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Encyclopedia > Indian Rebellion of 1857
Indian Rebellion of 1857
Part of Indian independence movement

A 1912 map of the Great Uprising of 1857 showing the centres of rebellion including the principal ones: Meerut, Delhi, Cawnpore (Kanpur), Lucknow, Jhansi, and Gwalior.
Date May 10, 1857
Location India (cf. 1857) [5]
Result Rebellion Suppressed,
End of Company Rule in India
Control taken by the British Crown
Territorial
changes
Indian Empire created out of former-East India Company territory, some land returned to native rulers, other land confiscated by the Crown.
Belligerents
Rebellious East India Company Sepoys,
7 Indian princely states,
deposed rulers of the independent states of Oudh, Jhansi
Some Indian civilians.
Flag of the United Kingdom British Army
East India Company's Sepoys Native Irregulars and British regulars, British civilian volunteers raised in Bengal presidency
20 Princely states aiding the British including the independent states of Nepal, Kashmir as well as smaller states in region
Commanders
Bahadur Shah II
Nana Sahib
Mirza Mughal
Bakht Khan
Rani Lakshmi Bai
Tantya Tope
Begum Hazrat Mahal
Commander-in-Chief, India:
George Anson (to May 1857)
Sir Patrick Grant
Sir Colin Campbell from (August 1857)
Jang Bahadur[1]

The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of British East India Company's army on the 10th of May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to the region of present-day Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, northern Madhya Pradesh or Saugor and Nerbudda Territories, Delhi, and Gurgaon.[2] The rebellion posed a considerable threat to Company power in that region,[3] and it was contained only with the fall of Gwalior on 20 June 1858.[2] The rebellion is also known as India's First War of Independence, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Revolt of 1857, and the Sepoy Mutiny. The term Indian independence movement is diffused, incorporating various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant philosophy and involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending the British Colonial Authority as well as other colonial... , Meerut (Hindi: मेरठ, Urdu: میرٹھ) IPA:   is a city and a municipal corporation in Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Kānpur (known as Cawnpore before 1948) is the most populous city in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... , Kanpur   (Hindi: कानपुर, Urdu: کان پور, spelled as Cawnpore before 1948) is one of the most populous cities in the north India and the most populous within the state of Uttar Pradesh. ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ... , Jhansi   झांसी is a city of Uttar Pradesh state of northern India. ... , Gwalior   is a city in Madhya Pradesh in India. ... The British Raj is an informal term for the period of British rule of most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka (previously known as Ceylon). ... The companys flag initially had the flag of England, the St Georges Cross, in the canton The Honourable East India Company (HEIC), often colloquially referred to as John Company, and Company Bahadur in India, was an early joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first... Image File history File links British_East_India_Company_flag. ... The companys flag initially had the flag of England, the St Georges Cross, in the canton The Honourable East India Company (HEIC), often colloquially referred to as John Company, and Company Bahadur in India, was an early joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first... A sepoy (from Persian سپاهی Sipâhi meaning soldier) was a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power, usually of the United Kingdom. ... A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince and is thus a principality taken in the broad sense. ... Awadh (also known to the British as Oudh) is a region in the center of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... , Jhansi   झांसी is a city of Uttar Pradesh state of northern India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Image File history File links British_East_India_Company_flag. ... The companys flag initially had the flag of England, the St Georges Cross, in the canton The Honourable East India Company (HEIC), often colloquially referred to as John Company, and Company Bahadur in India, was an early joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first... A sepoy (from Persian سپاهی Sipâhi meaning soldier) was a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power, usually of the United Kingdom. ... A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince and is thus a principality taken in the broad sense. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Bahadur Shah Zafar in 1858, just after his show trial in Delhi and before his departure for exile in Rangoon. ... For Peshwa Balaji Bajirao of Pune, see Nanasaheb Peshwa. ... Prince Mirza Mughal (1817 - 1857) was the fifth (and eldest surviving legitimate) son of Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar and heir apparent to the throne of Delhi and the title of Emperor of India. ... Bakht Khan (1797 - 1859) was commander in chief of Indian rebel forces in the Anti British uprising of 1857 (known as Indian Mutiny in British chronicles). ... Equestrian statue of Jhansi ki Rani Rani Lakshmi Bai also known as Jhansi Ki Rani, was the queen of Jhansi, a Maratha-ruled princely state of northern India, was one of the great nationalist heroes of the War of Independence of 1857, and a symbol of resistance to British rule... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Begum Hazrat Mahal, also known as Begum of Awadh, was the wife of Nawab Wazid Ali Shah. ... The list was taken from only one source [1]. Some checking had been done but the dates and the links to names need further work. ... Major-General the Hon. ... Sir Patrick Grant (1804 - September 11, 1895), British field marshal, was the second son of Major John Grant, 97th Foot, of Auchterblair, Inverness-shire, where he was born. ... Colin Campbell with William Mansfield, 1st Viscount Sandhurst Field Marshal Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde, GCB, KCSI (October 20, 1792–August 24, 1863) was a Scottish soldier. ... Sri Teen (3) Maharaja Jang Bahadur Rana Maharaja Sir Jung Bahadur (or Jang Bahadur), GCB, GCSI, (June 18, 1816, Kathmandu, Nepal -February 25, 1877, Kathmandu) was a ruler of Nepal and founder of the Rana dynasty of Nepal. ... Combatants Great Britain Indian rebels Commanders Major General Sir Henry Barnard Mirza Mughal (not present) Strength 2,000 infantry 500 cavalry 22 guns approx. ... Combatants Great Britain Indian rebels Commanders General Archdale Wilson Brigadier John Nicholson Bahadur Shah II Bakht Khan Strength max. ... Combatants British East India Company Indian rebels Commanders Brigadier Edward Greathed unknown Strength 2,650+ including 12 cannon unknown (including 12 cannon) Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Agra was a comparatively minor but nevertheless decisive action during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 (also known as the First War of... Combatants East India Company (Great Britain) Nana Sahibs forces Rebel Company soldiers Commanders Major General Sir Hugh Wheeler† Brigadier Alexander Jack† Major Edward Vibart† Captain John Moore† 32nd Nana Sahib Tatya Tope Bala Rao Strength around 500 soldiers and civilians around 4000 sepoys, local citizens and mercenaries Casualties All... The Battle of Chinhat was fought on June 29, 1857, between British forces and Indian rebels. ... Combatants British East India Company Indian Patriots Commanders Sir Henry Lawrence† Brigadier John Inglis Sir Henry Havelock† Sir James Outram Sir Colin Campbell No centralised command Strength rising to approx. ... Combatants Great Britain Indian rebels Commanders Sir Colin Campbell Tantya Tope Strength 5,000 30 guns 14,000 40 guns Casualties unknown unknown The Second Battle of Cawnpore was a battle of Indian rebellion of 1857, or Indian Mutiny as it is often referred to. ... Combatants East India Company Rebel Company sepoys Begum Hazrat Mahal Commanders Sir Colin Campbell unknown Strength 31,000 104 guns 100,000 (?) unknown number of guns Casualties 127 killed 595 wounded unknown The Capture of Lucknow was a battle of Indian rebellion of 1857. ... The Central India Campaign was one of the last series of actions in the Indian rebellion of 1857, or Indian Mutiny. ... A sepoy (from Persian سپاهی Sipâhi meaning soldier) was a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power, usually of the United Kingdom. ... The companys flag initially had the flag of England, the St Georges Cross, in the canton The Honourable East India Company (HEIC), often colloquially referred to as John Company, and Company Bahadur in India, was an early joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first... , Meerut (Hindi: मेरठ, Urdu: میرٹھ) IPA:   is a city and a municipal corporation in Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... The Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of northern India. ... The geography of India is extremely diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, hills and plateaus. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... , Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखण्ड or उत्तराखंड), is a state located in the northern part of India. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... The Saugor and Nerbudda Territories was a region of British India, located in central part of present-day Madhya Pradesh state in central India. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... , Gurgaon   (Hindi: गुड़गांव) is the sixth largest city in the Indian state of Haryana. ... , Gwalior   is a city in Madhya Pradesh in India. ...


The rebels quickly captured large swaths of the Northwest Provinces and Oudh, including Delhi, where they installed the Mughal ruler, Bahadur Shah Zafar, as Emperor of Hindustan. The Company response came rapidly as well: by September 1857, with help from fresh British reinforcements, Delhi had been retaken.[2] Nevertheless, it then took the better part of 1858 for the rebellion to be completely suppressed in Oudh.[2] United Provinces, 1903 The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, mainly referred to simply as the United Provinces, was a former province of British India, which existed from 1902 to 1947. ... Bahadur Shah II (1775-1862) aka Bahadur Shah Zafar (Zafar was his nom de plume, or takhallus, as an Urdu poet) was the last of the Mughal emperors in India. ... The term Hindustan (Hindi: हिन्दुस्तान [Hindustān], Urdu: [Hindustān], from the (Persian) Hindu + -stān, often formerly rendered Hindoostan) and the adjective Hindustani may relate to various aspects of three geographical areas (see Names of India): The modern Republic of India. ... United Provinces, 1903 The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, mainly referred to simply as the United Provinces, was a former province of British India, which existed from 1902 to 1947. ...


Other regions of Company controlled India—Bengal province, the Bombay Presidency, and the Madras Presidency—remained largely calm.[2] In Punjab, only recently annexed by the East India Company, the Sikh princes backed the Company by providing both soldiers and support.[2] The large princely states, Hyderabad, Mysore, Travancore, and Kashmir, as well as the smaller ones of Rajputana, by not joining the rebellion, served, in the Governor-General Lord Canning's words, as "breakwaters in a storm" for the Company.[4] For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ... Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ... Flag Capital Hyderabad Government Principality Nizam  - 1720-48 (first) Asaf Jah I  - 1911-48 (last) Asaf Jah VII History  - Established 1724  - Annexed by India September 18, 1948 Hyderābād and Berar   (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు Urdu: حیدر آباد) under the Nizams, was the largest princely state in India. ... Flag of former princely state of Mysore. ... Flag for former princely state of Travancore Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor (Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാങ്കോട് []) was a princely state in India with its capital at Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram). ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Rajputana (or Raj(prut)tana), which means Land of the Rajputs rajput love old rotten cheese wanna see whitch cheese we like go to this web page http://home. ... The Governor-Generals Flag (1885–1947) depicted the Star of India beneath the Imperial Crown of India on a Union Flag. ... Charles John Canning, 1st Earl Canning The Right Honourable Charles John Canning, 1st Earl Canning KG GCB (14 December 1812–17 June 1862), known as Viscount Canning from 1837 to 1859, was an English statesman, Governor-General of India during the Mutiny of 1857, He was the youngest child of...


In some regions, especially in Oudh, the rebellion took on the attributes of a patriotic revolt against European presence;[5] however, although the rebel leaders, especially the Rani of Jhansi, became folk heroes in the burgeoning nationalist movement in India half a century later,[2] they themselves "generated no coherent ideology or programme on which to build a new order."[6] Still, the rebellion proved to be an important watershed in Indian history;[7] it led to the dissolution of the East India Company in 1858, and forced the British to reorganize the army, the financial system, and the administration in India.[8] India was thereafter governed directly from London—by the British government India Office and a cabinet level Secretary of State for India—in the new British Raj, a system of governance that lasted until 1947.[4] Rani Lakshmi Bai, the queen of Jhansi, a Maratha-ruled princely state of northern India, was one of the great nationalist heroes of the Revolt of 1857, and a symbol of resistance to British rule in India. ... The term Indian independence movement is diffused, incorporating various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant philosophy and involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending the British Colonial Authority as well as other colonial... The India Office was the British government department responsible for the government of British India. ... The office of Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was created in 1858 when India was brought under direct British rule (British Raj). ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy...

Contents

Brief history of East India Company expansion in India

India in 1765 and 1805 showing East India Company Territories
India in 1765 and 1805 showing East India Company Territories
India in 1837 and 1857 showing East India Company and other territories
India in 1837 and 1857 showing East India Company and other territories
Main article: Company rule in India

Although the British East India Company had earlier administered the factory areas established for trading purposes, its victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757 marked the beginning of its rule in India. The victory was consolidated in 1764 at the Battle of Buxar (in Bihar), when the defeated Mughal emperor, Shah Alam II, granted control of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa to the Company. The Company soon expanded its territories around its bases in Bombay and Madras: the Anglo-Mysore Wars (1766–1799) and the Anglo-Maratha Wars (1772–1818) gave it the control of most of India south of the Narmada River. // The East India Company was founded in 1600, as The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Combatants British East India Company Siraj Ud Daulah (Nawab of Bengal), La Compagnie des Indes Orientales Commanders Colonel Robert Clive (later Governor of Bengal and Baron of Plassey) Mir Jafar Ali Khan, defected (Commander-in-chief of the Nawab), M. Sinfray (French Secretary to the Council) Strength 2,200 European... Combatants Bengal, British East India Company Commanders Mir Kasim, Hector Munro Strength 40,000 infantry, 18,000 infantry, Casualties high low Battle of Buxar (October 1764) was a significant battle fought between the forces under the command of the British East India Company on the one side, and the combined... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Shah Alam II (1728–1806) was a Mughal emperor of India. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... The Anglo-Mysore Wars were a series of eighteenth-century wars fought in India between the Kingdom of Mysore (then a French ally) and the British East-India Company, represented chiefly by the Madras Presidency. ... The Anglo-Maratha Wars were three wars fought in India between the Maratha Empire and the British East India Company. ... The Narmada River in central India The Narmada (Gujarati: નર્મદા Devanagri: नर्मदा or Nerbudda (Narbada) is a river in central India in Indian subcontinent. ...


At the turn of the 19th century, Governor-General Wellesley began what became two decades of accelerated expansion of Company territories.[9] This was achieved either by subsidiary alliances between the Company and local rulers or by direct military annexation. The subsidiary alliances created the Princely States (or Native States) of the Hindu maharajas and the Muslim nawabs, prominent among which were Cochin (1791), Jaipur (1794), Travancore (1795), Hyderabad (1798), Mysore (1799), Cis-Sutlej Hill States (1815), Central India Agency (1819), Kutch and Gujarat Gaikwad territories (1819), Rajputana (1818), and Bahawalpur (1833).[9] The annexed regions included the Northwest Provinces (comprising Rohilkhand, Gorakhpur, and the Doab, 1801), Delhi (1803), and Sindh (1843). Punjab, Northwest Frontier Province, and Kashmir were annexed after the Anglo-Sikh Wars in 1849; however, Kashmir was immediately sold under the Treaty of Amritsar (1850) to the Dogra Dynasty of Jammu and thereby became a princely state. In 1854 Berar was annexed, and the state of Oudh was added two years later. Richard Wellesley ,1st Marquess Wellesley The Most Honourable Richard Colley Wesley, later Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley (20 June 1760 - 26 September 1842), was the eldest son of Garret Wesley, 1st Earl of Mornington, an Irish peer, and brother of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... A subsidiary alliance is an alliance between a dominant nation and a nation that it dominates. ... A princely state or native state was a feudal monarchy in British India ruled by a hereditary ruler, who was nominally sovereign. ... Major-General H.H. Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh- al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh, Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI , GCIE , GBE The word Mahārāja (also spelled maharajah) is Sanskrit for great king or high king (a karmadharaya from mahānt great... Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ... It has been suggested that Gosree be merged into this article or section. ... Old city of Jaipur, India Jaipur (जयपुर) , also popularly known as the Pink City, historically sometimes rendered as Jeypore, is the capital of Rajasthan state, India. ... Flag for former princely state of Travancore Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor (Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാങ്കോട് []) was a princely state in India with its capital at Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram). ... Flag Capital Hyderabad Government Principality Nizam  - 1720-48 (first) Asaf Jah I  - 1911-48 (last) Asaf Jah VII History  - Established 1724  - Annexed by India September 18, 1948 Hyderābād and Berar   (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు Urdu: حیدر آباد) under the Nizams, was the largest princely state in India. ... Flag of former princely state of Mysore. ... The Cis-Sutlej states were a group of Sikh states in modern Punjab and Haryana states of northwestern India, lying between the Sutlej River on the north, the Himalaya on the west, the Yamuna River and Delhi District on the south, and Sirsa District on the west. ... The Central India Agency was a political unit of British India, which covered the northern half of present-day Madhya Pradesh state. ... Rajputana (or Raj(prut)tana), which means Land of the Rajputs rajput love old rotten cheese wanna see whitch cheese we like go to this web page http://home. ... The State of Bahawalpur was a princely state of the Punjab in what is now Pakistan, stretching along the southern bank of the Sutlej and Indus Rivers, with its capital city at Bahawalpur. ... Rohilkhand is a region of northwestern Uttar Pradesh state of India. ... , Gorakhpur (Hindi: गोरखपुर, Urdu: Ú¯Û‹Ú™Ú©Ú¾ پور) ) is a city in the eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, near the border with Nepal. ... A Doab, meaning two waters in Persian, is a term used in India and Pakistan for a tract of land between two confluent rivers. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... There have been two Anglo-Sikh wars: The First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846) The Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-1849) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Treaty of Amritsar of 1846 settled a dispute over territory in Kashmir, with Britain ceding some land to Maharaja Ranbir Singh. ... The Dogras are a Northern Indo-Aryan ethnic group in South Asia. ... Jammu   (Hindi: जम्मू, Urdu: جموں) is one of the three regions comprising the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Berar is a former province of British India, located in central India. ... Location of Awadh Awadh (Devanagari अवध) (also known in various British historical texts as Oudh, Oundh or Oude) is a region in the center of the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which was before Independence known as the United Provinces of Oudh and Agra. ...


Causes of the rebellion

The rebellion began with military revolts by sepoys of the Bengal Presidency army; in 1857 the presidency consisted of present-day Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. However, most rebel soldiers were from the Uttar Pradesh region, and, in particular, from Northwest Provinces (especially, Ganga-Jumna Doab) and Oudh, and many came from landowning families. Within weeks of the initial mutinies—as the rebel soldiers wrested control of many urban garrisons from the British — the rebellion was joined by various discontented groups in the hinterlands, in both farmed areas and the backwoods. The latter group, forming the civilian rebellion, consisted of feudal nobility, landlords, peasants, rural merchants, and some tribal groups. The sepoys were a combination of Muslim and Hindu soldiers. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 had diverse political, economic, military, religious and social causes. ... A sepoy (from Persian سپاهی Sipâhi meaning soldier) was a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power, usually of the United Kingdom. ... Bengal, known as Bango ( Bengali:বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bangodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bengali, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchim Bônggo IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... A Doab, meaning two waters in Persian, is a term used in India and Pakistan for a tract of land between two confluent rivers. ... United Provinces, 1903 The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, mainly referred to simply as the United Provinces, was a former province of British India, which existed from 1902 to 1947. ... A sepoy (from Persian سپاهی Sipâhi meaning soldier) was a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power, usually of the United Kingdom. ...


In 1772, when Warren Hastings was appointed the first Governor-General of the Company’s Indian territories, one of his first undertakings was the rapid expansion of the Company’s army. Since the available soldiers, or Sepoys, from Bengal — many of whom had fought against the Company in the Battle of Plassey — were now suspect in British eyes, Hastings recruited farther west from the high-caste rural Rajputs and Brahmins of Oudh and Bihar, a practice that continued for the next 75 years. However, in order to forestall any social friction, the Company also took pains to adapt its military practices to the requirements of their religious rituals. Consequently, these soldiers dined in separate facilities; in addition, overseas service, considered polluting to their caste, was not required of them, and the army soon came to officially recognize Hindu festivals. “This encouragement of high caste ritual status, however, left the government vulnerable to protest, even mutiny, whenever the sepoys detected infringement of their prerogatives.” (Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, p. 61) Warren Hastings (December 6, 1732 - August 22, 1818) was the first governor-general of British India, from 1773 to 1786. ... A sepoy (from Persian سپاهی Sipâhi meaning soldier) was a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power, usually of the United Kingdom. ... A Rajput (possibly from Sanskrit rāja-putra, son of a king) is a member of a prominent caste who live throughout northern and central India, primarily in the northwestern state of Rajasthan. ... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... Awadh (also known to the British as Oudh) is a region in the center of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ...

It has been suggested that after the annexation of Oudh by the East India Company in 1856, many sepoys were disquieted both from losing their perquisites, as landed gentry, in the Oudh courts and from the anticipation of any increased land-revenue payments that the annexation might augur.[10] Other have stressed that by 1857, some Indian soldiers, misreading the presence of missionaries as a sign of official intent, were persuaded that the East India Company was masterminding mass conversions of Hindus and Muslims to Christianity.[11] Although earlier in the 1830s, evangelists such as William Carey and William Wilberforce had successfully clamored for the passage of social reform such as the abolition of Sati and allowing the remarriage of Hindu widows, there is little evidence that the sepoy's allegiance was affected by this.[10] However, changes in the terms of their professional service may have created resentment. With East India Company victories in wars or with annexation, as the extent of Company jurisdiction expanded, the soldiers were now not only expected to serve in less familiar regions (such as in Burma in the Anglo-Burmese Wars in 1856), but also make do without the "foreign service," remuneration that had previously been their due.[12] Another financial grievance stemmed from the general service act, which denied retired Sepoys a pension; whilst this only applied to new recruits it was suspect that it would also apply to those already in service. In addition the Bengal army was paid less than both the Madras and Bombay armies, which compounded the fears over pensions[13]. Awadh (also known to the British as Oudh) is a region in the center of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... William Carey (August 17, 1761 – June 9, 1834) was an English missionary and Baptist minister, known as the father of modern missions. ... William Wilberforce (August 24, 1759 – July 29, 1833) was a British politician, philanthropist and slavery abolitionist. ... Sati may refer to any of the following: The Hindu Goddess Sati, daughter of Daksha and wife of Shiva A social practise in some parts of India in past centuries, often spelt Suttee The Buddhist Sati; see mindfulness. ... There have been three Burmese Wars or Anglo-Burmese Wars: First Anglo-Burmese War (1823 to 1826) Second Anglo-Burmese War (1852 to 1853) Third Anglo-Burmese War (1885 to 1887) The expansion of Myanmar had consequences along its frontiers. ...


There were also grievances over the issue of promotions, based on seniority (length of service). This, as well as the increasing number of European officers in the battalions[14], made promotion difficult.


The final spark was provided by the controversy over the new Pattern 1853 Enfield Rifle. To load the new rifle, the sepoys had to bite the cartridge open. It was believed that the paper cartridges that were standard issue with the rifle were greased with lard (pork fat) which was regarded as unclean by Muslims, or tallow (beef fat), regarded as sacred to Hindus.[15]. East India Company officers first became aware of the impending trouble over the cartridges in January, when they received reports of an altercation between a high-caste sepoy and a low-caste labourer at Dum Dum.[16] The labourer had taunted the sepoy that by biting the cartridge, he had himself lost caste, although at this time the Dum-Dum arsenal had not actually started to produce the new round, nor had a single practice shot fired.[17] On January 27 Colonel Richard Birch (the Military Secretary) ordered that all cartridges issued from depots were to be free from grease, and that Sepoys could grease them themselves using whatever mixture ‘they may prefer’.[18] This however, merely caused many Sepoys to be convinced that the rumours were true and that their fears were justified. The Enfield 1853 Rifled Musket (also known as the Pattern 1853 Enfield, P53 Enfield, and Enfield Rifled Musket) was a . ... Refusing to bite the cartridge was a turn of phrase used by the British in India of Native Indian solidiers (sepoys) who had mutinied in 1857. ... This article is about the fat. ... Tallow is rendered beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. ... Dum-dum is the colloquial name for several types of modified exploding (more properly known as expanding) ammunition for firearms. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The civilian rebellion was more multifarious in origin. The rebels consisted of three groups: feudal nobility, rural landlords called taluqdars, and the peasants. The nobility, many of whom had lost titles and domains under the Doctrine of Lapse, which refused to recognise the adopted children of princes as legal heirs, felt that the Company had interfered with a traditional system of inheritance. Rebel leaders such as Nana Sahib and the Rani of Jhansi belonged to this group; the latter, for example, was prepared to accept East India Company supremacy if her adopted son was recognized as the heir.[19] In other areas of central India, such as Indore and Saugar, where such loss of privilege had not occurred, the princes remained loyal to the Company even in areas where the sepoys had rebelled.[20] The second group, the taluqdars had lost half their landed estates to peasant farmers as a result of the land reforms that came in the wake of annexation of Oudh. As the rebellion gained ground, the taluqdars quickly reoccupied the lands they had lost, and paradoxically, in part due to ties of kinship and feudal loyalty, did not experience significant opposition from the peasant farmers, many of whom joined the rebellion to the great dismay of the British.[21] It has also been suggested that heavy land-revenue assessment in some areas by the British resulted in many landowning families either losing their land or going into great debt with money lenders, and providing ultimately a reason to rebel; money lenders, in addition to the East India Company, were particular objects of the rebels' animosity.[22] The civilian rebellion was also highly uneven in its geographic distribution, even in areas of north-central India that were no longer under British control. For example, the relatively prosperous Muzaffarnagar district, a beneficiary of a Company irrigation scheme, and next door to Meerut where the upheaval began, stayed mostly calm throughout.[23] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Taluqdar. ... The Doctrine of Lapse was an annexation policy devised by Lord Dalhousie, who was the Governor General of India between 1848 and 1856. ... Supremacism is the belief that self-determination and freedom of association are principles less important than the virtues obtained by ones race, religion, belief system or culture ruling over others. ... , Indore (Hindi:इन्दौर ,Marathi:इंदूर)  , a large city in the Malwa region of Central India is the commercial capital of the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. ... , For other uses, see Sagar (disambiguation). ... , Muzaffarnagar   (Hindi: मुज़फ़्फ़रनगर, Urdu: مظفر نگر) is a city and a municipal board in Muzaffarnagar district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... , Meerut (Hindi: मेरठ, Urdu: میرٹھ) IPA:   is a city and a municipal corporation in Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ...


The first Indian critique of the rebellion appeared in 1859. In his Urdu book, Asbab-e Baghawat-e Hind (Causes of the Indian Mutiny),[24] Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan asserted Urdu ( , , trans. ... Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (1817 - 1898) Syed Ahmad Khan (Urdu: سید احمد خان ) (October 17, 1817, Delhi - March 27, 1898, Aligarh), was an Indian Muslim educator, jurist, and author, who led the Aligarh Movement which resulted in the formation of the Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College,later to blossom into theAligarh Muslim University, at...

“I believe that there was but one primary cause of the rebellion, the others being merely incidental and arising out of it … [T]he Natives of India, without perhaps a single exception, blame the Government for having deprived them of their position and dignity and for keeping them down … Was not the Government aware that the Natives of the very highest rank trembled before its officers, and were in daily fear of suffering the greatest insults and indignities at their hands?”[25]

Sir Sayyid's critique was later translated into English and stimulated both interest and debate among the British. Some of his points have been echoed by modern historians. “(The rebellion) was the result of two generations of social disruption and official insensitivity ...” (Bayly 2000, p. 357). Although at that time some civilian leaders such as Khan Bhadur Khan of Bareilly stressed the threat posed to the populace's religions by the new education programs begun by the British, historical statistics have shown that this was not generally the case. For example, in Etawah district, where during the period 1855-57, nearly 200 schools had been opened by the British and tax levied on the population, relative calm prevailed and the schools remained opened during the rebellion.[26] , Bareilly   (Hindi: बरेली, Urdu: بریلی) is a metro city in Bareilly district in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Etawah is a city on the Yamuna River in the Uttar_Pradesh state of India. ...


Onset of the Rebellion

Several months of increasing tension and inflammatory incidents preceded the actual rebellion. Fires, possibly the result of arson, broke out near Calcutta on 24 January 1857. On February 26, 1857 the 19th Bengal Native Infantry (BNI) regiment came to know about new cartridges which allegedly had a casing made of cow and pig fat, which had to be bitten off by mouth. The cow being sacred to Hindus and pig haram to Muslims soldiers refused to use them. Their Colonel confronted them angrily with artillery and cavalry on the parade ground, but then accepted their demand to withdraw the artillery, and cancel the next morning's parade.[27] This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Mangal Pandey

Main article: Mangal Pandey

On March 29, 1857 at the Barrackpore (now Barrackpur) parade ground, near Calcutta (now Kolkata), 29-year-old Mangal Pandey of the 34th BNI, angered by the recent actions by the East India Company, declared that he would rebel against his commanders. When his adjutant Lt. Baugh came out to investigate the unrest, Pande opened fire but hit his horse instead.[28] For the Hindi film of the same name, see The Rising (Indian film). ... Image File history File links Mangal_pandey_gimp. ... Image File history File links Mangal_pandey_gimp. ... Mangal Pande was a Bengali soldier of the 34th Native Infantry who started a mutiny that more or less started the Indian rebellion of 1857. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... For the Hindi film of the same name, see The Rising (Indian film). ... Adjutant is a military rank or appointment. ...


General John Hearsey came out to see him on the parade ground, and claimed later that Mangal Pandey was in some kind of "religious frenzy". He ordered a Jemadar Ishwari Prasad to arrest Mangal Pandey, but the Jemadar refused. The whole regiment, with the single exception of a soldier called Shaikh Paltu, drew back from restraining or arresting Mangal Pande. Shaikh Paltu restrained Pande from continuing his attack.[28] Jemadar was a rank used in the British Indian Army, where it was the was the lowest rank for a Viceroys Commissioned Officer (VCO). ... Shaikh Paltu was a soldier (sepoy) with the British East India Company, serving in the 34th Bengal Native Infantry in March 1857, as a widespread discontentment broke out in the Bengal Army. ...


Mangal Pandey after failing to incite his comrades into an open and active rebellion, tried to take his own life by placing his musket to his chest, and pulling the trigger with his toe. He only managed to wound himself, and was court-martialled on April 6. He was hanged on April 8. is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Jemadar Ishwari Prasad was sentenced to death and hanged on April 22. The regiment was disbanded and stripped of their uniforms because it was felt that they harboured ill-feelings towards their superiors, particularly after this incident. Shaikh Paltu was promoted to the rank of Jemadar in the Bengal Army. is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jemadar was a rank used in the British Indian Army, where it was the was the lowest rank for a Viceroys Commissioned Officer (VCO). ...


Sepoys in other regiments thought this a very harsh punishment. The show of disgrace while disbanding contributed to the extent of the rebellion in view of some historians, as disgruntled ex-sepoys returned home to Awadh with a desire to inflict revenge, as and when the opportunity arose.


April saw fires at Agra, Allahabad and Ambala. At Ambala in particular, which was a large military cantonment where several units had been collected for their annual musketry practice, it was clear to General Anson, Commander-in-Chief of the Bengal Army, that some sort of riot over the cartridges was imminent. Despite the objections of the Governor-General's staff, he agreed to postpone the musketry practice, and allow the new drill by which the soldiers tore the cartridges with their fingers rather than their teeth. Rather than remain at Ambala to defuse or overawe potential trouble, Anson then proceeded to Simla, the cool "hill station" where many high officials spent the summer. For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... , Ambala (Hindi: अम्बाला, Punjabi ਅੰਬਾਲਾ , Telugu: అంబాల ) is a city and a municipal council in Ambala district in the state of Haryana, India. ... , Shimla   (Hindi: शिमला), originally called Simla, is a city in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. ...


Although there was no open revolt at Ambala, there was widespread incendiarism during late April. Barrack buildings (especially those belonging to soldiers who had used the Enfield cartridges) and European officers' bungalows were set on fire.[29]


Meerut and Delhi

An 1858 photograph of a mosque in Meerut where some of the rebel soldiers may have worshiped.
An 1858 photograph of a mosque in Meerut where some of the rebel soldiers may have worshiped.

At Meerut was another large military cantonment. Stationed there were 2,357 Indian sepoys and 2,038 British troops with 12 British-manned guns. Although the state of unrest within the Bengal Army was well known, on April 24, the unsympathetic commanding officer of the 3rd Bengal Light Cavalry ordered 90 of his men to parade and perform firing drills. All but five of the men on parade refused to accept their cartridges. On May 9, the remaining 85 men were court martialled, and most were sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment with hard labour. Eleven comparatively young soldiers were given five years' imprisonment. The entire garrison was paraded and watched as the condemned men were stripped of their uniforms and placed in shackles. As they were marched off to jail, the condemned soldiers berated their comrades for failing to support them. , Meerut (Hindi: मेरठ, Urdu: میرٹھ) IPA:   is a city and a municipal corporation in Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The next day was Sunday, the Christian day of rest and worship. Some Indian soldiers warned off-duty junior European officers that plans were afoot to release the imprisoned soldiers by force, but the senior officers to whom this was reported took no action. There was also unrest in the city of Meerut itself, with angry protests in the bazaar and some buildings being set on fire. In the evening, most European officers were preparing to attend Church, while many of the European soldiers were off duty and had gone into canteens or into the bazaar in Meerut. The Indian troops, led by the 3rd Cavalry, broke into revolt. British junior officers who attempted to quell the first outbreaks were killed by their own men. European officers' and civilians' quarters were attacked, and four civilian men, eight women and eight children died. Crowds in the bazaar attacked the off-duty soldiers there. The sepoys freed their 85 imprisoned comrades from the jail, along with 800 other prisoners (debtors and criminals).[30]


Some sepoys (especially from the 11th Bengal Native Infantry) escorted trusted British officers and women and children to safety before joining the revolt. [31] Some officers and their families escaped to Rampur, where they found refuge with the Nawab. About 50 Indian civilians (some of whom were officers' servants who tried to defend or conceal their employers) were also killed by the sepoys.[32]. Exaggerated tales of the number and manner of death of British who died during the uprising at Meerut were later to provide a pretext for British forces to commit extremely violent reprisals against innocent Indian civilians and rebellious sepoys alike during the later suppression of the Revolt. Rampur (Hindi: रामपुर, Pashto/Urdu: رام پور) is a city and a municipal board located in the Rampur District in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ...


The senior British officers, in particular Major General Hewitt, the commander of the division (who was nearly 70 years old and in poor health), were slow to react. The British troops (mainly the 1st Battalion of the 60th Rifles and two European-manned batteries of the Bengal Artillery) rallied, but received no orders to engage the rebellious sepoys and could only guard their own headquarters and armouries. When, on the morning of May 11 they prepared to attack, they found Meerut was quiet and the rebels had marched off to Delhi. The Kings Royal Rifle Corps was a British Army formation. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


That same morning, the first parties of the 3rd Cavalry reached Delhi. From beneath the windows of the King's apartments in the palace, they called on him to acknowledge and lead them. Bahadur Shah did nothing at this point (apparently treating the sepoys as ordinary petitioners), but others in the palace were quick to join the revolt. During the day, the revolt spread. European officials and dependents, Indian christians and shop keepers within the city were attacked, some by sepoys and others by crowds of rioters. Up to 50 were said to have been killed by some of the King's servants under a peepul tree in a courtyard outside the palace.[33].

The Flagstaff Tower, Delhi, where the European survivors of the rebellion gathered on May 11, 1857

There were three battalions of Bengal Native Infantry stationed in or near the city. Some detachments quickly joined the rebellion, while others held back but also refused to obey orders to take action against the rebels. In the afternoon, a violent explosion in the city was heard for several miles. Fearing that the arsenal, which contained large stocks of arms and ammunition, would fall intact into rebel hands, the nine British Ordnance officers there had opened fire on the sepoys, including the men of their own guard. When resistance appeared hopeless, they blew up the arsenal. Although six of the nine officers survived, the blast killed many in the streets and nearby houses and other buildings.[34] The news of these events finally tipped the sepoys stationed around Delhi into open rebellion. The sepoys were later able to salvage at least some arms from the arsenal, and a magazine two miles (3 km) outside Delhi, containing up to 3,000 barrels of gunpowder, was captured without resistance.


Many fugitive European officers and civilians had congregated at the Flagstaff Tower on the ridge north of Delhi, where telegraph operators were sending news of the events to other British stations. When it became clear that no help could arrive, they made their way in carriages to Karnal. Those who became separated from the main body or who could not reach the Flagstaff Tower also set out for Karnal on foot. Some were helped by villagers on the way, others were robbed or murdered. Karnal district, in Haryana, India, has an area of 1,967 sq km and its population is 8,85,000. ...


The next day, Bahadur Shah held his first formal court for many years. It was attended by many excited or unruly sepoys. The King was alarmed by the turn events had taken, but eventually accepted the sepoys' allegiance and agreed to give his countenance to the rebellion.


Support and opposition

States during the rebellion
States during the rebellion

The news of the events at Delhi spread rapidly, provoking uprisings among sepoys and disturbances in many districts. In many cases, it was the behaviour of British military and civilian authorities themselves which precipitated disorder. Learning of the fall of Delhi by telegraph, many Company administrators hastened to remove themselves, their families and servants to places of safety. At Agra, 160 miles (260 km) from Delhi, no less than 6,000 assorted non-combatants converged on the Fort.[35] The haste with which many civilians left their posts encouraged rebellions in the areas they left, although others remained at their posts until it was clearly impossible to maintain any sort of order. Several were murdered by rebels or lawless gangs. Image File history File links Indian_revolt_of_1857_states_map. ... Image File history File links Indian_revolt_of_1857_states_map. ... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


The military authorities also reacted in disjointed manner. Some officers trusted their sepoys, but others tried to disarm them to forestall potential uprisings. At Benares and Allahabad, the disarmings were bungled, also leading to local revolts.[36] , Varanasi (Sanskrit: वाराणसी VārāṇasÄ«, IPA:  ), also known as Benares (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA: ), or Kashi (Hindi: ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Although rebellion became widespread, there was little unity among the rebels. While Bahadur Shah Zafar was restored to the imperial throne there was a faction that wanted the Maratha rulers to be enthroned also, and the Awadhis wanted to retain the powers that their Nawab used to have. Bahadur Shah II (1775-1862) aka Bahadur Shah Zafar (Zafar was his nom de plume, or takhallus, as an Urdu poet) was the last of the Mughal emperors in India. ... Flag of the Maratha Empire Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. ... Location of Awadh Awadh (Devanagari अवध) (also known in various British historical texts as Oudh, Oundh or Oude) is a region in the center of the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which was before Independence known as the United Provinces of Oudh and Agra. ...


There were calls for jihad[37] by Muslim leaders like Maulana Fazl-e-Haq Khairabadi including the millenarian Ahmedullah Shah, taken up by the Muslims, particularly Muslim artisans, which caused the British to think that the Muslims were the main force behind this event. In Awadh, Sunni Muslims did not want to see a return to Shiite rule, so they often refused to join what they perceived to be a Shia rebellion. However, some Muslims like the Aga Khan supported the British. The British rewarded him by formally recognizing his title. The Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah, resisted these calls because, it has been suggested, he feared outbreaks of communal violence. For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Maulana Fazl-e-Haq Khairabadi (1797 - 1861) was one of the main figures of the Indian Mutiny in 1857. ... Millenarianism or millenarism is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society after which all things will be changed in a positive (or sometimes negative or ambiguous) direction. ... Location of Awadh Awadh (Devanagari अवध) (also known in various British historical texts as Oudh, Oundh or Oude) is a region in the center of the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which was before Independence known as the United Provinces of Oudh and Agra. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... This article is about the hereditary title. ...


In Thana Bhawan, the Sunnis declared Haji Imdadullah their Ameer. In May 1857 the Battle of Shamli took place between the forces of Haji Imdadullah and the British. Thana Bhawan is a village in Muzaffarnagar District, Uttar Pradesh, India. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Hadrat Imdadullah Mahajir Makki was a great saint of Chishti Order in the nineteenth century. ... Emir (also sometimes rendered as Amir or Ameer, Arabic commander) is a title of nobility historically used in Islamic nations of the Middle East and North Africa. ...


The Sikhs and Pathans of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province supported the British and helped in the recapture of Delhi.[38][39] Some historians have suggested that the Sikhs wanted to avenge the annexation of Punjab eight years earlier by the Company with the help of Purbias (Bengalis and Marathis - Easterner) who helped the British. It has also been suggested that the Sikhs felt insulted by the attitude of Sepoys that (in their view) had only beaten the Khalsa with British help, they resented and despised them far more than the British [40]. A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun (Persian: پختون) (Urdu: پشتون ), or Pathan) or ethnic Afghans[4] are an ethno-linguistic group living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: śimāl maġribī sarhadī sūba شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest of the four main provinces of Pakistan. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... Khalsa (Punjabi: , literally Pure) refers to the collective body of all baptized Sikhs. ...


In 1857, the Bengal Army had 86,000 men of which 12,000 were European, 16,000 Punjabi and 1,500 Gurkha soldiers, out of a total of (for the three Indian armies) 311,000 native troops,, and 40,160 European troops as well as 5,362 officers. [41]. Fifty-four of the Bengal Army's 75 regular Native Infantry Regiments rebelled, although some were immediately destroyed or broke up with their sepoys drifting away to their homes. Almost all the remainder were disarmed or disbanded to prevent or forestall rebellions. All ten of the Bengal Light Cavalry regiments rebelled.


The Bengal Army also included 29 Irregular Cavalry and 42 Irregular Infantry regiments. These included a substantial contingent from the recently annexed state of Awadh, which rebelled en masse. Another large contingent from Gwalior also rebelled, even though that state's ruler remained allied to the British. The remainder of the Irregular units were raised from a wide variety of sources and were less affected by the concerns of mainstream Indian society. Three bodies in particular actively supported the Comapny; three Gurkha and five of six Sikh infantry units, and the six infantry and six cavalry units of the recently-raised Punjab Irregular Force.[42][43]


On April 1, 1858, the number of Indian soldiers in the Bengal army loyal to the Company was 80,053. [44][45] This total included a large number of soldiers hastily raised in the Punjab and North-West Frontier after the outbreak of the Rebellion. is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The Bombay army had three mutinies in its 29 regiments whilst the Madras army had no mutinies, though elements of one of its 52 regiments refused to volunteer for service in Bengal.[46]


Most of southern India remained passive with only sporadic and haphazard outbreaks of violence. Most of the states did not take part in the war as many parts of the region were ruled by the Nizams or the Mysore royalty and were thus not directly under British rule. Flag Capital Hyderabad Language(s) Dakhni , later Urdu Government Monarchy Nizam  - 1720-1748 Qamar-ud-din Khan Siddiqi, Asaf Jah I  - 1869-1911 Mahbub Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VI History  - Established 1720  - Operation polo 1948 Qamaruddin Khan,Asaf Jah I Nizam, a shortened version of Nizam-ul-Mulk, meaning Administrator...


The Revolt

Initial stages

Bahadur Shah Zafar proclaimed himself the Emperor of the whole of India. Most contemporary and modern accounts suggest that he was coerced by the sepoys and his courtiers to sign the proclamation against his will[citation needed]. The civilians, nobility and other dignitaries took the oath of allegiance to the Emperor. The Emperor issued coins in his name, one of the oldest ways of asserting Imperial status, and his name was added to the acceptance by Muslims that he is their King. This proclamation, however, turned the Sikhs of Punjab away from the rebellion, as they did not want to return to Islamic rule, having fought many wars against the Mughal rulers. Bahadur Shah Zafar in 1858, just after his show trial in Delhi and before his departure for exile in Rangoon. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ...


The province of Bengal was largly quiet throughout the entire period. Initially, the Indian soldiers were able to significantly push back Company forces, and captured several important towns in Haryana, Bihar, Central Provinces and the United Provinces. When the European troops were reinforced and began to counterattack, the sepoys who mutinied were especially handicapped by their lack of a centralised command and control system. Although they produced some natural leaders such as Bakht Khan (whom the Emperor later nominated as commander-in-chief after his son Mirza Mughal proved ineffectual), for the most part they were forced to look for leadership to rajahs and princes. Some of these were to prove dedicated leaders, but others were self-interested or inept. For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... A British Raj province comprising British conquests from the Mughals and Marathas in central India. ... United Provinces, 1903 The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, mainly referred to simply as the United Provinces, was a former province of British India, which existed from 1902 to 1947. ... Bakht Khan (1797 - 1859) was commander in chief of Indian rebel forces in the Anti British uprising of 1857 (known as Indian Mutiny in British chronicles). ... Prince Mirza Mughal (1817 - 1857) was the fifth (and eldest surviving legitimate) son of Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar and heir apparent to the throne of Delhi and the title of Emperor of India. ...


Rao Tularam of Haryana and Pran Sukh Yadav fought with the British Army at Nasibpur and then went to collect arms from Russia which had just been in a war with the British in the Crimea, but he died on the way. When a tribal leader from Peshawar sent a letter offering help, the king replied that he should not come to Delhi because the treasury was empty and the army had become uncontrollable.[47] Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ...


Delhi

Main article: Siege of Delhi

The British were slow to strike back at first. It took time for troops stationed in Britain to make their way to India by sea, although some regiments moved overland through Persia from the Crimean War, and some regiments already en route for China were diverted to India. Combatants Great Britain Indian rebels Commanders General Archdale Wilson Brigadier John Nicholson Bahadur Shah II Bakht Khan Strength max. ... Motto: Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1 Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic Anthem: SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian, Constitutional status for regional languages such as Azeri and Kurdish [1] Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought...


It took time to organize the European troops already in India into field forces, but eventually two columns left Meerut and Simla. They proceeded slowly towards Delhi and fought, killed, and hanged numerous Indians along the way. Two months after the first outbreak of rebellion at Meerut, the two forces met near Karnal. The combined force (which included two Gurkha units serving in the Bengal Army under contract from the Kingdom of Nepal), fought the main army of the rebels at Badli-ke-Serai and drove them back to Delhi. , Meerut (Hindi: मेरठ, Urdu: میرٹھ) IPA:   is a city and a municipal corporation in Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... , Shimla   (Hindi: शिमला), originally called Simla, is a city in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. ... Karnal district, in Haryana, India, has an area of 1,967 sq km and its population is 8,85,000. ... Gurkha, also spelled as Gorkha, are people from Nepal and parts of North India, who take their name from the eighth century Hindu warrior-saint Guru Gorakhnath. ... Combatants Great Britain Indian rebels Commanders Major General Sir Henry Barnard Mirza Mughal (not present) Strength 2,000 infantry 500 cavalry 22 guns approx. ...


The Company established a base on the Delhi ridge to the north of the city and the Siege of Delhi began. The siege lasted roughly from July 1 to September 21. However, the encirclement was hardly complete, and for much of the siege the Company forces were outnumbered and it often seemed that it was the Company forces and not Delhi that was under siege, and the rebels could easily receive resources and reinforcements. For several weeks, it seemed that disease, exhaustion and continuous sorties by rebels from Delhi would force the Company forces to withdraw, but the outbreaks of rebellion in the Punjab were forestalled or suppressed, allowing the Punjab Movable Column of British, Sikh and Pakhtun soldiers under John Nicholson to reinforce the besiegers on the Ridge on August 14.[48][49] On 30th of august the rebels offered terms, which were refused.[50]. Combatants Great Britain Indian rebels Commanders General Archdale Wilson Brigadier John Nicholson Bahadur Shah II Bakht Khan Strength max. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... General John Nicholson John Nicholson (December 11, 1822 – September 23, 1857) was a Victorian era military hero. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

An eagerly-awaited heavy siege train joined the besieging force, and from September 7, the siege guns battered breaches in the walls and silenced the rebels' artillery. An attempt to storm the city through the breaches and the Kashmiri gate was launched on September 14. The attackers gained a foothold within the city but suffered heavy casualties, including John Nicholson. The British commander wished to withdraw, but was persuaded to hold on by his junior officers. After a week of street fighting, the British reached the Red Fort. Bahadur Shah had already fled to Humayun's tomb. The British had retaken the city. is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kashmiri Gate Built by Military Engineer Robert Smith in 1835, the gate is named this because it used to start a pathway that led to Kashmir. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nasiruddin Humayun (March 6, 1508 – February 22, 1556), second Mughal Emperor, ruled in India from 1530–1540 and 1555–1556. ...


The troops of the besieging force proceeded to loot and pillage the city. A large number of the citizens were killed in retaliation for the Europeans and Indian civilians that had been killed by the rebel sepoys. During the street fighting, artillery had been set up in the main mosque in the city and the neighbourhoods within range were bombarded. These included the homes of the Muslim nobility from all over India, and contained innumerable cultural, artistic, literary and monetary riches.


The British soon arrested Bahadur Shah, and the next day British officer William Hodson shot his sons Mirza Mughal, Mirza Khizr Sultan, and grandson Mirza Abu Bakr under his own authority at the Khooni Darwaza (the bloody gate) near Delhi Gate. On hearing the news Zafar reacted with shocked silence while his wife Zinat Mahal was happy as she believed her son was now Zafar's heir.[51]. William Stephen Raikes Hodson (March 10, 1821 - March 11, 1858), known as Hodson of Hodsons Horse, British leader of irregular light cavalry during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, third son of the Rev. ... Khooni Darwaza (Hindi:खूनी दरवाज़ा, literally Gateway of Blood), also referred to as Lal Darwaza (Hindi:लाल दरवाज़ा, Red Gate), is located in Delhi, India on the Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. ...


Shortly after the fall of Delhi, the victorious attackers organised a column which relieved another besieged Company force in Agra, and then pressed on to Cawnpore, which had also recently been recaptured. This gave the Company forces a continuous, although still tenuous, line of communication from the east to west of India. For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ...


Cawnpore (Kanpur)

Main article: Siege of Cawnpore
A memorial erected (circa 1860) by the British after the Mutiny at the Bibi Ghar Well. After India's independence the statue was moved to the Memorial Church, Cawnpore. Albumen silver print by Samuel Bourne, 1860.
A memorial erected (circa 1860) by the British after the Mutiny at the Bibi Ghar Well. After India's independence the statue was moved to the Memorial Church, Cawnpore. Albumen silver print by Samuel Bourne, 1860.

In June, sepoys under General Wheeler in Cawnpore (now known as Kanpur) rebelled and besieged the European entrenchment. Wheeler was not only a veteran and respected soldier, but also married to a high-caste Indian lady. He had relied on his own prestige, and his cordial relations with the Nana Sahib to thwart rebellion, and took comparatively few measures to prepare fortifications and lay in supplies and ammunition. Combatants East India Company (Great Britain) Nana Sahibs forces Rebel Company soldiers Commanders Major General Sir Hugh Wheeler† Brigadier Alexander Jack† Major Edward Vibart† Captain John Moore† 32nd Nana Sahib Tatya Tope Bala Rao Strength around 500 soldiers and civilians around 4000 sepoys, local citizens and mercenaries Casualties All... Image File history File links Cwanpore_Memorial. ... Image File history File links Cwanpore_Memorial. ... Samuel Bourne (1834–1912) was a British photographer known for his work in India. ... , Kanpur   (Hindi: कानपुर, Urdu: کان پور, spelled as Cawnpore before 1948) is one of the most populous cities in the north India and the most populous within the state of Uttar Pradesh. ...


The besieged endured three weeks of the Siege of Cawnpore with little water or food, suffering continuous casualties to men, women and children. On June 25 Nana Sahib made an offer of safe passage to Allahabad. With barely three days' food rations remaining, the British agreed provided they could keep their small arms and that the evacuation should take place in daylight on the morning of the 27th (the Nana Sahib wanted the evacuation to take place on the night of the 26th). Early in the morning of June 27, the European party left their entrenchment and made their way to the river where boats provided by the Nana Sahib were waiting to take them to Allahabad. [52]Several sepoys who had stayed loyal to the Company were removed by the mutineers and killed, either because of their loyalty or because 'they had become Christian'. A few injured British officers trailing the column were also apparently hacked to death by angry sepoys. After the European party had largely arrived at the dock, which was surrounded by sepoys positioned , on both banks of the Ganges[53], with clear lines of fire, firing broke out and the boats were abandoned by their crew, and caught or were set[54] on fire using peices of red hot charcoal.[55] The British party tried to push the boats off but all except three remained stuck. One boat with over a dozen wounded men initially escaped, but later grounded, was caught by mutineers and pushed back down the river towards the carnage at Cawnpore. Towards the end rebel cavalry rode into the water to finish off any survivors.[55] After the firing ceased the survivors were rounded up and the men shot.[55] By the time the massacre was over, all the male members of the party were dead while the women and children were removed and held hostage (and later killed in the Bibi-ghar massacre). [56] Only four men eventually escaped alive from Cawnpore on one of the boats: two private soldiers (both of whom died later during the Rebellion), a lieutenant, and Captain Mowbray Thomson, who wrote a first-hand account of his experiences entitled The Story of Cawnpore (London, 1859). Combatants East India Company (Great Britain) Nana Sahibs forces Rebel Company soldiers Commanders Major General Sir Hugh Wheeler† Brigadier Alexander Jack† Major Edward Vibart† Captain John Moore† 32nd Nana Sahib Tatya Tope Bala Rao Strength around 500 soldiers and civilians around 4000 sepoys, local citizens and mercenaries Casualties All... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Whether the firing was planned or accidental remains unresolved. Most early histories assume it was planned either by the Nana Sahib (Kaye and Malleson) or that Tantia Tope and Brigadier Jwala Pershad planned it without the Nana Sahib's knowledge (G W Forrest). The stated reasons for the planned nature are: the speed with which the Nana Sahib agreed to the British conditions (Mowbray Thomson); and the firepower arranged around the ghat which was far in excess of what was necessary to guard the European troops (most histories agree on this). During his trial, Tatya Tope denied the existence of any such plan and described the incident in the following terms: the Europeans had already boarded the boats and he (Tatya Tope) raised his right hand to signal their departure. That very moment someone from the crowd blew a loud bugle which created disorder and in the ongoing bewilderment, the boatmen jumped off the boats. The rebels started shooting indiscriminately. Nana Sahib, who was staying in Savada Kothi (Bungalow) nearby, was informed about what was happening and immediately came to stop it. [57] Some British histories allow that it was probably the result of accident or error; someone accidentally or maliciously fired a shot, the panic-stricken British opened fire, and it became impossible to stop the massacre.[58] Tatya Tope also known as Ram Chandra Pandurang was born in 1814 at village Gola in Maharashtra. ... [Image:Bungalows. ...


The surviving women and children were taken to the Nana Sahib and then confined first to the Savada Kothi and then to the home of Sir George Parker (the Bibigarh) where they were joined by refugees from Fatehgarh. (Overall five men and two hundred and six women and children were confined in the Bibigarh for about two weeks.) In one week 25 were brought out dead, due to dysentry and cholera [59]. Meanwhile a Company relief force that had advanced from Allahabad defeated the Indians and by July 15th it was clear that the Nana Sahib would not be able to hold Cawnpore and a decision was made by the Nana Sahib and other leading rebels that the hostages must be killed. After the sepoys refused to carry out this order, two Muslim butchers, two Hindu peasants and one of Nana's bodyguards went into the Bibi-Ghar. Armed with knives and hatchets they hacked all the women and children to pieces. [60]. The dead and the dying were thrown down a nearby well, when the well was full, the 50 foot deep well was filled with remains to within 6 feet of the top[61], the remainder were thrown into the Ganges[62].


Historians have given many reasons for this act of cruelty. With Company forces approaching Cawnpore and some believing that they would not advance if there were no hostages to save, their murders were ordered. Or perhaps it was to ensure that no information was leaked after the fall of Cawnpore. Other historians have suggested that the killings were an attempt to undermine Nana Sahib's relationship with the British [63];. Perhaps it was due to fear, the fear of being recognized by some of the prisoners for having taken part in the earlier firings.[64]

The killing of the women and children proved to be a mistake. The British public was aghast and the pro-Indian proponents lost all their support. Cawnpore became a war cry for the British and their allies for the rest of the conflict. The Nana Sahib disappeared near the end of the Rebellion and it is not known what happened to him.


Other British accounts [65][66][67] state that indiscriminate punitive measures were taken in early June, two weeks before the murders at the Bibi-Ghar (but after those at both Meerut and Delhi), specifically by Lieutenant Colonel James George Smith Neill of the Madras Fusiliers (a European unit), commanding at Allahabad while moving towards Cawnpore. At the nearby town of Fatehpur, a mob had attacked and murdered the local European population. On this pretext, Neill ordered all villages beside the Grand Trunk Road to be burned and their inhabitants to be hanged. Neill's methods were "ruthless and horrible" [68] and far from intimidating the population, may well have induced previously undecided sepoys and communities to revolt. James George Smith Neill (May 26, 1810-September 25, 1857), British soldier, was born near Ayr,Scotland and educated at the University of Glasgow. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... , Fatehpur is a city and a municipal board in Fatehpur district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. ...


Neill was killed in action at Lucknow on September 26 and was never called to account for his punitive measures, though contemporary British sources lionised him and his "gallant blue caps".[69] By contrast with the actions of soldiers under Neill, the behaviour of most rebel soldiers was creditable. "Our creed does not permit us to kill a bound prisoner", one of the matchlockmen explained, "though we can slay our enemy in battle." [66] is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


When the British retook Cawnpore, the soldiers took their sepoy prisoners to the Bibi-Ghar and forced them to lick the bloodstains from the walls and floor.[70] They then hanged or "blew from the cannon" (the traditional Mughal punishment for mutiny) the majority of the sepoy prisoners. Although some claimed the sepoys took no actual part in the killings themselves, they did not act to stop it and this was acknowledged by Captain Thompson after the British departed Cawnpore for a second time.


Lucknow

Main article: Siege of Lucknow
Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence British Commissioner of Oudh who died during the siege of Lucknow.
Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence British Commissioner of Oudh who died during the siege of Lucknow.
Secundra Bagh after the slaughter of 2,000 Rebels by the 93rd Highlanders and 4th Punjab Regiment. Albumen silver print by Felice Beato, 1858.
Secundra Bagh after the slaughter of 2,000 Rebels by the 93rd Highlanders and 4th Punjab Regiment. Albumen silver print by Felice Beato, 1858.

Very soon after the events in Meerut, rebellion erupted in the state of Awadh (also known as Oudh, in modern-day Uttar Pradesh), which had been annexed barely a year before. The British Commissioner resident at Lucknow, Sir Henry Lawrence, had enough time to fortify his position inside the Residency compound. The Company forces numbered some 1700 men, including loyal sepoys. The rebels' initial assaults were unsuccessful, and so they began a barrage of artillery and musket fire into the compound. Lawrence was one of the first casualties. The rebels tried to breach the walls with explosives and bypass them via underground tunnels that led to underground close combat. After 90 days of siege, numbers of Company forces were reduced to 300 loyal sepoys, 350 British soldiers and 550 non-combatants. Combatants British East India Company Indian Patriots Commanders Sir Henry Lawrence† Brigadier John Inglis Sir Henry Havelock† Sir James Outram Sir Colin Campbell No centralised command Strength rising to approx. ... Image File history File links Henry_Montgomery_Lawrence_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_16528. ... Image File history File links Henry_Montgomery_Lawrence_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_16528. ... Image File history File links Image-Secundra_Bagh_after_Indian_Mutiny_higher_res. ... Image File history File links Image-Secundra_Bagh_after_Indian_Mutiny_higher_res. ... , Meerut (Hindi: मेरठ, Urdu: میرٹھ) IPA:   is a city and a municipal corporation in Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Location of Awadh Awadh (Devanagari अवध) (also known in various British historical texts as Oudh, Oundh or Oude) is a region in the center of the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which was before Independence known as the United Provinces of Oudh and Agra. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ... Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence (June 28, 1806 - July 4, 1857) was a British soldier and statesman in India, who died defending Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny. ...


On September 25 a relief column under the command of Sir Henry Havelock and accompanied by Sir James Outram (who in theory was his superior) fought its way from Cawnpore to Lucknow in a brief campaign in which the numerically small column defeated rebel forces in a series of increasingly large battles. This became known as 'The First Relief of Lucknow', as this force was not strong enough to break the siege or extricate themselves, and so was forced to join the garrison. In October another, larger, army under the new Commander-in-Chief, Sir Colin Campbell, was finally able to relieve the garrison and on the November 18, they evacuated the defended enclave within the city, the women and children leaving first. They then conducted an orderly withdrawal to Cawnpore, where they defeated an attempt by Tatya Tope to recapture the city in the Second Battle of Cawnpore. is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Major-General Sir Henry Havelock (5 April 1795 - 24 November 1857) was a British general. ... Colin Campbell with William Mansfield, 1st Viscount Sandhurst Field Marshal Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde, GCB, KCSI (October 20, 1792–August 24, 1863) was a Scottish soldier. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Great Britain Indian rebels Commanders Sir Colin Campbell Tantya Tope Strength 5,000 30 guns 14,000 40 guns Casualties unknown unknown The Second Battle of Cawnpore was a battle of Indian rebellion of 1857, or Indian Mutiny as it is often referred to. ...


Early in 1858, Campbell once again advanced on Lucknow with a large army, this time seeking to suppress the rebellion in Awadh. He was aided by a large Nepalese contingent advancing from the north under Jang Bahadur[71], who decided to side with the Company in December 1857[citation needed]. Campbell's advance was slow and methodical, and drove the large but disorganised rebel army from Lucknow with few casualties to his own troops. This nevertheless allowed large numbers of the rebels to disperse into Awadh, and Campbell was forced to spend the summer and autumn dealing with scattered pockets of resistance while losing men to heat, disease and guerilla actions. Sri Teen (3) Maharaja Jang Bahadur Rana Maharaja Sir Jung Bahadur (or Jang Bahadur), GCB, GCSI, (June 18, 1816, Kathmandu, Nepal -February 25, 1877, Kathmandu) was a ruler of Nepal and founder of the Rana dynasty of Nepal. ...


Jhansi

Jhansi was a Maratha-ruled princely state in Bundelkhand. When the Raja of Jhansi died without a male heir in 1853, it was annexed to the British Raj by the Governor-General of India under the Doctrine of lapse. His widow, Rani Lakshmi Bai, protested that she had not been allowed to adopt a successor, as per Indian custom. The Central India Campaign was one of the last series of actions in the Indian rebellion of 1857, or Indian Mutiny. ... , Jhansi   झांसी is a city of Uttar Pradesh state of northern India. ... The Marāthās (Marathi: , also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a the expansive Maratha Empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ... A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince and is thus a principality taken in the broad sense. ... Bundelkhand is a geographic region of central India. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... The Governor-Generals Flag (1885–1947) depicted the Star of India beneath the Imperial Crown of India on a Union Flag. ... The Doctrine of Lapse was an annexation policy devised by Lord Dalhousie, who was the Governor General of India between 1848 and 1856. ... Equestrian statue of Jhansi ki Rani Rani Lakshmi Bai also known as Jhansi Ki Rani, was the queen of Jhansi, a Maratha-ruled princely state of northern India, was one of the great nationalist heroes of the War of Independence of 1857, and a symbol of resistance to British rule...

The Jhansi Fort, which was taken over by rebel forces, and subsequently defended against British recapture by the Rani of Jhansi.
The Jhansi Fort, which was taken over by rebel forces, and subsequently defended against British recapture by the Rani of Jhansi.

When war broke out, Jhansi quickly became a centre of the rebellion. A small group of Company officials and their families took refuge in Jhansi's fort, and the Rani negotiated their evacuation. However, when they left the fort, they were massacred by the rebels. Although the treachery might have occurred without the Rani's consent, the Europeans suspected her of complicity, despite her protestations of innocence. , Jhansi   झांसी is a city of Uttar Pradesh state of northern India. ... Equestrian statue of Jhansi ki Rani Rani Lakshmi Bai also known as Jhansi Ki Rani, was the queen of Jhansi, a Maratha-ruled princely state of northern India, was one of the great nationalist heroes of the War of Independence of 1857, and a symbol of resistance to British rule... , Jhansi   झांसी is a city of Uttar Pradesh state of northern India. ...


By the end of June 1857, the Company had lost control of much of Bundelkhand and eastern Rajasthan. The Bengal Army units in the area, having rebelled, marched to take part in the battles for Delhi and Cawnpore. The many princely states which made up this area began warring amongst themselves. In September and October 1857, the Rani led the successful defence of Jhansi against the invading armies of the neighbouring rajas of Datia and Orchha. Bundelkhand is a geographic region of central India. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Datia is a city and district in northern Madhya Pradesh state, India. ... Orchha (or Urchha) is a town in Tikamgarh district of Madhya Pradesh state, India. ...


On 3 February Rose broke the 3-month siege of Saugor. Thousands of local villagers welcomed him as a liberator, freeing them from rebel occupation[72]


In March 1858, the Central India Field Force, led by Sir Hugh Rose, advanced on and laid siege to Jhansi. The Company forces captured the city, but the Rani fled in disguise. Field Marshal Hugh Henry Rose, 1st Baron Strathnairn, GCSI KCB, (April 6, 1801 – October 16, 1885), British field-marshal, third son of the Right Hon. ...


After being driven from Jhansi and Kalpi, on June 1, 1858 Rani Lakshmi Bai and a group of Maratha rebels captured the fortress city of Gwalior from the Scindia rulers, who were British allies. This might have reinvigorated the rebellion but the Central India Field Force very quickly advanced against the city. The Rani died on June 17, the second day of the Battle of Gwalior probably killed by a carbine shot from the 8th Hussars, according to the account of three independent Indian representatives. The Company forces recaptured Gwalior within the next three days. In descriptions of the scene of her last battle, she was compared to Joan Of Arc by some commentators. [73] KALPI, is a town in the Jalaun district of Uttar Pradesh state in India, on the right bank of the Yamuna. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... , Gwalior   is a city in Madhya Pradesh in India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Scindia Family of India. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 8th Kings Royal Irish Hussars was a cavalry regiment in the British Army, first raised in 1693. ... For other uses, see Joan of Arc (disambiguation). ...

Indore

Colonel Henry Durand, the then Company resident at Indore had brushed away any possibility of uprising in Indore.[74] However, on July 1st, sepoys in Holkar's army revolted and opened fire on the pickets of Bhopal Cavalry. When Colonel Travers rode forward to charge, Bhopal Cavalry refused to follow. The Bhopal Infantry also refused orders and instead leveled their guns at European sergeants and officers. Since all possibility of mounting an effective deterrent was lost, Durand decided to gather up all the European residents and escape, although 39 European residents of Indore were killed.[75] , Indore (Hindi:इन्दौर ,Marathi:इंदूर)  , a large city in the Malwa region of Central India is the commercial capital of the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. ...


Other regions

Punjab

What was then referred to by the British as the Punjab was a very large administrative division, centred on Lahore. It included not only the present-day Indian and Pakistani Punjabi regions but also the North West Frontier districts bordering Afghanistan.   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ...


Much of the region had been the Sikh kingdom, ruled by Ranjit Singh until his death in 1839. The kingdom had then fallen into disorder, with court factions and the Khalsa (the Sikh army) contending for power at the Lahore Durbar (court). After two Anglo-Sikh Wars, the entire region was annexed by the East India Company in 1849. In 1857, the region still contained the highest numbers of both European and Indian troops. Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjabi: ), also called Sher-e-Punjab (The Lion of the Punjab) (1780-1839) was a Sikh ruler of the Punjab. ... Khalsa (Punjabi: , literally Pure) refers to the collective body of all baptized Sikhs. ...


The inhabitants of the Punjab were not as sympathetic to the sepoys as they were the areas from which many of them were raised, which limited many of the outbreaks to disjointed uprisings by regiments of sepoys isolated from each other. In some garrisons, notably Ferozepore, indecision on the part of the senior European officers allowed the sepoys to rebel, but the sepoys then left the area, mostly heading for Delhi. [76] At the most important garrison, that of Peshawar close to the Afghan frontier, many comparatively junior officers ignored their nominal commander (the elderly General Reed) and took decisive action. They intercepted the sepoys' mail, thus preventing their coordinating an uprising, and formed a force known as the "Punjab Movable Column" to move rapidly to suppress any revolts as they occurred. When it became clear from the intercepted correspondence that some of the sepoys at Peshawar were on the point of open revolt, the four most disaffected Bengal Native regiments were disarmed by the two British infantry regiments in the cantonment, backed by artillery, on May 22. This decisive act induced many local chieftains to side with the British.[77] Firozpur (or Ferozepur, Ferozepore) is city and district in Punjab, India. ...   (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Marble Lectern in memory of 35 British soldiers in Jhelum
Marble Lectern in memory of 35 British soldiers in Jhelum

Some regiments in frontier garrisons subsequently rebelled, but became isolated among hostile Pakhtun villages and tribes. There were several mass executions, amounting to several hundred, of sepoys from units which rebelled or who deserted in the Punjab and North West Frontier provinces during June and July. The British had been recruiting irregular units from Sikh and Pakhtun communities even before the first unrest among the Bengal units, and the numbers of these were greatly increased during the Rebellion. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 143 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of the Historic Lectern present in St. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 143 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of the Historic Lectern present in St. ... Lectern in Seattle First Methodist Church. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ...


At one stage, faced with the need to send troops to reinforce the besiegers of Delhi, the Commissioner of the Punjab suggested handing the coveted prize of Peshawar to Dost Mohammed Khan of Afghanistan in return for a pledge of friendship. The British Agents in Peshawar and the adjacent districts were horrified. Referring to the massacre of a retreating British army in 1840, Herbert Edwardes wrote, "Dost Mahomed would not be a mortal Afghan ... if he did not assume our day to be gone in India and follow after us as an enemy. Europeans cannot retreat - Kabul would come again." [78] In the event Lord Canning insisted on Peshawar being held, and Dost Mohammed, whose relations with Britain had been equivocal for over 20 years, remained neutral. Dost Mahommed Khan (1793 - June 9, 1863) founded the Barakzai dynasty in Afghanistan. ... Sir Herbert Benjamin Edwardes (November 12, 1819 - December 23, 1868), English soldier-statesman in India, was born at Frodesley in Shropshire. ...


The final large-scale military uprising in the Punjab took place on July 9, when most of a brigade of sepoys at Sialkot rebelled and began to move to Delhi. They were intercepted by John Nicholson with an equal British force as they tried to cross the Ravi River. After fighting steadily but unsuccessfully for several hours, the sepoys tried to fall back across the river but became trapped on an island. Three days later, Nicholson annihilated the 1100 trapped sepoys in the Battle of Trimmu Ghat. [79] is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sialkot (Urdu/Punjabi: ), the capital of Sialkot District, is a city situated in the north-east of the Punjab province in Pakistan at the feet of the snow-covered peaks of Kashmir near the Chenab river. ... General John Nicholson John Nicholson (December 11, 1822 – September 23, 1857) was a Victorian era military hero. ... The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ...


Jhelum in Punjab was also a centre of resistance against the British. Here 35 British soldiers of HM XXIV regiment (South Wales Borderers) , died on 7 July 1857. To commemorate this victory St. John's Church Jhelum was built and the names of those 35 British soldiers are carved on a marble lectern present in that church. Mosque in Jhelum Cantt Jhelum or Jehlum (Urdu: جہلم) is a city in northern Punjab Province in Pakistan. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... The South Wales Borderers was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lectern in Seattle First Methodist Church. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ...

Arrah

Kunwar Singh, the 75 year old Rajput Raja of Jagdishpur, whose estate was in the process of being sequestrated by the Revenue Board, instigated and assumed the leadership of revolt in Bihar. [80] Babu Kunwar Singh (b. ... Jagdishpur is a city and a municipality in Bhojpur district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ...


On 25th of July, rebellion erupted in the garrisons of Dinapur. The rebels quickly moved towards the cities of Arrah and were joined by Kunwar Singh and his men. Mr. Boyle, a British engineer in Arrah, had already prepared his house for defense against such attacks. As the rebels approached Arrah, all European residents took refuge at Mr. Boyle's house. A siege soon ensued and 50 loyal sepoys defended the house against artillery and musketry fire from the rebels. Arrah is a town in India, located 36 miles from Patna, in the state of Bihar. ...


On 29th of July, 400 men were sent out from Dinapore to relieve Arrah, but this force was ambushed by the rebels around a mile away from the siege house, severely defeated, and driven back. On 30th of June, Major Vincent Eyre who was going up the river with his troops and guns reached Buxar and heard about the siege. He immediately disembarked his guns and troops (the 5th Fusilliers) and started marching towards Arrah. On August 2nd, Some 16 miles (26 km) short of Arrah, the Major was ambushed by the rebels. After an intense fight, the 5th Fusilliers charged and stormed the rebel positions successfully. On 3rd of August, major Eyre and his men reached the siege house and successfully ended the siege.[81]


Aftermath

Retaliation — "The Devil's Wind"

British soldiers looting Qaisar Bagh, Lucknow, after its recapture (steel engraving, late 1850s)
British soldiers looting Qaisar Bagh, Lucknow, after its recapture (steel engraving, late 1850s)

From the end of 1857, the British had begun to gain ground again. Lucknow was retaken in March 1858. On 8 July 1858, a peace treaty was signed and the war ended. The last rebels were defeated in Gwalior on 20 June 1858. By 1859, rebel leaders Bakht Khan and Nana Sahib had either been slain or had fled. As well as hanging mutineers, the British had some "blown from cannon"-- an old Mughal punishment adopted many years before in India. A method of execution midway between firing squad and hanging but more demonstrative, sentenced rebels were set before the mouth of cannons and blown to pieces.[82] In terms of sheer numbers, the casualties were significantly higher on the Indian side. A letter published after the fall of Delhi in the "Bombay Telegraph" and reproduced in the British press testified to the scale and nature of the retaliation: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... , Gwalior   is a city in Madhya Pradesh in India. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bakht Khan (1797 - 1859) was commander in chief of Indian rebel forces in the Anti British uprising of 1857 (known as Indian Mutiny in British chronicles). ... For Peshwa Balaji Bajirao of Pune, see Nanasaheb Peshwa. ... Revenge is retaliation against a person or group in response to wrongdoing. ...

.... All the city people found within the walls (of the city of Delhi) when our troops entered were bayoneted on the spot, and the number was considerable, as you may suppose, when I tell you that in some houses forty and fifty people were hiding. These were not mutineers but residents of the city, who trusted to our well-known mild rule for pardon. I am glad to say they were disappointed.[citation needed]

Another brief letter from General Montgomery to Captain Hodson, the conqueror of Delhi exposes how the British military high command approved of the cold blooded massacre of Delhites: "All honour to you for catching the king and slaying his sons. I hope you will bag many more!" Richard Montgomery (December 2, 1738-December 31, 1775) was an Irish-American soldier. ... William Stephen Raikes Hodson (March 10, 1821 - March 11, 1858), known as Hodson of Hodsons Horse, British leader of irregular light cavalry during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, third son of the Rev. ... Look up massacre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Another comment on the conduct of the British soldiers after the fall of Delhi is of Captain Hodson himself in his book, Twelve years in India: "With all my love for the army, I must confess, the conduct of professed Christians, on this occasion, was one of the most humiliating facts connected with the siege." (Hodson was killed during the recapture of Lucknow in early 1858).


Edward Vibart, a 19-year-old officer, also recorded his experience:

It was literally murder... I have seen many bloody and awful sights lately but such a one as I witnessed yesterday I pray I never see again. The women were all spared but their screams on seeing their husbands and sons butchered, were most painful... Heaven knows I feel no pity, but when some old grey bearded man is brought and shot before your very eyes, hard must be that man's heart I think who can look on with indifference...

The British adopted a policy of "no prisoners", enforced by massacre and mass executions. One officer, Thomas Lowe, remembered how on one occasion his unit had taken 76 prisoners - they were just too tired to carry on killing and needed a rest, he recalled. Later, after a quick trial, the prisoners were lined up with a British soldier standing a couple of yards in front of them. On the order "fire", they were all simultaneously shot, "swept... from their earthly existence". This was not the only mass execution Lowe participated in: on another occasion his unit took 149 prisoners, and they were lined up and simultaneously shot. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


As a result, the end of the war was followed by the execution of a vast majority of combatants from the Indian side as well as large numbers of civilians perceived to be sympathetic to the rebel cause. The British press and government did not advocate clemency of any kind, though Governor General Canning tried to be sympathetic to native sensibilities, earning the scornful sobriquet "Clemency Canning". Soldiers took very few prisoners and often executed them later. Whole villages were wiped out for apparent pro-rebel sympathies. The Indians called this retaliation "the Devil's Wind."[citation needed] The Right Honourable Charles John Canning, 1st & Last Earl Canning (14 December 1812 - 17 June 1862), English statesman, Governor-General of India during the Mutiny of 1857, was the youngest child of George Canning, and was born at Brompton, near London. ...

To the steady beat of drums, the captured rebels were first stripped of their uniforms and then tied to cannons, their bellies pushed hard against the gaping mouths of the big guns. The order to fire was given. With an enormous roar, all the cannons burst into life at once, generating a cloud of black smoke that snaked into the summer sky. When the smoke cleared, there was nothing left of the rebels' bodies except their arms, still tied to the cannons, and their blackened heads, which landed with a soft thud on the baking parade ground. It was a terrible way to die and a terrible sight to witness.[83] For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ...

Saul David estimates the death toll ran into the hundreds of thousands.


Reaction in Britain

Justice, a print by Sir John Tenniel in an September issue of Punch.
Justice, a print by Sir John Tenniel in an September issue of Punch.

The scale and savagery of the punishments handed out by the British "Army of Retribution" were considered largely appropriate and justified in a Britain shocked by the barrage of press reports about atrocities carried out on Europeans and Christians[84]. Accounts of the time frequently reach the "hyperbolic register", according to Chris Herbert, especially in the often-repeated claim that the "Red Year" of 1857 marked "a terrible break" in British experience[85]. Such was the atmosphere - a national "mood of retribution and despair" that led to "almost universal approval" of the measures taken to pacify the revolt[86]. Sir John Tenniel (February 28, 1820 - February 25, 1914) was an English illustrator. ... Look up punch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The popular poet Martin Tupper - "in a ferment of indignation" - played a major part in shaping the public's response. His poems, filled with calls for the razing of Delhi and the erection of "groves of gibbets" are telling: Martin Farquhar Tupper (July 17, 1810 - November 1889) was an English writer, and poet, and the author of Proverbial Philosophy. ...

"And England, now avenge their wrongs by vengeance deep and dire,/ Cut out their canker with the sword, and burn it out with fire;/ Destroy those traitor regions, hang every pariah hound,/ And hunt them down to death, in all hills and cities ‘round."[87] Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...

Punch, normally cynical and dispassionate where other periodicals were jingoistic, in August published a two-page cartoon depicting the British Lion attacking a Bengal Tiger that had attacked an English woman and child; the cartoon received considerable attention at the time, with the New York Times writing a piece about it in September as emblematic of a near-universal British desire for revenge. It was re-issued as a print, and made the career of John Tenniel, later famous as the illustrator of Alice. Punch was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire published from 1841 to 1992 and from 1996 to 2002. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 1889 Self-portrait Caterpillar using a hookah. ... Alice in Wonderland is the widely known and used title for Alices Adventures in Wonderland, a book written by Lewis Carroll -- as well as several movie adaptations of the book -- and is also the setting for several short stories. ...

The British Lion's Vengeance on the Bengal Tiger, a print by Sir John Tenniel in an August issue of Punch.
The British Lion's Vengeance on the Bengal Tiger, a print by Sir John Tenniel in an August issue of Punch.

The December 1857 issue of Charles Dickens' Household Words contained an essay by Dickens and Wilkie Collins in which Dickens says, in words that are representative of that otherwise progressive novelist's "reversal" of views when it came to Imperial affairs, and are considered by some scholars to be emblematic of the middle Victorian literary encounter with imperialism: Sir John Tenniel (February 28, 1820 - February 25, 1914) was an English illustrator. ... Look up punch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dickens redirects here. ... Front cover of volume XI Household Words was a weekly magazine edited by Charles Dickens which took its name from the line from Shakespeare Familiar in his mouth as household words—Henry V. It was published between 1850 and 1859. ... Wilkie Collins William Wilkie Collins (8 January 1824 – 23 September 1889) was an English novelist, playwright, and writer of short stories. ...

"I wish I were a commander in chief in India. The first thing I would do to strike that Oriental Race with amazement....should be to proclaim to them that my holding that appointment by the leave of God, to mean that I should do my utmost to exterminate the race upon whom the stain of the late cruelties rested; and that I was there for that purpose and no other, . . .now proceeding, with all convenient dispatch and merciful swiftness of execution, to blot it out of mankind and raze it off the face of the Earth."[88]

According to distinguished Victorianist Peter Brantlinger, no event raised national hysteria in Britain to a higher pitch, and no event in the 19th century took a greater hold on the British imagination, so much so that "Victorian writing about the Mutiny expresses in concentrated form the racist ideology that Edward Said calls Orientalism".[88]


Reorganisation

Bahadur Shah Zafar exiled in Rangoon. Photograph by Robert Tytler and Charles Shepherd, May 1858.
Bahadur Shah Zafar exiled in Rangoon. Photograph by Robert Tytler and Charles Shepherd, May 1858.

Bahadur Shah was tried for treason by a military commission assembled at Delhi, and exiled to Rangoon where he died in 1862, bringing the Mughal dynasty to an end. In 1877 Queen Victoria took the title of Empress of India on the advice of Prime Minister, Benjamin Disraeli. Charles Shepherd was most notably the printer for and co-worker of Samuel Bourne during his work in India, and co-founder of Shepherd & Bourne, their studio based in Calcutta. ... Yangôn, formerly Rangoon, population 4,504,000 (2001), is the capital of Myanmar. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... Signature of King Edward VIII The R and I after his name indicate king and emperor in Latin (Rex and Imperator, respectively). ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (December 21, 1804 – April 19, 1881), born Benjamin DIsraeli was a British Conservative statesman and literary figure. ...


The rebellion saw the end of the British East India Company's rule in India. In August, by the Government of India Act 1858, the company was formally dissolved and its ruling powers over India were transferred to the British Crown. A new British government department, the India Office, was created to handle the governance of India, and its head, the Secretary of State for India, was entrusted with formulating Indian policy. The Governor-General of India gained a new title (Viceroy of India), and implemented the policies devised by the India Office. The British colonial administration embarked on a program of reform, trying to integrate Indian higher castes and rulers into the government and abolishing attempts at Westernization. The Viceroy stopped land grabs, decreed religious tolerance and admitted Indians into civil service, albeit mainly as subordinates. The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... The movement of the Indians at this time were extremely regulated before the work of such prominent Muslims such as Sir Shahaab Uddin Hyderabadi and Khizar Ali Punjabi. ... The India Office was the British government department responsible for the government of British India. ... The office of Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was created in 1858 when India was brought under direct British rule (British Raj). ... The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. ... This article is about the influence of western culture. ...


Essentially the old East India Company bureaucracy remained, though there was a major shift in attitudes. In looking for the causes of the Mutiny the authorities alighted on two things: religion and the economy. On religion it was felt that there had been too much interference with indigenous traditions, both Hindu and Muslim. On the economy it was now believed that the previous attempts by the Company to introduce free market competition had undermined traditional power structures and bonds of loyalty, placing the peasantry at the mercy of merchants and money-lenders. In consequence the new British Raj was constructed in part around a conservative agenda, based on a preservation of tradition and hierarchy. Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy...


On a political level it was also felt that the previous lack of consultation between rulers and ruled had been yet another significant factor in contributing to the uprising. In consequence, Indians were drawn into government at a local level. Though this was on a limited scale a crucial precedent had been set, with the creation of a new 'white collar' Indian elite, further stimulated by the opening of universities at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras, a result of the Indian Universities Act. So, alongside the values of traditional and ancient India, a new professional middle class was starting to arise, in no way bound by the values of the past. Their ambition can only have been stimulated by Victoria's Proclamation of November 1858, in which it is expressly stated that "We hold ourselves bound to the natives of our Indian territories by the same obligations of duty which bind us to our other subjects...it is our further will that... our subjects of whatever race or creed, be freely and impartially admitted to offices in our service, the duties of which they may be qualified by their education, ability and integrity, duly to discharge."


Acting on these sentiments, Lord Ripon, viceroy from 1880 to 1885, extended the powers of local self-government and sought to remove racial practices in the law courts by the Ilbert Bill. But a policy at once liberal and progressive at one turn was reactionary and backward at the next, creating new elites and confirming old attitudes. The Ilbert Bill only had the effect of causing a White Mutiny, and the end of the prospect of perfect equality before the law. In 1886 measures were adopted to restrict Indian entry into the civil service. George Frederick Samuel Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon (24 October 1827 - 9 July 1909) was a British politician who served in every Liberal cabinet from 1861 until his death forty-eight years later. ... George Frederick Samuel Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon PC, KG (24 October 1827 – 9 July 1909) was a British politician who served in every Liberal cabinet from 1861 until his death forty-eight years later. ...


Militarily, the rebellion transformed both the "native" and European armies of British India. The British increased the ratio of British to Indian soldiers. Regiments which had remained loyal were retained, and the number of Gurkha units, which had been crucial in the Delhi campaign, was increased. The inefficiencies of the old organisation, which had estranged sepoys from their British officers, were addressed, and the post-1857 units were mainly organised on the "irregular" system. (Before the rebellion, Bengal Infantry units had 26 British officers, who held every position of authority down to the second-in-command of each company. In irregular units, there were only six or seven or even fewer European officers, who associated themselves far more closely with their soldiers, while more trust and responsibility was given to the Indian officers.) Most new units were raised from among the so-called "Martial Races", which were not part of mainstream Indian culture. Sepoy artillery was abolished also, leaving all artillery (except some small detachments of mountain guns) in British hands. The post-rebellion changes formed the basis of the military organisation of British India until the early 20th century. Gurkha, also spelled as Gorkha, are people from Nepal and parts of North India, who take their name from the eighth century Hindu warrior-saint Guru Gorakhnath. ... Martial Race or Martial races theory is an ideology based on the assumption that certain ethnic races were more martially inclined as opposed to the general populace or other races. ...


Timeline[89]

1857

Events of 1857
Date Event
Jan Problems in Dum Dum over greased cartridges
Feb Mutinies at Barrackpore and Berhampore
Apr 8th Pandey hanged at Barrackpore
Apr Unrest at Ambala, 48th Mutiny at Lucknow
May 10th Mutiny and Murders at Meerut, troops head towards Delhi
May 11th Europeans, and Christians slaughtered in Delhi
May 22nd Peshawar garrison disarmed
May 23rd Part of 9th Native Infantry mutiny at Agra
May 30th Mutinies at Muttra and Lucknow
May 31st Bhurtpore Army mutinies
June 5th Cawnpore 2nd Cavalry Mutinies
June 6th Cawnpore Siege begins, Mutiny at Allahabad
June 7th Wilson and Barnard meet at Alipur
June 8th Battle of Badli-ki-Serai; Massacre at Jhansi
June 11th Lucknow Police rebel; Neill arrives at Allahabad
June 25th Nana Sahib offers terms at Cawnpore
June 27th Satichaura Ghat Massacre at Cawnpore
June 30th British defeat at Chinhat; Lucknow Residency besieged
July 1st Indore Mutiny
July 2nd Arrival of Bakht Khan at Delhi
July 4th Sir Henry Lawrence dies at Lucknow
July 5th General Barnard dies of cholera
July 7th Havelock's force leaves for Cawnpore
July 7th Massacre of women and children in the Bibighar at Cawnpore.
July 16th Nana Sahib defeated in first battle for Cawnpore
July 27th Siege of Arrah starts
July 29th Havelock's victory at Unao
August 5th Havelock's victory at Bashiratganj
August 13th Havelock withdrawal to Cawnpore
August 14th John Nicholson arrives at Delhi Ridge
August 16th Havelock victory at Bithur
September 5th Sir James Outram's arrival at Cawnpore
September 14th Wilson's assault on Delhi begins, Nicholson wounded
September 19th Havelock and Outram march to Lucknow
September 20th Delhi captured and cleared of rebel troops
September 21st William Hodson captures King of Delhi
September 22nd Hodson executes Mughal princes
September 23ed Nicholson dies of wounds
September 25th First relief of Lucknow
October 10th Agra mutineers defeated
November 9th Kavanagh escapes from Lucknow
November 17th Second relief of Lucknow
November 19th Women and children evacuated from Lucknow
November 22nd British withdraw from Lucknow
November 24th Havelock dies of dysentry
November 28th Windham defeated at second battle of Cawnpor
December 6th Tatya Tope defeated at third battle of Cawnpore
Sources: www.britishempire.co.uk and Saul David, The Indian Mutiny



1858

Events of 1858
Date Event
January 6th Campbell reoccupies Fategarh
March 2nd Campbell returns to Lucknow
March 21st Last rebels removed from Lucknow
April 3rd Jhansi captured and sacked
April 15th Walpole defeated at Ruiya
April 23rd Rose enters Kalpi
May 5th Campbell victory at Bareilly
June 5th Death of the Maulvi
June 17th Battle of Kotah-ki-Serai, death of Rani of Jhansi
June 19th Battle of Gwalior
November 1st Royal Proclamation replacing East India Company with British Government
Source: www.britishempire.co.uk



1859

Events of 1859
Date Event
March 29th Bahadur Shah found guilty
April 18th Tatya Tope executed
Source: www.britishempire.co.uk



Debate about name

There is no agreed name for the events of this period,

  • In India it has often been termed as the "War of Independence of 1857" or "First War of Independence"[90] but it is not uncommon to use terms such as the "Revolt of 1857".
  • In the UK it is commonly called the "Indian Mutiny"[91], but terms such as "Great Indian Mutiny", the "Sepoy Mutiny", the "Sepoy Rebellion", the "Sepoy War", the "Great Mutiny", the "Rebellion of 1857", the "Mahomedan Rebellion" and the "Revolt of 1857" have also been used.[92]

[93] [94] .

A number of dispossessed dynasts, both Hindu and Muslim, exploited the well-founded caste-suspicions of the sepoys and made these simple folk their cat's paw in gamble for recovering their thrones. The last scions of the Delhi Mughals or the Oudh Nawabs and the Peshwa, can by no ingenuity be called fighters for Indian freedom [95]
In the light of the available evidence, we are forced to the conclusion that the uprising of 1857 was not the result of careful planning, nor were there any master-minds behind it. As I read about the events of 1857, I am forced to the conclusion that the Indian national character had sunk very low. The leaders of the revolt could never agree. They were mutually jealous and continually intrigued against one another. ... In fact these personal jealousies and intrigues were largely responsible for the Indian defeat.
 
— Maulana Abul Kalam Azad[96]

William Dalrymple, in his recent work on the event, The Last Mughal, refers to it as "the Uprising". William Dalrymple (born 1965 in Scotland) is a historian, travel writer and journalist. ... William Dalrymple with the Mutiny Papers at the National Archives, New Delhi The Last Mughal, The Fall of a Dynasty, Delhi 1857 is a 2006 historical book by William Dalrymple. ...


The use of the term "Indian Mutiny" is considered by some historians and Indian politicians as unacceptable and offensive, as it is perceived to belittle what they see as a "First War of Independence" and therefore reflecting a biased, imperialistic attitude of the erstwhile colonists. Other historians dispute this interpretation.


For example, in October, 2006, the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, the lower house of Indian Parliament said: The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ...

The War of 1857 was undoubtedly an epoch-making event in India’s struggle for freedom. For what the British sought to deride as a mere sepoy mutiny was India’s First War of Independence in a very true sense, when people from all walks of life, irrespective of their caste, creed, religion and language, rose against the British rule.
 
— Chaterjee, Somnath - Office of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha [97]
See also: First War of Indian Independence (term)

Debate about character

Almost from the moment the first sepoys mutinied in Meerut, the nature and the scope of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 has been contested and argued over. Speaking in the House of Commons in July 1857, Benjamin Disraeli labeled it a 'national revolt' while Lord Palmerston, the Prime Minister, tried to downplay the scope and the significance of the event as a 'mere military mutiny'[98]. Reflecting this debate, the early historian of the rebellion, Charles Ball, sided with the mutiny in his title (using mutiny and sepoy insurrection) but labeled it a 'struggle for liberty and independence as a people' in the text [99]. Historians remain divided on whether the rebellion can properly be considered a war of Indian independence or not[100], although it is popularly considered to be one in India. Arguments against include: Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (December 21, 1804 - April 24, British Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and author. ... Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston (October 20, 1784 - October 18, 1865) was a British Prime Minister and Liberal politician. ...

  • A united India did not exist at that time in political terms;
  • The rebellion was put down with the help of other Indian soldiers drawn from the Madras Army, the Bombay Army and the Sikh regiments, 80% of the British forces were Indian [101];
  • Many of the local rulers fought amongst themselves rather than uniting against the British.
  • Many rebel Sepoy regiments disbanded and went home rather than fight.
  • Not all of the rebels accepted the return of the Moghuls.
  • The King of Delhi had no real control over the mutineers.[102]
  • The revolt was largely limited to north and central India. Whilst risings occurred elsewhere they had little impact due to their limited nature.
  • A number of revolts occurred in areas not under British rule, and against native rulers, often as a result of local internal politics.
  • The revolt was fractured along religious, ethnic and regional lines.[103]
"the demon of communalism also raised its head. The Muslims spat over the Hindus and openly defiled their houses by sprinkling them with cows' blood and placing cows' bones within the compounds. Concrete instances are given where Hindu Sepoy came into clash with Muslim hooligans and a complete riot ensued. The Hindus, oppressed by the Muslims, were depressed at the success of the Mutiny, and daily offered prayers to God for the return of "the English." [104]

A second school of thought while acknowledging the validity of the above-mentioned arguments opines that this rebellion may indeed be called a war of India's independence. The reasons advanced are:

  • Even though the rebellion had various causes (e.g. Sepoy grievances, British high-handedness, the Doctrine of Lapse etc.), most of the rebel sepoys set out to revive the old Mughal empire, that signified a national symbol for them, instead of heading home or joining services of their regional principalities, which would not have been unreasonable if their revolt were only inspired by grievances;
    The hanging of two participants in the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Albumen silver print by Felice Beato, 1858
  • There was a widespread popular revolt in many areas such as Awadh, Bundelkhand and Rohilkhand. The rebellion was therefore more than just a military rebellion, and it spanned more than one region;
  • The sepoys did not seek to revive small kingdoms in their regions, instead they repeatedly proclaimed a "country-wide rule" of the Moghuls and vowed to drive out the British from "India", as they knew it then. (The sepoys ignored local princes and proclaimed in cities they took over: Khalq Khuda Ki, Mulk Badshah Ka, Hukm Subahdar Sipahi Bahadur Ka - i.e. the world belongs to God, the country to the Emperor and executive powers to the Sepoy Commandant in the city). The objective of driving out "foreigners" from not only one's own area but from their conception of the entirety of "India", signifies a nationalist sentiment;
  • The troops of the Bengal Army were used extensively in warfare by the British and had therefore travelled extensively across the Indian subcontinent, leading them perhaps to develop some notion of a nation-state called India. They displayed for the first time in this rebellion, some contemporary British accounts (Malleson) suggest, patriotic sentiments in the modern sense.
To live in India, now, was like standing on the verge of a volcanic crater, the sides of which were fast crumbling away from our feet, while the boiling lava was ready to erupt and consume us...The infanticide Rajput, the bigoted Brahmin, the fanatic Mussalman, had joined together in the cause; cow-killer and the cow-worshipper, the pig-hater and the pig-eater… had revolted together. - Thomas Lowe, British chronicler, 1860[105]

In summary: The Doctrine of Lapse was an annexation policy devised by Lord Dalhousie, who was the Governor General of India between 1848 and 1856. ... Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Lahore, Delhi, Agra , Kabul, Lucknow and Bhopal Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Absolute Monarchy , Unitary Government with a federal structure Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605... Image File history File links Indian_Rebellion_Hangings. ... Image File history File links Indian_Rebellion_Hangings. ... Felice Beato, unknown photographer, c. ... Location of Awadh Awadh (Devanagari अवध) (also known in various British historical texts as Oudh, Oundh or Oude) is a region in the center of the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which was before Independence known as the United Provinces of Oudh and Agra. ... Bundelkhand is a geographic region of central India. ... Rohilkhand is a region of northwestern Uttar Pradesh state of India. ...

  1. If the criterion of a National War of Independence is "a war (or numerous conflicts) spread all over the nation cutting across regional lines", the rebellion does not qualify.
  2. If the criterion for a National War of Independence is "a war, which even if geographically confined to certain regions, is waged with the intention of driving out from the complete national area a power perceived to be foreign", the rebellion does qualify.

The 150th anniversary

The Government of India celebrated 2007 as the 150th anniversary of what many Indians term as "India's First War of Independence". In the Union Budget of 2007, Rs. 10 crore was set aside for the celebration. The British National Army Museum in London mounted a display to mark the 150th anniversary on 10 May 2007, and has an ongoing online exhibition called "India Rising".[106] Several books written by Indian authors have been released in the anniversary year like Amresh Mishra's voluminous War of Civilizations a great compilation of numerous events of 1857. A novel titled Recalcitrance by Anurag Kumar has also been released. It is one of the few novels in English written by an Indian based on the events of 1857. A crore is a unit in the Indian numbering system, still widely used in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Notes

  1. ^ The Gurkhas by W. Brook Northey, John Morris. ISBN 8120615778. Page 58
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Bandyopadhyay 2004, pp. 169-172 Bose & Jalal 2003, pp. 88-103 Quote: "The 1857 rebellion was by and large confined to northern Indian Gangetic Plain and central India.", Brown 1994, pp. 85-87, and Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, pp. 100-106
  3. ^ Bayly 1990, p. 170 Quote: "What distinguished the events of 1857 was their scale and the fact that for a short time they posed a military threat to British dominance in the Ganges Plain."
  4. ^ a b Spear 1990, pp. 147-148
  5. ^ Bandyopadhyay 2004, p. 177, Bayly 2000, p. 357
  6. ^ Brown 1994, p. 94
  7. ^ Bandyopadhyay 2004, p. 179
  8. ^ Bayly 1990, pp. 194-197
  9. ^ a b Ludden 2002, p. 133
  10. ^ a b Brown 1994, p. 88
  11. ^ Metcalf 1991, p. 48
  12. ^ Bandyopadhyay 2004, p. 171, Bose & Jalal 2003, p. 90
  13. ^ Essential histories, The Indian Mutiny 1857-1858, Gregory Fremont-Barnes, Osprey 2007, page25
  14. ^ Essential histories, The Indian Mutiny 1857-1858, Gregory Fremont-Barnes, Osprey 2007, page25
  15. ^ Victorian Web 1857 Indian Rebellion
  16. ^ Hibbert 1980, p. 63
  17. ^ David 2003, p. 53
  18. ^ David 2003, p. 54
  19. ^ Bandyopadhyay 2004, p. 172, Bose & Jalal 2003, p. 91, Brown 1994, p. 92
  20. ^ Bandyopadhyay 2004, p. 172
  21. ^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, p. 102
  22. ^ Bose & Jalal 2003, p. 91, Metcalf 1991, Bandyopadhyay 2004, p. 173
  23. ^ Brown 1994, p. 92
  24. ^ Khan 1859
  25. ^ Quoted in Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, p. 100
  26. ^ Stokes & Bayly (ed.) 1986, Brown 1994, p. 91
  27. ^ Memorandum from Lieutenant-Colonel W. St. L. Mitchell (CO of the 19th BNI) to Major A. H. Ross about his troop's refusal to accept the Enfield cartridges, 27 February 1857, Archives of Project South Asia, South Dakota State University and Missouri Southern State University
  28. ^ a b "The Indian Mutiny of 1857", Col. G. B. Malleson, reprint 2005, Rupa & Co. Publishers, New Delhi
  29. ^ Christopher Hibbert The Great Mutiny (London: Allen Lane) 1978 pp 73-74.
  30. ^ Hibbert, The Great Mutiny, pp. 80-85
  31. ^ Sir John Kaye & G.B. Malleson.: The Indian Mutiny of 1857, (Delhi: Rupa & Co.) reprint 2005 p49
  32. ^ “the Indian Mutiny”, Saul David, Viking, 2002, page 93
  33. ^ Hibbert, The Great Mutiny, pp. 93-95
  34. ^ Hibbert, The Great Mutiny, pp. 98-101
  35. ^ Hibbert, The Great Mutiny, pp. 152-163
  36. ^ Michael Edwardes, Battles of the Indian Mutiny, pp 52-53
  37. ^ Indian mutiny was 'war of religion' - BBC
  38. ^ The Story of the Storm — 1857
  39. ^ Zachary Nunn. The British Raj
  40. ^ The Indian Mutiny, John Harris, Page57, Granada 1973
  41. ^ Harris John, The Indian Mutiny, Wordsworth editions, 2001
  42. ^ A.H. Amin, Pakistan Army Defence Journal
  43. ^ A.H. Amin, Orbat.com
  44. ^ Lessons from 1857
  45. ^ The Indian Army: 1765 - 1914
  46. ^ David Saul The Indian Mutiny Page 19, Viking, 2002
  47. ^ Qizilbash, Basharat Hussain (30 June 2006) The tragicomic hero The Nation. Nawai-e-Waqt Group.
  48. ^ God's Acre. The Hindu Metro Plus Delhi. October 28, 2006.
  49. ^ 'The Rising: The Ballad of Mangal Pandey'. Daily Mail, August 27, 2005
  50. ^ essential histories, the Indian Mutiny 1857-58, Gregory Fremont-Barnes, Osprey 2007, page 40
  51. ^ Dalrymple, The Last Mughal, page400
  52. ^ The story of Cawnpore: The Indian Mutiny 1857, Capt. Mowbray Thomson, Brighton, Tom Donovan, 1859, pp. 148-159.
  53. ^ Essential Histories, the Indian Mutiny 1857-58, Gregory Fremont-Barnes, Osprey 2007, page 49
  54. ^ S&T magazine No. 121 (September 1998), page 56
  55. ^ a b c Hibbert, The Great Mutiny, p.191
  56. ^ A History of the Indian Mutiny by G. W. Forrest, London, William Blackwood, 1904
  57. ^ Kaye's and Malleson's History of the Indian Mutiny. Longman's, London, 1896. Footnote, p. 257.
  58. ^ Edwardes, Battles of the Indian Mutiny, p.56
  59. ^ S&T magazine No. 121 (September 1998), page 56
  60. ^ John Harris, The Indian mutiny, Wordsworth millitary library 2001, page 92,
  61. ^ Essential Histories, the Indian Mutiny 1857-58, Gregory Fremont-Barnes, Osprey 2007, page 53
  62. ^ S&T magazine No. 121 (September 1998), page 58
  63. ^ John Harris, The Indian mutiny, Wordsworth millitary library 2001, page 92,
  64. ^ A History of the Indian Mutiny by G. W. Forrest, London, William Blackwood, 1904
  65. ^ J.W. Sherer, Daily Life during the Indian Mutiny, 1858, p. 56
  66. ^ a b Andrew Ward, Our bones are scattered - The Cawnpore massacres and the Indian Mutiny of 1857, John Murray, 1996
  67. ^ Ramson, Martin & Ramson, Edward, The Indian Empire, 1858
  68. ^ Michael Edwardes, Battles of the Indian Mutiny, Pan, 1963 ISBN 330-02524-4
  69. ^ Units of the Army of the Madras Presidency wore blue rather than black shakoes or forage caps
  70. ^ Raugh, Harold E. (2004). The Victorians at War, 1815-1914: An Encyclopedia of British Military. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 89. ISBN 978-1576079256. OCLC 54778450. 
  71. ^ Hibbert, "The Great Mutiny", p.358, 428
  72. ^ Essential Histories, the Indian Mutiny 1857-58, Gregory Fremont-Barnes, Osprey 2007, page 79
  73. ^ Lachmi Bai Rani of Jhansi, the Jeanne d'Arc of India (1901), White, Michael (Michael Alfred Edwin), 1866, New York : J.F. Taylor & Company, 1901
  74. ^ Biographies
  75. ^ [1]
  76. ^ Memoirs of Charles John Griffiths
  77. ^ Charles Allen, Soldier Sahibs, p.276
  78. ^ Charles Allen, Soldier Sahibs, p.283
  79. ^ Charles Allen, Soldier Sahibs, pp. 290-293
  80. ^ [2]
  81. ^ [3][4]
  82. ^ Sahib: The British Soldier in India 1750-1914 Richard Holmes HarperCollins 2005
  83. ^ Daily Mail, August 27, 2005 The Rising: The Ballad of Mangal Pandey
  84. ^ Chakravarty, G. (2004). The Indian Mutiny and the British Imagination. Cambridge University Press. 
  85. ^ Herbert, C. (2008). War of No Pity: The Indian Mutiny and Victorian Trauma. Princeton University Press. 
  86. ^ Judd, D. (2005). The Lion and the Tiger: The Rise and Fall of the British Raj, 1600-1947. Oxford University Press. 
  87. ^ Derek Hudson. Martin Tupper: His Rise and Fall, Constable, 1972.
  88. ^ a b Brantlinger, Patrick (1990). Rule of darkness: British literature and imperialism, 1830-1914. Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-9767-1. 
  89. ^ http://www.britishempire.co.uk/forces/armycampaigns/indiancampaigns/mutiny/mutiny.htm
  90. ^ First Indian War of Independence January 8, 1998
  91. ^ Saul David, The Indian Mutiny: 1857,Penguin Books, 2003.
  92. ^ India's First War of Independence 1857
  93. ^ Le Monde article on the revolt
  94. ^ German National Geographic article
  95. ^ Hindusthan Standard, Puja Annual, 195 p. 22 referenced in the Truth about the Indian mutiny article by Dr Ganda Singh
  96. ^ Surendranath Sen: Eighteen Fifty-seven (Appx. X & Appx. XV)
  97. ^ Somnath Chatterjee - Office of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha on the name of the conflict, October 2006 Address at the Function marking the 150th Anniversary of the Revolt of 1857
  98. ^ The Indian Mutiny and Victorian Trauma by Christopher Herbert, Princeton University Press, Princeton 2007
  99. ^ The History of the Indian Mutiny: Giving a detailed account of the sepoy insurrection in India by Charles Ball, The London Printing and Publishing Company, London, 1860
  100. ^ The Truth about the Indian Mutiny by Dr. Ganda Singh
  101. ^ The Indian Mutiny, Spilsbury Julian, Orion, 2007
  102. ^ S&T magazine issue 121 (September 1988), page 20
  103. ^ The communal hatred led to ugly communal riots in many parts of U.P. The green flag was hoisted and Muslims in Bareilly, Bijnor, Moradabad, and other places the Muslims shouted for the revival of Muslim kingdom." R.C. Majumdar: Sepoy Mutiny and Revolt of 1857 (page 2303-31).
  104. ^ from the account of Bidrohi Bengali of Durgadas Bandyopadhyaya R. C. Majumdar: Sepoy Mutiny and Revolt of 1857 (page 177).
  105. ^ Sitaram Yechury. The Empire Strikes Back. Hindustan Times. January 2006.
  106. ^ India Rising, National Army Museum

The Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of northern India. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For followers of Hinduism, see Hindu. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For a quick link, please see the city of Santa Barbara, California. ... ABC-CLIO is a publisher of reference works for the study of history in academic, secondary school, and public library settings. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Edward Richard Holmes CBE TD JP (born March 29, 1946), known as Richard Holmes, is a British soldier and noted military historian, particularly well-known through his many television appearances. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Somnath Chatterjee (born July 25, 1929 in Tezpur, Assam) is a politician in India. ... The Speaker of the Lok Sabha is the presiding officer of the lower house of Parliament of India. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The National Army Museum is the British Armys central museum. ...

References

Text-books and academic monographs

  • Alavi, Seema (1996), The Sepoys and the Company: Tradition and Transition 1770-1830, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 340, ISBN 0195634845
  • Anderson, Clare (2007), Indian Uprising of 1857–8: Prisons, Prisoners and Rebellion, New York: Anthem Press, Pp. 217, ISBN 9781843312499, <http://atlantis.terrassl.net/anthempress.com/product_info.php?cPath=52&products_id=293&osCsid=9a2s9o8mdu8066m551rr407123>
  • Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar (2004), From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India, New Delhi and London: Orient Longmans. Pp. xx, 548., ISBN 8125025960, <https://www.orientlongman.com/display.asp?isbn=978-81-250-2596-2>.
  • Bayly, C. A. (1990), Indian Society and the Making of the British Empire (The New Cambridge History of India), Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 248, ISBN 0521386500.
  • Bayly, C. A. (2000), Empire and Information: Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in India, 1780-1870 (Cambridge Studies in Indian History and Society), Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 426, ISBN 0521663601
  • Bose, Sugata & Ayesha Jalal (2003), Modern South Asia: History, Culture, Political Economy, London and New York: Routledge, 2nd edition. Pp. xiii, 304, ISBN 0-415-30787-2, <http://www.amazon.com/Modern-South-Asia-Sugata-Bose/dp/0415307872/>.
  • Brown, Judith M. (1994), Modern India: The Origins of an Asian Democracy, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. xiii, 474, ISBN 0198731132, <http://www.oup.com/uk/catalogue/?ci=9780198731139>.
  • Hibbert, Christopher (1980), The Great Mutiny: India 1857, London: Allen Lane. Pp. 472, ISBN 0140047522
  • Judd, Dennis (2004), The Lion and the Tiger: The Rise and Fall of the British Raj, 1600-1947, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. xiii, 280, ISBN 0192803581, <http://www.oup.com/us/catalog/general/subject/HistoryWorld/India/?view=usa&ci=9780192803580>.
  • Keene, H. George. 1995. British Administration During the Revolt of 1857. New Delhi: Inter- India Publications.
  • Kulke, Hermann & Dietmar Rothermund (2004), A History of India, 4th edition. Routledge, Pp. xii, 448, ISBN 0415329205, <http://www.amazon.com/History-India-Hermann-Kulke/dp/0415329205/>.
  • Ludden, David (2002), India And South Asia: A Short History, Oxford: Oneworld Publications. Pp. xii, 306, ISBN 1851682376, <http://www.oneworld-publications.com/cgi-bin/cart/commerce.cgi?pid=145&log_pid=yes>
  • Majumdar, R. C.; H. C. Raychaudhuri & Kalikinkar Datta (1950), An Advanced History of India, London: Macmillan and Company Limited. 2nd edition. Pp. xiii, 1122, 7 maps, 5 coloured maps..
  • Markovits, Claude (ed) (2005), A History of Modern India 1480-1950 (Anthem South Asian Studies), Anthem Press. Pp. 607, ISBN 1843311526, <http://www.amazon.com/History-Modern-1480-1950-Anthem-Studies/dp/1843311526/>.
  • Metcalf, Barbara & Thomas R. Metcalf (2006), A Concise History of Modern India (Cambridge Concise Histories), Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Pp. xxxiii, 372, ISBN 0521682258, <http://www.amazon.com/Concise-History-Modern-Cambridge-Histories/dp/0521682258/>.
  • Metcalf, Thomas R. (1991), The Aftermath of Revolt: India, 1857-1870, Riverdale Co. Pub. Pp. 352, ISBN 8185054991
  • Metcalf, Thomas R. (1997), Ideologies of the Raj, Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press, Pp. 256, ISBN 0521589371
  • Mukherjee, Rudrangshu (1984), Awadh in Revolt 1857-1858: A Study of Popular Resistance, Delhi: Oxford University Press
  • Palmer, J.A.B. The Mutiny Outbreak at Meerut In 1857. Cambridge: University Press, 1966.
  • Ray, Rajat Kanta (2002), The Felt Community: Commonality and Mentality before the Emergence of Indian Nationalism, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, Pp. 596, ISBN 0195658639
  • Robb, Peter (2004), A History of India (Palgrave Essential Histories), Houndmills, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. Pp. xiv, 344, ISBN 0333691296, <http://www.amazon.com/History-India-Palgrave-Essential-Histories/dp/0333691296/>.
  • Roy, Tapti, The politics of a popular uprising : Bundelkhand 1857, Delhi, for the Oxford University Press, 1994.
  • Stanley, Peter, White Mutiny: British Military Culture in India, 1825-1875, Christopher Hurst & Co., London, 1998.
  • Stein, Burton (2001), A History of India, New Delhi and Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pp. xiv, 432, ISBN 0195654463, <http://www.amazon.com/History-India-World/dp/0631205462/ref=pd_ybh_a_7/104-7029728-9591925>.
  • Stokes, Eric (1980), The Peasant and the Raj: Studies in Agrarian Society and Peasant Rebellion in Colonial India (Cambridge South Asian Studies), Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, Pp. 316, ISBN 0521297702
  • Stokes, Eric & C. A. Bayly (ed.) (1986), The Peasant Armed: The Indian Revolt of 1857, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Pp. 280, ISBN 0198215703
  • Taylor, P. J. O., What really happened during the mutiny : a day-by-day account of the major events of 1857 - 1859 in India, Delhi: Oxford University Press India, 1999.
  • Wolpert, Stanley (2003), A New History of India, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 544, ISBN 0195166787, <http://www.amazon.com/New-History-India-Stanley-Wolpert/dp/0195166787/>.

Articles in journals and collections

  • Alavi, Seema (Feb., 1993), "The Company Army and Rural Society: The Invalid Thanah 1780-1830", Modern Asian Studies 27 (1): 147-178, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0026-749X%28199302%2927%3A1%3C147%3ATCAARS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-T>
  • Baker, David (1991), "Colonial Beginnings and the Indian Response: The Revolt of 1857-58 in Madhya Pradesh", Modern Asian Studies 25 (3): 511-543, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0026-749X%28199107%2925%3A3%3C511%3ACBATIR%3E2.0.CO%3B2-6>
  • Blunt, Alison (July, 2000), "Embodying war: British women and domestic defilement in the Indian «Mutiny», 1857–8", Journal of Historical Geography 26 (3): 403-428, <http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jhge.2000.0236>
  • English, Barbara (Feb., 1994), "The Kanpur Massacres in India in the Revolt of 1857", Past and Present (no. 142): 169-178, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0031-2746%28199402%290%3A142%3C169%3ATKMIII%3E2.0.CO%3B2-L>
  • Frykenberg, Robert E., "India to 1858", in Winks, Robin, Oxford History of the British Empire: Historiography, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, 194-213, ISBN 0199246807
  • Klein, Ira (2000), "Materialism, Mutiny and Modernization in British India", Modern Asian Studies 34 (3): 545-580, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0026-749X%28200007%2934%3A3%3C545%3AMMAMIB%3E2.0.CO%3B2-I>
  • Lahiri, Nayanjot (Jun., 2003), "Commemorating and Remembering 1857: The Revolt in Delhi and Its Afterlife", World Archaeology 35 (1): 35-60, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0043-8243%28200306%2935%3A1%3C35%3ACAR1TR%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C>
  • Mukherjee, Rudrangshu (Aug., 1990), "'Satan Let Loose upon Earth': The Kanpur Massacres in India in the Revolt of 1857", Past and Present (no. 128): 92-116, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0031-2746%28199008%290%3A128%3C92%3A%22LLUET%3E2.0.CO%3B2-2>
  • Mukherjee, Rudrangshu (Feb., 1994), "The Kanpur Massacres in India in the Revolt of 1857: Reply", Past and Present (no. 142): 178-189, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0031-2746%28199402%290%3A142%3C178%3ATKMIII%3E2.0.CO%3B2-J>
  • Roy, Tapti (Feb., 1993), "Visions of the Rebels: A Study of 1857 in Bundelkhand", Modern Asian Studies 27 (1): 205-228 (Special Issue: How Social, Political and Cultural Information Is Collected, Defined, Used and Analyzed), <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0026-749X%28199302%2927%3A1%3C205%3AVOTRAS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P>
  • Stokes, Eric (Dec., 1969), "Rural Revolt in the Great Rebellion of 1857 in India: A Study of the Saharanpur and Muzaffarnagar Districts", The Historical Journal 12 (4): 696-627, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0018-246X%28196912%2912%3A4%3C606%3ARRITGR%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P>
  • Washbrook, D. A., "India, 1818-1860: The Two Faces of Colonialism", in Porter, Andrew, Oxford History of the British Empire: The Nineteenth Century, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, 395-421, ISBN 0199246785

Other histories

  • Dalrymple, William. 2006. The Last Mughal. Viking Penguin, 2006, ISBN 0-67099-925-3
  • David, Saul (2003), The Indian Mutiny : 1857, London: Penguin Books, Pp. 528, ISBN 0141005548
  • Farrell, J.G. "The Siege of Krishnapur", New York Review of Books, 2004.
  • Mishra, Amaresh. 2007. War of Civilisations : The Long Revolution (India AD 1857, 2 Vols.), ISBN 9788129112828
  • Ward, Andrew. Our Bones Are Scattered. New York: Holt & Co., 1996.

First person accounts and classic histories

  • Barter, Captain Richard The Siege of Delhi. Mutiny memories of an old officer, London, The Folio Society, 1984.
  • Campbell, Sir Colin. Narrative of the Indian Revolt. London: George Vickers, 1858.
  • Collier, Richard. The Great Indian Mutiny. New York: Dutton, 1964.
  • Kaye, John William. A History of the Sepoy War In India (3 vols). London: W.H. Allen & Co., 1878.
  • Forrest, George W. "A History of the Indian Mutiny", William Blackwood and Sons, London, 1904. (4 vols).
  • Fitchett, W.H., B.A.,LL.D., A Tale of the Great Mutiny, Smith, Elder & Co., London, 1911.
  • Innes, Lt. General McLeod: The Sepoy Revolt, A.D. Innes & Co., London, 1897.
  • Kaye, Sir John & Malleson, G.B.: The Indian Mutiny of 1857, Rupa & Co., Delhi, (1st edition 1890) reprint 2005.
  • Khan, Syed Ahmed (1859), Asbab-e Baghawat-e Hind'', Translated as The Causes of the Indian Revolt, Allahabad, 1873
  • Malleson, Colonel G.B. The Indian Mutiny of 1857. New York: Scribner & Sons, 1891.
  • Marx, Karl & Freidrich Engels. The First Indian War of Independence 1857-1859. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1959.
  • Pandey, Sita Ram, From Sepoy to Subedar, Being the Life and Adventures of Subedar Sita Ram, a Native Officer of the Bengal Native Army, Written and Related by Himself, trans. Lt. Col. Norgate, (Lahore: Bengal Staff Corps, 1873), ed. James Lunt, (Delhi: Vikas Publications, 1970).
  • Raikes, Charles: Notes on the Revolt in the North-Western Provinces of India, Longman, London, 1858.
  • Roberts, Field Marshal Lord, Forty-one Years in India, Richard Bentley, London, 1897 Forty-one years in India, available at Project Gutenberg.
  • Russell, William Howard, My Diary in India in the years 1858-9, Routledge, London, 1860, (2 vols.)
  • Sen, Surendra Nath, Eighteen fifty-seven, (with a foreword by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad), Indian Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Delhi, 1957.
  • Thomson, Mowbray (Capt.), "The Story of Cawnpore: The Indian Mutiny 1857", Donovan, London, 1859.
  • Trevelyan, Sir George Otto, Cawnpore, Indus, Delhi, (first edition 1865), reprint 2002.
  • Wilberforce, Reginald G, An Unrecorded Chapter of the Indian Mutiny, Being the Personal Reminiscences of Reginald G. WIlberforce, Late 52nd Infantry, Compiled from a Diary and Letters Written on the Spot London: John Murray 1884, facsimile reprint: Gurgaon: The Academic Press, 1976.

Tertiary Sources

  • "Indian Mutiny." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Online. http://www.eb.com:180/cgi-bin/g?DocF=micro/342/91.html. 23 Mar. 1998.
  • "Lee-Enfield Rifle." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 23 Mar. 1998.

Fictional & Narrative Literature

  • Farrell, J.G.. The Siege of Krishnapur. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1985 (orig. 1973; Booker Prize winner).
  • Fenn, Clive Robert. For the Old Flag: A Tale of the Mutiny. London: Sampson Low, 1899.
  • Grant, James. First Love and Last Love: A Tale of the Mutiny. New York: G. Routledge & Sons, 1869.
  • Kaye, Mary Margaret. Shadow of the Moon. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1979.
  • Kilworth, Garry Douglas. Brothers of the Blade: Constable & Robinson, 2004.
  • Masters, John. Nightrunners of Bengal. New York: Viking Press, 1951.
  • Raikes, William Stephen. 12 Years of a Soldier's Life In India. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1860.

Professor Sir Christopher Alan Bayly is a British historian specializing in Indian, British Imperial, and Global History. ... Professor Sir Christopher Alan Bayly is a British historian specializing in Indian, British Imperial, and Global History. ... Sugata Bose is the Gardiner Professor of History at Harvard University. ... Dr. Ayesha Jalal (Urdu: عائشہ جلال) is a Pakistani historian. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Sir Allen Lane (21 September 1902–7 July 1970) (born Allen Lane Williams), was a British publisher who founded Penguin Books bringing high quality, paperback fiction and non-fiction to a mass market. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Prof. ... It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ... The Siege of Krishnapur is a novel by the author J.G. Farrell, and was published in 1973. ... The Luttrell Psalter (2006) Alices Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass (1962) The Wind in the Willows (2006) The Folio Society, founded in 1947, is based on the fringes of Bloomsbury, London. ... Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Bahadur, GCSI (Urdu: سید احمد خان بہا در; October 17, 1817 – March 27, 1898), commonly known as Sir Syed, was an Indian educator and politician who pioneered modern education for the Muslim community in India by founding the Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College, which later developed into the Aligarh Muslim University. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Longman is a firm of English publishers. ... Lord Roberts of Kabul and Kandahar on his Celebrated Charger (Harpers Magazine, European Edition, December 1897, p27) Field Marshal Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, VC, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, PC (30 September 1832 – 14 November 1914) was a distinguished British soldier and one of the most... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... The Siege of Krishnapur is a novel by the author J.G. Farrell, and was published in 1973. ...

See also

Vellore Mutiny (May 10, 1806) was the first instance of a mutiny by the Indian sepoys against the British East India Company. ... Titumir (Bangla: তিতুমীর) , properly Titu Mir, was a rebel against the zamindars and British colonial system in 19th century Bengal, part of British India. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... For other persons named John Paton, see John Paton (disambiguation). ... This article is about the History of South Asia. ... This is a list of wars of independence (national liberation). ... Scene from the failed Québecois rebellion against British rule in 1837. ...

External links

  • http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00routesdata/1800_1899/1857revolt/nanasahib/nanasahib.html
  • Sepoy Blog, A day by day account of 1857 Rebellion
  • Truth behind 1857 panthic.org part I, part II, part III
  • First War of Independence - Sify
  • 1857 first freedom fight :: १८५७ :: अखंड भारतम्
  • 1857 was not the first war of Independence
  • Development of Situation-January to July 1857 - Maj (Retd) AGHA HUMAYUN AMIN from WASHINGTON DC defencejounal.com
  • The Library of Congress (US) - Research Centers - Country Study - India @ 1857
  • Alexander Ganse (World History at KMLA - Mutiny 1857
  • The Sepoy War of 1857 - Emory.edu
  • The Indian Mutiny BritishEmpire.co.uk
  • Paintings related to events of 1857
  • British Army Official Records of the Era
  • Karl Marx, New York Tribune, 1853-1858, The Revolt in India marxists.org
  • In Pictures: Rare images of the 1857 uprising in India, BBC News, 12th May 2007
  • India Rising National Army Museum (UK)
  • A Great British Tradition, John Newsinger on the Great Indian Rebellion, Socialist Review, May 2007.
  • Narrative of Munshi Jeewan Lal
The New York Tribune building - today the site of Pace Universitys building complex of One Pace Plaza in New York City The New York Tribune was established by Horace Greeley in 1841 and was long considered one of the leading newspapers in the United States. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... The Socialist Review is the monthly magazine of the Socialist Workers Party (UK). ... The term Indian independence movement is diffused, incorporating various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant philosophy and involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending the British Colonial Authority as well as other colonial... It has been suggested that European colonies in India be merged into this article or section. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Combatants British East India Company Siraj Ud Daulah (Nawab of Bengal), La Compagnie des Indes Orientales Commanders Colonel Robert Clive (later Governor of Bengal and Baron of Plassey) Mir Jafar Ali Khan, defected (Commander-in-chief of the Nawab), M. Sinfray (French Secretary to the Council) Strength 2,200 European... Combatants Bengal, British East India Company Commanders Mir Kasim, Hector Munro Strength 40,000 infantry, 18,000 infantry, Casualties high low Battle of Buxar (October 1764) was a significant battle fought between the forces under the command of the British East India Company on the one side, and the combined... The Anglo-Mysore Wars were a series of eighteenth-century wars fought in India between the Kingdom of Mysore (then a French ally) and the British East-India Company, represented chiefly by the Madras Presidency. ... The First Anglo-Maratha War was the first of three Anglo-Maratha wars fought between the Great Britain and Maratha Empire in India. ... The Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803 - 1805) was a second conflict between Britain and the Maratha empire in India. ... The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817 - 1818) was a final and decisive conflict between Britain and the Maratha empire in India, which left Britain in control of most of India. ... The First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846), resulted in partial subjugation of the Sikh kingdom by the British East India Company. ... The Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848–1849), resulted in the subjugation of the Sikh kingdom and absorption of the Punjab into lands controlled by the British East India Company. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... French India is highlighted in light blue on the subcontinent. ... Portuguese India evolution Capital Cochin (1510-1530); Nova Goa Language(s) Portuguese Political structure Ultramarine Province King President  - 1511-1521 Manuel I  - 1958-1961 Américo de Deus Rodrigues Tomás Viceroy  - 1505-1509 Francisco de Almeida (first)  - 1827-1835 Manuel de Portugal e Castro (last) Governor-general  - 1509-1515... Image File history File links Gandhi_Salt_March. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3496x2418, 835 KB) en: Gandhi during the Salt March, March 1930. ... Image File history File links 1931_Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links AzadHindFlag. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Self rule is the term used to described a people or group being able to exercise all of the necessary functions of power without intervention from any authority which they cannot themselves alter. ... Gandhism (or Gandhi-ism) is an informal reference to the vision, core inspirations, principles, beliefs and philosophy of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian Independence Movement. ... Mohandas Karamchand “Mahatma” Gandhi, who developed Satyagraha Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas K. Gandhi. ... Hindu nationalism is a nationalist ideology that sees the modern state of the Republic of India as a Hindu polity [1] (Hindu Rashtra), and seeks to preserve the Hindu heritage. ... Indian Muslim nationalism refers to the political and cultural expression of nationalism, founded upon the religious tenets and identity of Islam, of the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. ... Swadeshi is the Indian term for the boycott of British goods. ... Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... The Khilafat movement (1919-1924) was a political campaign launched mainly by Muslims in South Asia to influence the British government and to protect the Ottoman Empire during the aftermath of World War I. The position of Caliph after the Armistice of Mudros of October 1918 with the military occupation... The term Indian independence movement is diffused, incorporating various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant philosophy and involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending the British Colonial Authority as well as other colonial... Revolutionary movement for Indian independence is often a less-highlighted aspect of Indian independence movement - the underground revolutionary factions. ... The Delhi Conspiracy case, also known as the Delhi-Lahore Conspiracy, refers to a conspiracy in 1912 to assasinate the then Viceroy of India, Lord Hardinge, on the occasion of transferring the capital of British India from Calcutta to New Delhi. ... The Indian Sociologist (TIS) was an important Indian nationalist publication in the early nineteenth century. ... The Hindu-German Conspiracy(i), also known as the Hindu Conspiracy, the Indo-German Conspiracy or the Ghadar conspiracy refers to plans between Indian Nationalists in India, United States and Germany, the Irish Republicans, and the German Foreign office to initiate a Pan-Indian rebellion against The Raj with German... The first Satyagraha revolutions inspired by Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian Independence Movement occurred in Kheda district of Gujarat and the Champaran district of Bihar between the years of 1918 and 1919. ... The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, also known as the Amritsar Massacre, was named after the Jallianwala Bagh (Garden) in the northern Indian city of Amritsar, where, on April 13, 1919, British Indian Army soldiers under the command of Brigadier Reginald Dyer opened fire on an unarmed gathering of men, women and... ... The massacre of the Qissa Khawani Bazaar (the story tellers market) in Peshawar, British India (modern day Pakistan) on April 23, 1930 is considered a defining moment in the non violent struggle to drive the British out of India. ... Flag Satyagraha is a term that describes campaigns of peaceful civil disobedience during the Indian independence movement that focused on exercising the right and freedom to hoist the nationalist flag and challenge the legitimacy of British Raj in India through the defiance of laws prohibiting the hoisting of nationalist flags... The Bardoli Satyagraha of 1925 in the state of Gujarat, India during the British Raj was a major episode of civil disobedience and revolt in the Indian Independence Movement. ... The Indian Statutory Commission was a group of seven British Members of Parliament that had been dispatched to India in 1927 to study constitutional reform in that colony. ... The Nehru Report (1928) was a memorandum outlining a proposed new Dominion (see dominion status) constitution for India. ... The flag adopted in 1931 and used by the Provisional Government of Free India during the Second World War. ... Scenes on the eve of the Salt Satyagraha, Gandhis famous 240 mile march on foot to the sea at Dandi. ... The three Round Table Conferences of 1930-32 were organised by the British government. ... 24. ... The Legion Freies Indien, or the Indische Freiwilligen-Legion Regiment 950 variously known as the Tiger Legion, the Free India Legion (in English), The Azad Hind Legion, or the I.R 950 (Indisches Infanterie Regiment 950) was an Indian armed unit raised in 1941 attached to the Wehrmacht, ostensibly according... Sir Stafford Cripps Mission was an attempt in late March of 1942 by the British War Cabinet to secure Indian cooperation and support for their efforts in World War II. Led by Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, the majority Indian National Congress and its supporters were engaged in a program of... The Quit India Movement (Bharat Chhodo Andolan or the August Movement) was a civil disobedience movement in India launched in August 1942 in response to Mahatma Gandhis call for immediate independence of India. ... The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second... The Bombay Mutiny was the mutiny of the Royal Indian Navy in Bombay (Mumbai) harbour on 21 February 1946. ... now. ... Provisional Government of India was established on 1 December 1915 in Kabul with Raja Mahendra Pratap as its President. ... The flag adopted in 1931 and used by the Provisional Government of Free India during the Second World War. ... Anushilan Samiti was the principal secret revolutionary organisation operating in Bengal in the first quarter of the 20th century. ... Jugantar or Yugantar (nearest English word epoch-making) was one of the secret revolutionary organisations operating in Bengal for Indian independence. ... The India House was an informal addage to describe the residence of many Indian students in England. ... The Berlin Committee, known as the The Indian Independence Committee (German: ) after 1915, was an organisation formed in Germany in 1914 during World War I by Indian students and political activists residing in the country. ... The Ghadar Party was an organization founded by the Indians(mostly Punjabis, of the United States and Canada in June, 1913 with the aim to liberate India from British rule. ... Home Rule flag The Home Rule Movement was formed by Annie Besant and Lokmanya Tilak with the aim of seeking a Dominion status within the British Empire to the Indian Empire in 1917. ... An old red shirt activist, picture taken by Mukulika Banerjee: The Pathan Unarmed Khudai Khidmatgar (Pashto: خدای خدمتگر) literally translates as the servants of God. ... The Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA), known as the Hindustan Republican Association until 1928, was an Indian independence association led by revolutionaries Bhagat Singh and Chandrasekar Azad. ... Swaraj Party, a political party of colonial India, was organized in 1923 by Deshbandhu Chitaranjan Das (1870-1925) and Motilal Nehru (1861-1931), to participate in legislative councils. ... The Indian Independence League (also known as IIL) was a political organisation operated from the 1920s to the 1940s to organize those living outside of India into seeking the removal of British colonial rule over India. ... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ... Mahatma Jyotirao Phule (April 11, 1827 - November 28, 1890) was an activist and social reformer from Maharashtra, critical of caste relations in Western India and noted for his work in the upliftment of widows and the lower castes in India. ... Gapal Ganesh Agarkar was a social reformer in India during the British rule. ... Shahu IV of Kolhapur Shahu Chhatrapati, (also known as Rajarshi Shahu) (1874-1922) was Maharaja of the Indian princely state of Kolhapur between 1874 and 1922. ... Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (April 14, 1891 or 1892 - December 6, 1956) was the most prominent Indian Untouchable leader of the 20th century. ... Maharshi Dhondo Keshav Karve fought throughout his life for the upliftment of women. ... Mahadev Govind Ranade (16 January 1842 - 16 January 1901) was an Indian lawyer, reformer and author. ... Swami Dayananda Saraswati (स्‍वामी दयानन्‍द सरस्‍वती) (1824 - 1883) is an important Hindu religious scholar born in Gujarat, India. ... Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (Bangla: রামকৃষ্ণ পরমহংস Ramkrishno Pôromôhongsho), born Gadadhar Chattopadhyay (Bangla: গদাধর চট্টোপাধ্যায় Gôdadhor Chôţţopaddhae) [1], (February 18, 1836–August 16, 1886) was a Hindu religious teacher and an influential figure in the Bengal Renaissance of the Nineteenth century. ... Swami Vivekananda (Bengali: স্বামী বিবেকানন্দ Shami Bibekanondo), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta (নরেন্দ্রনাথ দত্ত Nôrendronath Dotto) (January 12, 1863 - July 4, 1902) was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the Vedanta philosophy. ... Vinoba Bhave, born Vinayak Narahari Bhave (September 11, 1895 - November 15 1982) often called Acharya (In Sanskrit and Hindi means teacher), is considered as a National Teacher of India and the spiritual successor of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Baba Amte (Marathi: ) (December 26, 1914 - February 9, 2008), born Murlidhar Devidas Amte was a respected Indian social activist. ... Raja Ram Mohan Roy is regarded as the Father of the Bengal Renaissance Ram Mohan Roy, also written as Rammohun Roy, or Raja Ram Mohun Roy (Bangla: রাজা রামমোহন রায়, Raja Rammohon Rae), (May 22, 1772 – September 27, 1833) was the founder of the Brahmo Samaj, one of the first Indian socio-religious... Puli Devar was a poligar (palayakaran) who ruled an area called Nelkattansevval in Avudayapuram, Tamil Nadu. ... Veerapandiya Kattabomman (1959) is a Tamil feature film directed by B. Ramakrishnaiah Panthulu. ... Sangolli Rayanna was a prominent freedom fighter of Karnataka. ... For the Hindi film of the same name, see The Rising (Indian film). ... Rai Ahmed Nawaz Khan Kharal was one of the greatest freedom fighters in the Indian rebellion of 1857. ... Lakshmibai, The Rani of Jhansi (c. ... Bahadur Shah II (1775-1862) aka Bahadur Shah Zafar (Zafar was his nom de plume, or takhallus, as an Urdu poet) was the last of the Mughal emperors in India. ... Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856 - 1920), was an Indian nationalist, social reformer and freedom fighter who was the first popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement. ... Gopal Krishna Gokhale (गोपाल कृष्‍ण गोखले) born May 9, 1866, in Kolhat, Maharashtra, India was one of the founding social and political leaders during the Indian Independence Movement against the British Empire in India. ... Statue of Naoroji in Mumbai Dadabhai Naoroji (6 September 1825 – 30 June 1917) was a Parsi intellectual, educator, cotton trader, and an early Indian political leader. ... Bhikaji Rustom Cama (Madam Cama, Madame Cama) (September 24, 1861-August 13, 1936) was a prominent figure in the Indian Nationalist Movement. ... Shyamji Krishna Varma (1857-1930) was an Indian nationalist. ... Annie Besant Plaque on house in Colby Road, London SE19 where Annie Besant lived in 1874. ... Har Dayal (b. ... Subramanya Bharathi 1882 - 1921 Subramanya Bharathi (Tamil: ) (December 11, 1882 - September 11, 1921) was a Tamil poet from Tamil Nadu, India, freedom fighter and reformer. ... Lala Lajpat Rai was an Indian author and politician who is chiefly remembered as a leader in the Indian fight for freedom from the British Raj. ... He was one of the trilogy of the three Extremist patriots of the Indian National Congress who had fought and gave his life during Indias freedom struggle in the first half of the twentieth century. ... Rashbehari Bose (1885-1945) was a revolutionary leader against the British Raj in India and was one of the organisers of the Indian National Army. ... Chittaranjan Das (C.R.Das) (popularly called Deshbandhu) (November 25, 1870 - June 16, 1925) was a Bengali lawyer and a major figure in the Indian independence movement. ... Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (Pashto/Arabic: خان عبد الغفار خان) (b. ... Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (1888 - August 1958) was a freedom fighter in Indias struggle for Independence from Britain. ... Chandrasekhar Azad चंद्रशेखर आजाद (July 23, 1906 – February 27, 1931) was an Indian revolutionary and the mentor of Bhagat Singh. ... Rajaji Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari (December 1878 - December 25, 1972), known as or Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian lawyer, writer, statesman and a Hindu spiritualist. ... Bhagat Singh (Punjabi: ਭਗਤ ਸਿੰਘ بھگت سنگھ, IPA: ) (September 27, 1907[1] –March 23, 1931) was an Indian freedom fighter, considered to be one of the most influential revolutionaries of the Indian independence movement. ... Sarojini Naidu (February 13, 1879 - March 2, 1949), known as Bharatiya Kokila (The Nightingale of India), was a child prodigy, freedom fighter, and poet. ... Purushottam Das Tandon (August 1, 1882 – July 1, 1962), was a freedom fighter, social reformer and national political leader of India. ... Image:D:Alluri Sitarama raju. ... Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu:  ) (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was a Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. ... Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (October 31, 1875–December 15, 1950), popularly referred to as Sardar Patel, was an Indian statesman, an important leader of the Indian National Congress and the deputy Prime Minister in the first cabinet of Independent India. ... Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: নেতাজী সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু ( सुभाष चदंर वसु ) Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj and was a prominent supporter of the Axis dictatorships as... Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a major political leader of the Congress Party, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of independent India. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869–January 30, 1948) (Devanagari : मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી) was a national icon who led the struggle for Indias independence from British colonial rule, empowered by tens of millions of common Indians. ... Allama Mashriqi (Urdu: علامہ مشرقی) (Inayatullah Khan) (Urdu: عنایت اللہ خان) (born in Amritsar, 25 August 1888; died in Lahore, 27 August 1963) was an Islamic scholar and founder of the Khaksar movement. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, meeting with Mir Jafar after Plassey, by Francis Hayman Major-General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey, KB (29 September 1725 - 22 November 1774), also known as Clive of India, was the soldier of fortune and commander who established the military supremacy of the... Sir James Outram Sir James Outram (January 29, 1803-March 11, 1863), English general, and one of the heroes of the Indian Mutiny, was the son of Benjamin Outram of Butterley Hall, Derbyshire, civil engineer. ... James Andrew Broun-Ramsay, 1st Marquess and 10th Earl of Dalhousie (April 22, 1812–December 19, 1860) was a British statesman, and a colonial administrator in India. ... Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, KG, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC (16 April 1881–23 December 1959), known as The Lord Irwin from 1925 until 1934 and as The Viscount Halifax from 1934 until 1944, was a British Conservative politician. ... Victor Alexander John Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow (24 September 1887 - 5 January 1952) was a British statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1936 to 1943. ... Field Marshal Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, GCB, GCSI, GCIE, CMG, MC, PC (May 5, 1883 – May 24, 1950) was a British field marshal and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II. He led British forces to victory over the Italians, only... Sir Richard Stafford Cripps (24 April 1889 – 21 April 1952) was a British Labour politician and Chancellor of the Exchequer for several years after the Second World War. ... Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas George Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, PC (25 June 1900–27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The British Cabinet Mission of 1946 to India aimed to discuss and finalize plans for the transfer of power from the British Raj to Indian leadership, providing India with independence under Dominion status in the Commonwealth of Nations. ... 1. ... This article is under construction. ... Current political map of India showing states and territories. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Indian Rebellion of 1857 (9311 words)
The term Indian independence movement is diffused, incorporating various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant philosophy and involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending the British Colonial Authority as well as other colonial...
Prince Mirza Mughal (1817 - 1857) was the fifth (and eldest surviving legitimate) son of Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar and heir apparent to the throne of Delhi and the title of Emperor of India.
The rebellion began with military revolts by sepoys of the Bengal Presidency army; in 1857 the presidency consisted of present-day Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Sepoy Rebellion - MSN Encarta (1113 words)
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of British East India Company 's army on the 10th of May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon erupted into other mutinies...
Sepoy Rebellion (1857-1859), also known as the Indian War of Independence, uprising against British rule in India begun by Indian troops (sipahi or sepoys) in the employ of the English East India Company.
Among those joining the sepoys in the uprising were Indian princes and their followers, whose territories had been annexed by the English East India Company, and people whose ways of life and sources of income had been disrupted by British trade, missionary activities, or social reforms.
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