.
  • 1987: ASLV with SROSS-1 satellite on board launched.
  • 1988: First Indian remote sensing satellite, IRS-1A launched. INSAT-1C launched (July). Abandoned in November.
  • 1990: INSAT-1D launched successfully.
  • 1991: Launch of second operational Remote Sensing satellite, IRS-1B (August).
  • 1992: Third developmental launch of ASLV with SROCC-C on board (May). Satellite placed in orbit. First indigenously built satellite INSAT-2A launched successfully.
  • 1993: INSAT-2B launched in July successfully. First developmental launch of PSLV with IRS-1E on board fails.
  • 1994: Fourth developmental launch of ASLV successful (May). Second developmental launch of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) with IRS-P2 successfully (October).
  • 1995: INSAT-2C launched in December. Third operational IRS (IRS) launched.
  • 1996: Third developmental launch of PSLV with IRS-P3 successful (March).
  • 1997: INSAT-2D launched in June became inoperational in October. Arabsat1C, since renamed INSAT-2DT, acquired in November. First operational launch of PSLV with IRS-1D successful (September).
  • 1998: INSAT system capacity augmented with the readiness of INSAT-2DT acquired from Arabsat (January).
  • 1999: INSAT-2E the last satellite in the multi-purpose INSAT-2 series, launched by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana (April 3, 1999). IRS-P4 (OCEANSAT), launched by Polar Satellite launch vehicle (PSLV-C2) along with Korean KITSAT-3 and German DLR-TUBSAT from Sriharikota (26 May 1999).
  • 2000: INSAT-3B was launched on 22 March 2000.
  • 2001: Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-D1 (GSLV-D1), the first developmental launch of GSLV with GSAT-1 onboard partially successful.
  • 2002: INSAT-3C launched successfully by Arianespace (January), PSLV-C4 launches KALPANA-1 (September).
  • 2003: GSLV-D2, the second developmental launch of GSLV with GSAT-2 successful (May).
  • 2004: First operational flight of GSLV (F01) successfully launches EDUSAT (September).
  • 2005: Launch of CARTOSAT and HAMSAT by PSLV-C6 from the second launch pad (Universal Launch Pad) (May). INSAT 4A Launched successfully by the European Ariane-5G.
  • 2006: Second operational flight of GSLV (F02) unsuccessful July 10, 2006. GSLV-F02 was carrying INSAT-4C.
  • 2007: Successful launch of CARTOSAT-2, SRE-1, LAPAN-TUBSAT and PEHUENSAT-1 on PSLV C7 on January 10, 2007.
  • 2007: SRE-1 splashed down in the Bay of Bengal on January 22, 2007 and was successfully recovered by the Indian Coast Guard and Indian Navy, making India one of the few countries to have re-entry technology.
  • 2007: INSAT-4B successfully launched by Arianespace on March 12.[2]
  • 2007: PSLV-C8 successfully places an Italian satellite, AGILE into its orbit on April 23.

Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An Indian government department responsible for administration of Indias nuclear programme. ... Thumba is a small fishing village near Thiruvananthapuram, capital of Kerala, India. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A sounding rocket, sometimes called an elevator research rocket, is an instrument-carrying suborbital rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its flight. ... Thumba is a small fishing village near Thiruvananthapuram, capital of Kerala, India. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... , Ahmedabad (Gujarati: , Hindi: अहमदाबाद ) is the largest city in the state of Gujarat and the seventh-largest urban agglomeration in India, with a population of almost 51 lakhs (5. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aryabhata was Indias first satellite, named after the great Indian astronomer of the same name. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An ISRO technician next to a working model of the solid-state television set, designed with NASA assistance, for use in SITE. Image courtesy NASA The Satellite Instructional Television Experiment or SITE was an experimental satellite communications project launched in India in 1975 designed jointly by NASA and the Indian... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Bhaskara (1114-1185), also known as Bhaskara II and Bhaskara Achārya (Bhaskara the teacher), was an Indian mathematician-astronomer. ... Rohini may refer to any of the following - Rohini as in Rohini Nakshatram (see also Nakshatra), in Hindu mythology a daughter of Daksha and a consort of the moon-God Chandra; symbolised as the star Rohini. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Rohini may refer to any of the following - Rohini as in Rohini Nakshatram (see also Nakshatra), in Hindu mythology a daughter of Daksha and a consort of the moon-God Chandra; symbolised as the star Rohini. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Binomial name Borkh. ... A geostationary orbit (abbreviated GEO) is a circular orbit in the Earths equatorial plane, any point on which revolves about the Earth in the same direction and with the same period as the Earths rotation. ... Communication is a process that allows beings - in particular humans - to exchange information by several methods. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Bhaskara (1114-1185), also known as Bhaskara II and Bhaskara Achārya (Bhaskara the teacher), was an Indian mathematician-astronomer. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Image taken by INSAT 2-E Shown here is a GSLV launch vehicle, one of the main launch vehicles for INSAT satellites. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ... Soviet redirects here. ... Human spaceflight is space exploration with a human crew, and possibly passengers (in contrast to unmanned space missions, which are remotely-controlled or robotic space probes). ... Rakesh Sharma can mean: An Indian astronaut: described below. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV), was a 5-stage solid propellant rocket with the capability of placing a 150 kg satellite into LEO. This project was started by the Indian space research organisation(ISRO) during the early 1980s to develop technologies needed for a payload to be placed into a... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... For the purported psychic ability to sense remotely, see Remote viewing right Synthetic aperture radar image of Death Valley colored using polarimetry In the broadest sense, remote sensing is the short or large-scale acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon, by the use of either recording or real... Indian Remote Sensing satellites (IRS) are a series of Earth Observation satellites, mostly built, launched and maintained by Indian Space Research Organisation of India as part of the Indian space program. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Indian Remote Sensing satellites (IRS) are a series of Earth Observation satellites, mostly built, launched and maintained by Indian Space Research Organisation of India as part of the Indian space program. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Indian Remote Sensing satellites (IRS) are a series of Earth Observation satellites, mostly built, launched and maintained by Indian Space Research Organisation of India as part of the Indian space program. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... The PSLV or Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle is an expendable launch system operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). ... Indian Remote Sensing satellites (IRS) are a series of Earth Observation satellites, mostly built, launched and maintained by Indian Space Research Organisation of India as part of the Indian space program. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Indian Remote Sensing satellites (IRS) are a series of Earth Observation satellites, mostly built, launched and maintained by Indian Space Research Organisation of India as part of the Indian space program. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Indian Remote Sensing satellites (IRS) are a series of Earth Observation satellites, mostly built, launched and maintained by Indian Space Research Organisation of India as part of the Indian space program. ... Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ... Arabsat is a satellite built by Aerospatiale. ... Indian Remote Sensing satellites (IRS) are a series of Earth Observation satellites, mostly built, launched and maintained by Indian Space Research Organisation of India as part of the Indian space program. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Arabsat is a satellite built by Aerospatiale. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The GSLV or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle was developed by India (Indian Space Research Organization) to launch satellites into geostationary orbit. ... The GSAT satellites are Indias indigenously developed technologies of satellite communications, like digital audio, data and video broadcasting. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The GSLV or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle was developed by India (Indian Space Research Organization) to launch satellites into geostationary orbit. ... The GSAT satellites are Indias indigenously developed technologies of satellite communications, like digital audio, data and video broadcasting. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The GSLV or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle was developed by India (Indian Space Research Organization) to launch satellites into geostationary orbit. ... EDUSAT or GSAT-3 was launched in September 2004 by the Indian Space Research Organisation. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... CARTOSAT I is a stereoscopic Earth observation satellite built, launched and maintained by the Indian Space agency ISRO. Weighing around 1560 kgs at launch, Its applications will mainly be towards cartography in India. ... HAMSAT is a micro-satellite weighing 42. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The GSLV or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle was developed by India (Indian Space Research Organization) to launch satellites into geostationary orbit. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... INSAT-4C was to be Indias most advanced communications satellite, and was the second satellite in the INSAT 4 series. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... CARTOSAT 2 is an Earth observation satellite in a sun-synchronous orbit. ... The Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE) is an Indian experimental spacecraft which was launched at 03:53 GMT on January 10, 2007 from Sriharikota by the Indian Space Research Organization. ... National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (Indonesian: Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional/LAPAN) is the Indonesian government space agency. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE) is an Indian experimental spacecraft which was launched at 03:53 GMT on January 10, 2007 from Sriharikota by the Indian Space Research Organization. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Founded in 1980, Arianespace SA undertakes the production, operation and marketing of the Ariane 4 and Ariane 5 rocket launchers as part of the Ariane programme. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... AGILE is an X-ray and Gamma ray astronomical satellite of the Italian Space Agency (ASI). ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Satellites

INSAT-1B
INSAT-1B

Since its formation, ISRO has launched numerous satellites; they include the IRS (Indian Remote Sensing) satellite series, the INSAT (Indian National Satellite) series (in Geo-Stationary orbit), the GSAT series (launched using GSLV) and METSAT 1 (launched by PSLV). As of 2007, the total number of satellites of all varieties built by ISRO is 45. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1824x1824, 741 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Indian National Satellite System Indian Space Research Organisation ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1824x1824, 741 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Indian National Satellite System Indian Space Research Organisation ... A geostationary orbit (abbreviated GEO) is a circular orbit in the Earths equatorial plane, any point on which revolves about the Earth in the same direction and with the same period as the Earths rotation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


INSAT series

Main article Indian National Satellite System

The Insat series of satellites includes the 1 (A, B, C, D), 2 (A, B, C, D), 3 (A, B, C, E) and 4 (A, B, C) series. They provide Communication and Television relay services all over India. Most of these satellites were launched by the Arianespace for ISRO. Image taken by INSAT 2-E Shown here is a GSLV launch vehicle, one of the main launch vehicles for INSAT satellites. ... Founded in 1980, Arianespace SA undertakes the production, operation and marketing of the Ariane 4 and Ariane 5 rocket launchers as part of the Ariane programme. ...


IRS series

Main article Indian Remote Sensing satellite

The IRS series provide remote sensing services and are composed of the 1 (A, B, C, D). The future versions are named based on their area of application including OceanSat, CartoSat, ResourceSat. Some of the satellites have alternate designations based on the launch number and vehicle. Indian Remote Sensing satellites (IRS) are a series of Earth Observation satellites, mostly built, launched and maintained by Indian Space Research Organisation of India as part of the Indian space program. ...


METSAT/Kalpana series

METSAT or Meteorological Satellite, is the first satellite built by ISRO to provide meteorological information and data. In 2003, METSAT was renamed as Kalpana in honour of the late astronaut Kalpana Chawla. METSAT 2/Kalpana 2 is expected to be launched by 2007 Kalpana Chawla (Hindi: कल्‍पना चावला)(Punjabi:ਕਲਪਨਾ ਚਾਵਲਾ) (7 March 1962 – 1 February 2003), was an Indian-born American astronaut and space shuttle mission specialist. ...


Technology Experiment Satellite

As the name suggests, Technology Experiment Satellite is an experimental satellite aimed primarily at fulfilling the role of spy satellite. The satellite has an image resolution of 1m or less, making India the only country after US to offer such high-resolution images commercially [4]. The Kargil War prompted the rapid inclusion of a dedicated espionage satellite. It was first used to produce images of Iraqi military installations that were destroyed after US invasion in 2003. KH-4B Corona satellite Lacrosse radar spy satellite under construction A spy satellite (officially referred to as a penis or recon sat[citation needed]) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. ... Combatants India Pakistan, Kashmiri secessionists, Islamic militants (Foreign Fighters) Strength 30,000 5,000 Casualties Indian Official Figures: 527 killed,[1][2][3] 1,363 wounded[4] 1 POW Pakistani Estimates: 357–4,000+ killed[5][6] (Pakistan troops) 665+ soldiers wounded[5] 8 POWs. ...


Future plans

Chandrayaan I (Original Configuration)
Chandrayaan I (Original Configuration)

ISRO has begun the development of a mission to the Moon, named Chandrayaan-1. It will be India's first step towards exploration of deep space. In 2005, the Indian government approved Rs.364 crore (3,640,000,000) Indian rupees for the planned moon mission expected to be launched by 2008. It is interesting to note that apart from ISRO made instruments, Chandrayaan carries science instruments from NASA and ESA as opportunity payloads free of cost and with the understanding of sharing the data from the instruments. If the mission goes as planned, ISRO would be the sixth space agency in the world, after the Soviet Union, NASA, Japan, European Space Agency and China, to have sent an unmanned mission to the Moon. ISRO also plans to undertake a totally indigenous manned space exploration in the next decade by planning to send a person to space by 2014.[5] Image File history File links Chandrayaan-1 moon probe source: http://nssdc. ... Image File history File links Chandrayaan-1 moon probe source: http://nssdc. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ... Chandrayaan I (Sanskrit चंद्रयान-1), which literally means Moon Craft, is an unmanned lunar mission by the Indian Space Research Organization. ... A crore is a unit in the Indian numbering system, still widely used in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States federal government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... This article is about the European Space Agency. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States federal government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... This article is about the European Space Agency. ...


ISRO has started the development of the next launch vehicle version, known as the GSLV Mark-III, with an indigenous cryogenic engine capable of launching satellites weighing up to 6 tons in the final configuration. ISRO will be launching various satellites for European and Russian space programs including Agile and the GLONASS series of navigation satellites. In December 2005, during the annual Indo-Russian summit in Moscow, the two states agreed on joint development of the GLONASS-K series, which will be launched by Indian launchers. ISRO also plans to launch payloads SRE-1, RISAT-1, ASTROSAT, OCEANSAT series, INSAT series, CARTOSAT series, and GSAT series over the next couple of years. The RLV-TD, a technology demonstrator of possible scramjet launch technology, will fly around 2008. [6] The GSLV-III or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III is a launch vehicle currently under development by the Indian Space Research Organization to launch heavy satellites into geostationary orbit, and will allow India to be less dependent on foreign rockets for heavy lifting. ... GLONASS GLONASS (Russian ГЛОНАСС; ГЛОбальная НАвигационная Спутниковая Система; Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


The ISRO decade plan includes the following launch schedule:

  • 2006-2007 - Three GSLV launches, (GSLV-D3, F2, F3). Launch of OCEANSAT-2, GSAT-4, INSAT-4D.
  • 2007-2008 - Three PSLV launches, (PSLV-C9, C10, C11), two GSLV launches (GSLV-F4, F5), and one GSLV-III launch (GSLV-III-D1). Launch of CHANDRAYAAN, ASTROSAT, RISAT-1, GSAT (MK III), INSAT-3D and INSAT-4E.

The GSLV or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle was developed by India (Indian Space Research Organization) to launch satellites into geostationary orbit. ... PSLV or Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle is an expendable launch system operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). ... The GSLV or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle was developed by India (Indian Space Research Organization) to launch satellites into geostationary orbit. ... The GSLV-III or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III is a launch vehicle currently under development by the Indian Space Research Organization to launch heavy satellites into geostationary orbit, and will allow India to be less dependent on foreign rockets for heavy lifting. ...

Launch vehicles

This diagram shows the approximate sizes of a human, some of the Rohini series of sounding rockets, and the satellite launch vehicles
This diagram shows the approximate sizes of a human, some of the Rohini series of sounding rockets, and the satellite launch vehicles

The Satellite Launch Vehicle was mainly used for the launching of experimental Rohini Satellites, and was a technology bridge. The Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle was mainly used for the launching of Stretched Rohini Satellite Series (SROSS) satellites, and also served as a technology bridge. The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle serves as a small-medium satellite launching workhorse for the ISRO. The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle serves as a medium lifter. The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III will be a medium-heavy lifter. The Reusable Launch Vehicle project is intended as a cheap way of launching small satellites. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1398x924, 85 KB) Summary A diagram of various rockets indiginously designed, built and flown by the Indian space programme. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1398x924, 85 KB) Summary A diagram of various rockets indiginously designed, built and flown by the Indian space programme. ... Rohini is the name given to a series of satellites launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation. ...


Past

Sounding Rockets

Satellite Launch Vehicles

This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ... Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV), was a 5-stage solid propellant rocket with the capability of placing a 150 kg satellite into LEO. This project was started by the Indian space research organisation(ISRO) during the early 1980s to develop technologies needed for a payload to be placed into a... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ...

Present

PSLV or Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle is an expendable launch system operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). ... A satellite in a polar orbit passes above or nearly above both poles of the planet (or other celestial body) on each revolution. ... The GSLV or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle was developed by India (Indian Space Research Organization) to launch satellites into geostationary orbit. ... A geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is a Hohmann transfer orbit around the Earth between a low Earth orbit (LEO) and a geostationary orbit (GEO). ...

Future

  • Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) - a small remote-piloted scramjet vehicle called AVATAR. The RLV will place small satellites into LEO and can be reused for at least 100 launches reducing the cost of launching satellites.

The GSLV-III or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III is a launch vehicle currently under development by the Indian Space Research Organization to launch heavy satellites into geostationary orbit, and will allow India to be less dependent on foreign rockets for heavy lifting. ... A geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is a Hohmann transfer orbit around the Earth between a low Earth orbit (LEO) and a geostationary orbit (GEO). ... A reusable launch system (or RLV: reusable launch vehicle) is a launch vehicle which is capable of launching into space more than once. ... Avatar RLV concept Avatar is a Reusable launch vehicle proposed and designed by Indias premier defence research organisation Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO) along with Indian space research organisation (ISRO) and other research institutions, which can be used for cheaper military and civilian satellite launches. ...

Launch facilities

ISRO operates 3 launch stations:

The Shriharikota range is used for launch of satellites and multi-stage rockets. The launch station has two launch pads including the newest Universal Launch Pad. The two launch pads allow the station to hold up to 6 launches per year. The other two launch facilities are capable of launching sounding rockets, and other small rockets that don't produce spent stages. Thumba is a small fishing village near Thiruvananthapuram, capital of Kerala, India. ... Thumba is a small fishing village near Thiruvananthapuram, capital of Kerala, India. ... Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai (August 12, 1919 – December 31, 1971) was an Indian physicist. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Sriharikota (also Sriharikote) is a barrier island off the coast of Andhra Pradesh in India. ... Sriharikota (also Sriharikote) is a barrier island off the coast of Andhra Pradesh in India. ... Prof. ... , Andhra Pradesh (Telugu: , Urdu: ), the Rice Bowl of India, is a state in southern India. ... , Balasore (also known as Baleswar or Baleshwar) is a city in Orissa state of eastern India. ... , Balasore (also known as Baleswar or Baleshwar) is a city in Orissa state of eastern India. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ...


Opinions and analysis

Historical Budget

Year Indian Rupee Exchange Rate US dollar
2001 ~505m
2004-05 ~25bn
2005-06 31.48bn ~722m
2006-07 29.97bn ~800m
2007-08 38.60bn ~1000m

In common with other national space programmes, the ISRO attracts comparison, criticism, and praise.


Comparison with other space agencies

It is suggested that in terms of technical expertise and experience, ISRO is close to other major Asian space programs, especially China, and in some respects to Japan.[9] Continued development of reliable and cost-effective launch platforms are expected to see commercial costs of launching payloads on Indian rockets fall, perhaps by as much as fifty percent.[citation needed] Once established, the Indian GSLV-III should be able to place 4000 to 6000 kg payloads into GTO.[citation needed] A geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is a Hohmann transfer orbit around the Earth between a low Earth orbit (LEO) and a geostationary orbit (GEO). ...


In terms of funding, at approx. $800mn, ISRO and Russian Space Agency currently enjoy similar levels of financial support. At same time, ISRO's budget is likely to expand as India's economic growth continues. Compared to the US, which spends around $16bn, ESA's $3.5bn ( or $7bn with other European nations), Japan's $1.6bn, and China's $1.2bn, this amount is fairly modest. However, it has also been pointed out that the budget figure is much higher for India and China when accounting for purchasing power parity (PPP). Due to lower cost of living in these countries, the amount of capital invested upon wages and employment are much lower, than, say in the US, where more than a third of the budget goes into wages and similar services[citation needed]. Canada and Brazil with $300mn and $35mn respectively spend relatively less on their space programs. The Russian Federal Space Agency, formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RKA) (in Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое аге&#1085... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... This article is about the European Space Agency. ... Gross domestic product (by purchasing power parity) in 2006 The Purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ...


Despite ISRO's modest funding, it appears to have achieved reasonable successes[10]. India is counted amongst the six major space powers of the world[11], and is among the top nations in Asia in terms of success and future potential in space[12]. Indian launch vehicles have the capacity for human spaceflight[citation needed], however, ISRO has stated that it can achieve all India's commercial and scientific needs through unmanned spaceflight alone[citation needed], raising the question of whether a crewed spaceflight will occur.


Question of crewed missions

Indian Navy Frogmen recovering the SRE-1 Capsule after splashdown in the Bay of Bengal.
Indian Navy Frogmen recovering the SRE-1 Capsule after splashdown in the Bay of Bengal.

Although India has already sent its first cosmonaut Rakesh Sharma, into space with the Soviet Intercosmos program aboard the Soyuz T-11 capsule on April 2, 1984, the question of sending a human independently has been raised. Indian Navy Frogmen recovering the SRE-1 Capsule after splashdown in the Bay of Bengal. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 243 KB)From http://isro. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 243 KB)From http://isro. ... The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. ... For the Wizard of Oz series character, see Frogman (Oz character). ... The Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE) is an Indian experimental spacecraft which was launched at 03:53 GMT on January 10, 2007 from Sriharikota by the Indian Space Research Organization. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... U.S. Space Shuttle astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit. ... Rakesh Sharma can mean: An Indian astronaut: described below. ... East German postage stamp The Intercosmos program was a program by the Soviet Union to allow fellow Socialist nations to participate in space exploration. ... Crew Launched: Yuri Malyshev (2) Gennady Strekalov (4) Rakesh Sharma (1)- India Landed: Leonid Kizim (2) Vladimir Soloviyov (1) Oleg Atkov (1) (1) number of spaceflights each crew member has completed, including this mission. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ...


The question of having a manned space programme in future was first substantially raised in November 2006 in the form a proposal. It outlined a goal which would be to design, develop and launch an Indian human spacecraft, a two-seat space capsule, which would be used to send an Indian into space by 2015 [13] . The vehicle would be launched by India’s Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-Mk II) [14]. 67 die and about 300,000 people are affected by floods in Ethiopias Somali Region of Ogaden after the Shabelle River bursts its banks. ... 2015 (MMXV) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The GSLV or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle was developed by India (Indian Space Research Organization) to launch satellites into geostationary orbit. ...


Government has approved the project and allocated 50 crores for pre-project initiatives for 2007-08. [15] A manned mission into space would require about Rs. 10,000 crore ($3 billion) over an eight-year period[citations needed].


The first signs of having a manned space programme was the 600-kg Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE), launched using the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) rocket, and safely returned to earth 12 days later. This demonstrates India's capability to develop heat resistant materials necessary for re-entry technology. The Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE) is an Indian experimental spacecraft which was launched at 03:53 GMT on January 10, 2007 from Sriharikota by the Indian Space Research Organization. ... The PSLV or Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle is an expendable launch system operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). ...


Despite this, India's attitude towards crewed spaceflight seems to be conservative, with the ISRO believing it can accomplish all its goals through unmanned spaceflight alone. [7] ISRO recently announced its intent to put an Indian in space by 2014. [8]


Notes and references

  1. ^ a b Record-Setting Indian Space Budget Includes Funds for Large Satellites. Space.com, Space news. Retrieved on 2007-06-02.
  2. ^ Official Website of ISRO
  3. ^ RH-75 Chronology
  4. ^ RH-125 Chronology
  5. ^ RH-200 Chronology
  6. ^ RH-300 Chronology
  7. ^ RH-300 Mk II Chronology
  8. ^ RH-560 Chronology
  9. ^ India raises the ante on its space program
  10. ^ India hopes to put a robot on the moon
  11. ^ FAS article on ISRO
  12. ^ Jeff Foust. The other rising Asian space power. The Space Review. Retrieved on 2007-06-02.
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ [2]
  15. ^ [3]

Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Callisto | News: Callisto wins a major contract from the Indian Space Research Organisation (691 words)
For these Deep Space missions a very sensitive ground station is required featuring a large antenna and needing very sensitive cryo-cooled low noise amplifiers.
The main objective of the mission is the investigation of the distribution of various minerals and chemical elements and to undertake high-resolution three-dimensional mapping of the entire lunar surface.
Callisto a déjà fourni des amplificateurs cryogéniques faible bruit pour l'antenne n° 1 DSA (Deep Space Antenna) basée en Australie en 2000 et pour l'antenne n° 2 DSA en Espagne en 2004.
Indian Space Research Organisation: Information from Answers.com (4048 words)
From its establishment in 1962, the Indian space programme began establishing itself with the launch of sounding rockets, which was complimented by India's geographical proximity to the equator.
As the Indian Rohini programme continued to launch sounding rockets of greater size and complexity, the space programme was expanded and eventually given its own government department, separate from the Department of Atomic Energy.
In 1969 the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was created from the INCOSPAR programme under the DAE, continued under the Space Commission and finally the Department of Space, created in June of 1972.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m