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Encyclopedia > Indian Rhinoceros
Indian Rhinoceros

Indian rhinoceros (from left to right: infant male, adult female, and juvenile female)
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Perissodactyla
Family: Rhinocerotidae
Genus: Rhinoceros
Species: R. unicornis
Binomial name
Rhinoceros unicornis
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Indian Rhinoceros range
Indian Rhinoceros range

The Indian Rhinoceros or the Great One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) is a large mammal found in Nepal and in Assam, India. It is confined to the tall grasslands and forests in the foothills of the Himalayas. The Indian Rhinoceros can run at speeds of up to 55 km/h for short periods of time and is also an excellent swimmer. It has an excellent sense of hearing and smell but relatively poor eyesight. Image File history File links A baby, male, and female (left to right) Indian Rhinoceros at the San Diego Zoos Wild Animal Park in Escondido, CA. This is an original work created by me and released under the following license: (Actually, only the baby rhino here is a male. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn2. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Families Equidae Tapiridae Rhinocerotidae The odd-toed ungulates or Perissodactyla are large to very large browsing and grazing mammals with relatively simple stomachs and a large middle toe. ... Species Ceratotherium simum Dicerorhinus sumatrensis Diceros bicornis Rhinoceros unicornis A rhinoceros is any of five surviving species of odd-toed ungulate in the family Rhinocerotidae. ... Species Ceratotherium simum Dicerorhinus sumatrensis Diceros bicornis Rhinoceros unicornis A rhinoceros is any of five surviving species of odd-toed ungulate in the family Rhinocerotidae. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1165x1415, 432 KB) Description Rhinoceros unicornis range - Redrawn from Foose and van Strien, 1997 - By Christophe cagé 08:58, 18 July 2006 (UTC) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... An Inner Mongolia Grassland. ... This article is about forests as a massing of trees. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ...

Contents

Anatomy

This prehistoric-looking rhinoceros has thick, silver-brown skin which creates huge folds all over its body. Its upper legs and shoulders are covered in wart-like bumps, and it has very little body hair. With size equal to that of the white rhino in Africa, it is the fourth-largest land animal, after the three elephant species. Fully grown males are larger than females in the wild, weighing from 2200- 3000 kg (4,800 - 6,600 lb). Female Indian rhinos weigh about 1600 kg. The Indian Rhino is from 5.7 to 6.7 feet tall and can be up to 13 feet long. The record-sized specimen of this rhino was approximately 3500 kg. The Great One-Horned Rhinoceros has a single horn; this is present in both males and females, but not on newborn young. The horn, like human fingernails, is pure keratin and starts to show after about 6 years. It reaches a length of between 20 and 101 cm. Black Rhino from Howletts Wild Animal Park For other uses, see Rhinoceros (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Ceratotherium simum Burchell, 1817 The White Rhinoceros or Square-lipped rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is one of the five species of rhinoceros that still exists and is one of the few megaherbivore species left. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... Highland cow, a very old long-horned breed from Scotland. ... Not to be confused with kerogen or carotene. ...


Range

The rhino once inhabited areas from Pakistan to Burma and may have even roamed in China. But because of human influence their range has shrunk and now they only exist in small populations in northeastern India and Nepal.


On the former abundance of the species, Thomas C. Jerdon wrote in 1874 in the Mammals of India: Thomas Claverhill Jerdon (1811 - 1872) was a British physician, zoologist and botanist. ...

This huge rhinoceros is found in the Terai at the foot of the Himalayas, from Bhotan to Nepal. It is more common in the eastern portion of the Terai than the west, and is most abundant in Assam and the Bhotan Dooars. I have heard from sportsmen of its occurrence as far west as Rohilcund, but it is certainly rare there now, and indeed along the greater part of the Nepal Terai;... Jelpigoree, a small military station near the Teesta River, was a favourite locality whence to hunt the Rhinoceros and it was from that station Captain Fortescue, of the late 73rd N.I., got his skulls, which were, strange to say, the first that Mr. Blyth had seen of this species, of which there were no specimens in the Museum of the Asiatic Society at the time when he wrote his Memoir on this group.

Jerdon, T. C. 1874 The mammals of India.

Behavior and Ecology

These rhinos live in tall grasslands and riverine forests, but due to habitat loss they have been forced into more cultivated land. They are mostly solitary creatures, with the exception of mothers and calves and breeding pairs, although they sometimes congregate at bathing areas. They have home ranges, the home ranges of males being usually 2-8 square kilometers in size, and overlapping each other. Dominant males tolerate males passing through their territory except when they are in mating season, when dangerous fights break out. They are active during the day and spend the middle of the day wallowing in lakes, rivers, ponds, and puddles to cool down. They are extremely good swimmers. Over 10 distinct vocalizations have been recorded. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Categories: Geographical term stubs ...


The Indian Rhinoceros is a grazer. Their diet includes grasses, leaves, aquatic plants and fruits. Feeding occurs during the morning and evening where they use their prehensile lip to grasp grass stems. Indian rhinos use lower incisor teeth as a slashing weapon. It should be noted that Indian rhinos does not use their horn as a weapon. Indian rhinos have few natural enemies, except for tigers. Tigers sometimes kill unguarded calves, but adult rhinos are less vulnerable due to their huge size and dangerous weapons. However, there is a recorded instance of a tiger killing a full-grown female Indian rhino. An animal that rasps and scrapes organic mats. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ...

Indian Rhinoceros
Indian Rhinoceros

Image File history File links Indian_rhinoceros. ... Image File history File links Indian_rhinoceros. ...

Reproduction

Males can breed at nine years of age, and females reach sexual maturity at five years and have their first calves between six and eight years of age. The female whistles when in season so that males know when she is ready to mate. Fierce fights break out between males during the mating season. Unlike other rhinos they use their sharp lower teeth to fight, and injuries thus inflicted may be fatal. The gestation period is about 16 months. Calves are weaned around 18 months. A single calf is born at intervals of about three years. Mother rhinos are attentive and protective, the young staying with the mother for several years. At the birth of a new calf the female will chase off her older offspring. Sexual maturity is the age/stage when an organism can reproduce. ... Estrus (also spelled œstrus) or heat in female mammals is the period of greatest female sexual responsiveness usually coinciding with ovulation. ... Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ...


Population & Threats

This rhino is a major success of conservation. Only 100 remained in the early 1900's and now their population has increased but even so they are still endangered. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3504 × 2336 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3504 × 2336 pixel, file size: 4. ...


The Indian rhino is illegally poached for its horn, which some cultures in East Asia believe has healing and potency powers. Habitat loss is another threat. Fewer than 2500 individuals remain in the wild, and the species is endangered. East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...


The Indian and Nepalese governments have taken major steps toward Indian Rhinoceros conservation with the help of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). The Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park in Assam, Pobiora reserve forest in Assam(having the highest Indian rhino density in the world),Orang National park of Assam, Laokhowa reserve forest of Assam having a very small population and Royal Chitwan National Park in Nepal are homes for this endangered animal. Note: After losing a court case in 2002 on the use of the initials WWF, the organization previously known as the World Wrestling Federation has rebranded itself as World Wrestling Entertainment, or WWE. WWF - The Conservation Organization was formerly known as World Wildlife Fund and Worldwide Fund for Nature. ... Kaziranga National Park (Assamese: কাজিৰাঙ্গা জাতীয় উদ্যান , Assamese IAST: kājirāṅgā jātiya udyāna, Assamese IPA: kɑ/ɟi/rɑŋ/gɑ, Indian English IPA: kɑ/zi/rɑŋ/gɑ) is an Indian national park located on the south bank of the Brahmaputra river in the state of Assam, India. ... Manas National Park is a National Park, UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, a Project Tiger Reserve, an Elephant Reserve and a Biosphere Reserve in Assam, India. ... The Royal Chitwan National Park (RCNP), covering an area of 932 square kilometers, and established in 1973, is the oldest national park of Nepal. ...


Demographic trends of Rhinoceros unicornis. Sources : [here].

YEAR TOTAL INDIA NEPAL
1910 100
1952 350 300 50
1958 700 400 300
1963 600
1964 625 440 185
1966 740 575 165
1968 680
1971 630
1983 1000
1984 1500
1986 1711 1334 377
1987 1700
1990 1700
1994 1900
1995 2135 1600 535
1997 2095
1998 2100
2000 2500
2002 2500
2005 2400
The Rhinoceros
Albrecht Dürer, 1515
woodcut, 24.8 × 31.7 cm

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1149x782, 151 KB) Description demographic trend of rhinoceros unicornis - by Christophe cagé 12:50, 17 July 2006 (UTC) Evolution de la population de rhinoceros unicornis - par Christophe cagé 12:50, 17 July 2006 (UTC) Licensing File links The following pages on... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (879x730, 497 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Indian Rhinoceros Dürers Rhinoceros Wikipedia:Recent additions 78 ... Dürers Rhinoceros is the name commonly given to a woodcut created by German painter and wood carver Albrecht Dürer in 1515. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Gallery

References

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ...

External links

Wikispecies has information related to:
Indian Rhinoceros
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Indian Rhinoceros

Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Indian Rhinoceros - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (442 words)
The Indian Rhinoceros or the Great One-horned Rhinoceros, Rhinoceros unicornis, is found in Nepal and in Assam, India.
The Great One-Horned Rhinoceros has a single horn; this is present in both males and females, but not on newborn young.
Indian rhinos are poached for their horn, which some cultures in East Asia believe has healing and potency powers.
Rhinoceros - LoveToKnow 1911 (1377 words)
The Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), the largest of the Asiatic forms, is the most widely known, from its being exhibited in zoological gardens.
The first rhinoceros seen alive in Europe since the time when these animals, in common with nearly all the large remarkable beasts of both Africa and Asia, were exhibited in the Roman shows, was of this species.
The fl rhinoceros (Rhinoceros (Diceros) bicornis) is the smaller of the two, and has a pointed prehensile upper lip.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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