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Encyclopedia > Indian Removal

Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate American Indian (or "Native American") tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ...


The reasoning behind the removal of Native Americans was Americans' hunger for land (stemming from Andrew Jackson’s talk of “agriculture, manufacture, and civilization”), though not all Americans supported the policy as many poor white frontiersmen were neighbors and often friends to the Native Americans. Principally, it was the result of Americans who envisioned a cultivated and organized nation of prospering cities and productive communities which fueled the forces of removal. For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ...


The growth of populations, cities, transportation systems, and commerce in the decades following the American Revolution created demand for agricultural development. President Jackson and his followers, recognizing the Indians were in their way, set out to civilly and gently move them out of the way.[1] This resulted in numerous treaties in which lands were purchased from Native Americans. Eventually, the U.S. government began encouraging Native American tribes to sell their land by offering them land in the West, outside the boundaries of the then-existing U.S. states, where the tribes could resettle. John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ...


This process was accelerated with the passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which provided funds for President Andrew Jackson to conduct land-exchange treaties. An estimated 100,000 American Indians eventually relocated in the West as a result of this policy, most of them emigrating during the 1830s, settling in what was known as the, "Indian territory" or the present state of Oklahoma.[2] Those native Americans who chose to produce and prosper were, of course, free to purchase as much of the land as they wished. The Indian Removal Act, part of a U.S. government policy known as Indian Removal, was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ...


However, the Removal Act didn’t directly force Native Americans from their land. Many Native Americans didn’t have the food or means of transportation to make a journey west of the Mississippi, so the Removal Act was a way to enable Native Americans to move west. According to the federal laws that were put in place to oversee the expedition, the government was to provide food and transportation for the Native Americans, and if they stayed, then they would no longer be protected or given funds.


To most Native Americans, the problems with leaving their land were more than just lack of resources. Native Americans’ land was their heritage and their history. The Native Americans’ way of life was already greatly disrupted by the white society, with its formal government, ideas of private property ownership, and their notions that a man's mind was the source of his power and his productivity its expression. What little the Native Americans could retain of their past, and the very meaning of their lives was now being taken away.[3].


The Jackson administration put great pressure on tribal leaders to sign removal treaties. This pressure, plus the added shame of seeing themselves reduced to obstacles for men of great achievement, created bitter divisions within American Indian nations, as different tribal leaders advocated different responses to the question of removal. Sometimes, U.S. government officials ignored tribal leaders who resisted signing removal treaties and dealt with those who favored removal. The Treaty of New Echota, for example, was signed by a faction of prominent Cherokee leaders, but not by the elected tribal leadership. The terms of the treaty were enforced by President Martin Van Buren, which resulted in the deaths of an estimated 4,000 Cherokees (mostly from disease) on the Trail of Tears. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... For the Norwegian musical group, see Trail of Tears (band); for the 2006 documentary, see The Trail of Tears: Cherokee Legacy. ...


Regrettably, the mass exodus of Native Americans were unable to provide themselves with proper provisions of food and transportation, and were reduced to limping off the land which they once proudly occupied. The Choctaw tribe also suffered greatly from disease during removal, and were unable to keep themselves clean and fed enough to prevent the decimation of their numbers due to these illnesses. The Choctaws were very against removal, but their fifty delegates were easily bribed with money and land to sign the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, which ceded their land east of the Mississippi to the United States. The army that led the thirteen thousand Choctaws on their journey was dis-organized, and because of their ineptitude, but through no fault of the Native Americans, their food quickly ran out and their children began to starve. Many died of pneumonia in the winter, and of cholera in the summer. The seven thousand Choctaws left behind saw the conditions of the trek and refused to go, choosing to accept the subjugation that had become their nature, over the certain death of vacating, while left to their own devices. [4]. For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ... The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was a treaty signed on September 27, 1830 (and proclaimed on 24 February 1831) between the Choctaws (an American Indian tribe) and the United States. ...


The suffering which resulted from Indian Removal was aggravated by poor administration on the part of the American Government[citation needed], inadequate measures taken to provide for the emigrants (because contracts for transport and provisions were often awarded to the lowest bidder, costs and services were cut), and failure to protect Native American legal rights before and after emigration.[citation needed] Most American Indians reluctantly but peacefully complied with the terms of the removal treaties, often with bitter resignation at being forced to acknowledge the low condition into which their failure to prosper had led them.


Some groups, however, went to war to resist the implementation of removal treaties. This resulted in two short wars (the Black Hawk War of 1832 and the Second Creek War of 1836), as well as the long and costly Second Seminole War (1835–1842). For other uses, see Black Hawk War (disambiguation). ... Osceola, Seminole leader. ...


Background

Since the presidency of Thomas Jefferson, America's policy had been to allow Indians to remain east of the Mississippi as long as they became assimilated or "civilized." They were to settle in one place, divide communal land into private property, and adopt democracy. Essentially the Indians were to give up practicing their forms of paganism and their native languages in favor of Christianity[citation needed] and English. Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... In the social sciences, assimilation is the process of integration whereby immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into a generally larger community. ... Central New York City. ... Native American spirituality includes a number of stories and legends that are mythological. ... Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages) are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland, encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


There was a long history of Indian land being purchased, usually by treaty and sometimes under coercion. In the early 19th century the notion of "land exchange" developed and began to be incorporated into land cession treaties. Indians would relinquish land in the east in exchange for equal or comparable land west of the Mississippi River. This idea was proposed as early as 1803, by Jefferson, but was not used in actual treaties until 1817, when the Cherokee agreed to cede two large tracts of land in the east for one of equal size in present-day Arkansas. There quickly followed many other treaties of this nature. The process culminated in the idea of exchanging all Indian land in the east for land in the west, which became law with the Indian Removal Act of 1830.[5]


Indian Removal in the South

In 1830, some of the "Five Civilized Tribes" — the Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole, and Cherokee — were still living east of the Mississippi, while others had already moved to the Indian Territory. They were called "civilized" because many tribesmen had adopted various aspects of European-American culture, including Christianity. The Cherokees had a system of writing their own language, developed by Sequoyah, and published a newspaper in Cherokee and English. The Five Civilized Tribes is the term applied to five Native American nations, the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole, considered civilized by white Anais because they had adopted many of the colonists customs (including the ownership of plantations and black slaves) and had generally good relations with their neighbors. ... For other uses, see Chickasaw (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ... The Creek are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. ... For other uses, see Seminole (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... A European American (Euro-American) is a person who resides in the United States and is either the descendant of European immigrants or from Europe him/herself. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In spite of this acculturation and acceptance of the law, the position of the tribes was not secure. Many white settlers and land speculators simply desired the land that was occupied by the tribes. Others believed that the presence of the tribes was a threat to peace and security, based on previous wars waged between the United States and Native Americans, some of whom had been armed by enemies of the United States, such as Great Britain and Spain.[citation needed] Look up acculturation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Routes of southern removals.
Routes of southern removals.

Accordingly, governments of the various U.S. states desired that all tribal lands within their boundaries be placed under state jurisdiction. In 1830, Georgia passed a law which prohibited whites from living on Indian territory after March 31, 1831 without a license from the state. This law was written to justify removing white missionaries who were helping the Indians resist removal. Missionary organizer Jeremiah Evarts urged the Cherokee Nation to take their case to the U.S. Supreme Court. The Marshall court ruled that while Indian tribes were sovereign nations (Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 1831), state laws had no force on tribal lands (Worcester v. Georgia, 1832). President Andrew Jackson is often quoted as having responded to the court by defiantly proclaiming, "John Marshall has made his decision. Now let him enforce it!" Jackson probably did not say this, although he was criticized (then and since) for making no effort to protect the tribes from state governments.[6] This article is being considered for deletion, in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... For other persons named John Marshall, see John Marshall (disambiguation). ... Holding The Supreme Court did not have original jurisdiction under Article III of the Constitution to hear a suit brought by the Cherokee Nation, which as an Indian tribe, was not a sovereign nation. ... Holding States were not permitted to redraw the boundaries of Indian lands or forbid residence in those territories, because the Constitution granted sole authority to Congress to regulate relations with sovereign Indian tribes. ...


Andrew Jackson and other candidates of the new Democratic Party had made Indian Removal a major goal in the campaign of 1828. In 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act and President Jackson signed it into law. The Removal Act provided for the government to negotiate removal treaties with the various tribes. The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek with the Choctaw was the first such removal treaty implemented; while around 7,000 Choctaws ultimately stayed in Mississippi, about 14,000 moved along the Red River. Other treaties, like the dubious Treaty of New Echota with the Cherokee, followed, resulting in the Trail of Tears. The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Indian Removal Act, part of a U.S. government policy known as Indian Removal, was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830. ... The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was a treaty signed on September 27, 1830 (and proclaimed on 24 February 1831) between the Choctaws (an American Indian tribe) and the United States. ... The Red River is one of several rivers with that name, and of two rivers with that name in the United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Norwegian musical group, see Trail of Tears (band); for the 2006 documentary, see The Trail of Tears: Cherokee Legacy. ...


As a result, the five tribes were resettled in the new Indian Territory in modern-day Oklahoma and parts of Kansas. Some Indians eluded removal, while those who lived on individually owned land (rather than tribal domains) were not subject to removal. Those who stayed behind eventually formed tribal groups including the Eastern Band Cherokee, based in North Carolina. Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ...


In 1835, the Seminoles refused to leave Florida, leading to the Second Seminole War. The most important leader in the war was Osceola, who led the Seminoles in their fight against removal. While based in the Everglades of Florida, Osceola and his band used surprise attacks to defeat the U.S. Army in many battles. In 1837, Osceola was seized by deceit upon the orders of U.S. General T.S. Jesup when Osceola came under a flag of truce to negotiate peace. This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Osceola, Seminole leader. ... Osceola Osceola (1804 – January 20, 1838) was a war chief of the Seminole Indians in Flo. ... Map of the Everglades ecoregion as delineated by the WWF. Satellite image from NASA. The yellow line encloses two ecoregions, the Everglades and the South Florida rocklands. The South Florida rocklands ecoregion includes the Florida Keys and offshore islands and two patches within the Everglades. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Indian removal (1627 words)
Andrew Jackson, from Tennessee, was a forceful proponent of Indian removal.
Under these treaties, the Indians were to give up their lands east of the Mississippi in exchange for lands to the west.
The removal was supposed to be voluntary and peaceful, and it was that way for the tribes that agreed to the conditions.
New Georgia Encyclopedia: Cherokee Removal (1342 words)
The removal of the Cherokees was a product of the demand for arable land during the rampant growth of cotton agriculture in the Southeast, the discovery of gold on Cherokee land, and the racial prejudice that many white southerners harbored toward American Indians.
In 1835 the latter group, led by Major Ridge, John Ridge, and Elias Boudinot, signed a removal treaty at the Cherokee capital of New Echota without the authority of Principal Chief Ross or the Cherokee government.
Once in the Indian Territory, a group of men who had opposed removal attacked and killed the two Ridges and Boudinot for violating the law that prohibited the sale of Cherokee lands.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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