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Encyclopedia > Indian Peace Keeping Force
Indian Armed Forces
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Total armed forces 2,414,700 (Ranked 3rd)
Active troops 1,414,000 (Ranked 3rd)
Total troops 3,773,300 (Ranked 6th)
Paramilitary forces 1,089,700
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Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990. It was formed under the mandate of the peace accord signed between India and Sri Lanka in 1987 that was designed to end the conflict between Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam and Sri Lankan armed forces.[1] Its task was to enforce the terms of the accord, and maintain peace. and was inducted into Sri Lanka on the request of the then President of Sri Lanka, J. R. Jayewardene under the terms of the Indo-Sri Lanka accord.[1] The Indian Armed Forces is the primary military organization responsible for the territorial security and defence of India. ... Image File history File links Emblem_of_India. ... The Emblem of India The Emblem of India is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that List of countries by size of armed forces be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of countries by number of active troops. ... The Indian Army is the largest branch of the Armed Forces of India and has the primary responsibility of conducting land-based military operations. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Indian_Army. ... The Indian Air Force (भारतीय वायु सेना : Bharatiya Vayu Sena) is the air-arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the prime responsibility of conducting aerial warfare and securing the Indian airspace. ... Image File history File links Ensign_of_the_Indian_Air_Force. ... The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. ... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_India. ... Indian Coast Guards coat of Arms. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Components Indian Army Indian Air Force Indian Navy Indian Coast Guard Indian Paramilitary Forces Strategic Nuclear Command History Military history of India British Indian Army Indian National Army Ranks Air Force ranks and insignia of India Army ranks and insignia of India Naval ranks and insignia of India Related Info... The Nuclear Command Authority (NCA) of India is the nodal agency for all command, control and operational decisions regarding Indias nuclear weapon stockpile. ... India has a long military history dating back several millennia. ... The following graphs presents the officer ranks of the Indian Air Force. ... The following graphs presents the officer ranks of the Indian army. ... The following graphs presents the officer ranks of the Indian navy. ... The military of India, officially known as the Indian armed forces, is the primary military organisation responsible for the territorial security and defense of India. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed on July 29, 1987, was signed by Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and President J.R. Jayewardene, the Sri Lankan Government made a number of concessions to Tamil demands, which included devolution of power to the provinces, merger--subject to later referendum--of... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri... Tamil Tigers emblem The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), also known as the Tamil Tigers, is a military and political organization that has waged a violent secessionist campaign against the Sri Lankan Government since the 1970s in order to secure independence for the Tamil portions of Sri Lanka. ... The Military of Sri Lanka consists of Three Branches which are the Army, Navy, Air Force. ... The President of Sri Lanka is the head of state and dominant political figure in Sri Lanka. ... Junius Richard Jayewardene (September 17, 1906–November 1, 1996), famously abbreviated in Sri Lanka as JR, was the president of Sri Lanka from 1978 until 1989. ...


The force was initially not expected to be involved in any significant combat by the Indian High Command.[2] However, within a few months, the IPKF became embroiled in battle with the LTTE to enforce peace. In the two years it was in northern Sri Lanka, the IPKF launched a number of combat operations aimed at destroying the LTTE-led insurgency. It was also accused during this time of having committed a number of Human Rights violations— mainly by the LTTE.[3] but also by some neutral organisations.[4] The military of India, officially known as the Indian armed forces, is the primary military organisation responsible for the territorial security and defense of India. ... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


The IPKF began withdrawing from Sri Lanka in 1989, following the election of the V P Singh Government in India, and on the request of the newly elected Sri Lankan president, Ranasinghe Premadasa.[2] The last IPKF contingents left Sri Lanka in March 1990. 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vishwanath Pratap Singh (Hindi: , born 25 June 1931) was the tenth Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ... The President of Sri Lanka is the head of state and dominant political figure in Sri Lanka. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ...

Contents

Background:Sri Lankan Civil War

Sri Lankan Conflict Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri...

Background
Sri Lanka • History of Sri Lanka
Origins of the Civil War
Origins of the Civil War
Black JulyRiots and pogroms
Human rightsState terrorism
Tamil militant groups
LTTE
LTTENotable attacks Terrorist attacksAttributed assassinationsChild soldiers
Expulsion of Muslims from Jaffna
Major figures
Mahinda Rajapakse
Velupillai Prabhakaran
Karuna Amman
Sarath Fonseka
Indian Involvement
Operation Poomalai
Indo-Sri Lanka Accord
Indian Peace Keeping Force
Rajiv Gandhi • RAW
See also
Military of Sri Lanka
TMVPEPDP
Notable assassinations
This box: view  talk  edit
Location of Sri Lanka
Location of Sri Lanka
Main article: Sri Lankan Civil War
See also: Operation Poomalai

Sri Lanka, from the early part of the 1980s, was facing an increasingly violent ethnic strife. The origins of this conflict can be traced to the independence of the island from Britain in 1948 . At the time, a Sinhala majority government was instituted which passed legislation that were deemed discriminatory against the substantial Tamil minority population. In the 1970s, two major Tamil parties united to form the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF) that started agitation for a separate state of Tamil Eelam within the system in a federal structure in the north and eastern Sri Lanka[5] that would grant the Tamils greater autonomy. However, enactment of the sixth amendment of the Sri Lankan Constitution in August 1983 classified all separatist movements as unconstitutional,[1] effectively rendering the TULF ineffective.[1] Outside the TULF, however, factions advocating more radical and militant courses of action soon emerged, and the ethnic divisions started flaring into a violent civil war.[5] Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... The recorded History of Sri Lanka boasts of 25 chronicled centuries. ... The origins of the Sri Lankan civil war lie in sharp disagreements over language, access to universities, and riots between Sri Lankas majority Sinhalese and minority Tamil community. ... Location of Sri Lanka Black July is the commonly used name of the pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. ... Following is a List of riots and pogroms in Sri Lanka. ... The situation of human rights in Sri Lanka is generally considered to be very poor[1]. Major human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have repeatedly expressed concern about the states of human rights in Sri Lanka. ... This article is being considered for deletion for the third time in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups rose to prominence in the 1970s to fight the state of Sri Lanka to create an independent Tamil Eelam. ... Tamil Tigers emblem The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), also known as the Tamil Tigers, is a military and political organization that has waged a violent secessionist campaign against the Sri Lankan Government since the 1970s in order to secure independence for the Tamil portions of Sri Lanka. ... LTTE is a rebel group active in Sri Lanka that is banned as a terrorist group by 29 countries. ... The following is a list of terrorist attacks attributed to the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (commonly known as the Tamil Tigers or simply the LTTE). ... Assassinations, murders and wholesale massacres of civilians in Sri Lanka have become an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war since 1983. ... Military use of children in Sri Lanka has been an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war in 1983. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Mahinda Rajapaksa Mahinda Rajapaksa (born November 18, 1945), Sri Lankan politician, became Prime Minister of Sri Lanka on April 6, 2004, following the victory of the United Peoples Freedom Alliance in the April 2, 2004 Sri Lankan legislative elections. ... Velupillai Prabhakaran (Tamil: வேலுப்பிள்ளை பிரபாகரன்; born November 26, 1954), sometimes referred to as V. Prabhakaran or Pirabaharan or as Thambi,[] was born in the northern coastal town of Velvettithurai, Sri Lanka to Thiruvenkadam Velupillai and Vallipuram Parvathy. ... Karuna Amman was the second highest commanding officer of the LTTE who broke away due to Tigers attacks on civilians in Batticaloa, corruption within LTTE and the recruitment of child soldiers. ... Category: ... Operation Poomalai or Eagle Mission 4 was the codename assigned to a mercy mission undertaken by the Indian Air Force to airdrop humanitarian relief supplies over the town of Jaffna and Jaffna Peninsula on 4 June 1987. ... Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed on July 29, 1987, was signed by Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and President J.R. Jayewardene, the Sri Lankan Government made a number of concessions to Tamil demands, which included devolution of power to the provinces, merger--subject to later referendum--of... Rājiv Ratna GāndhÄ« (DevanāgarÄ«: राजीव रत्न गान्धी, IPA: ) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 9th Prime Minister of India (and the 3rd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December... Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW)[1] is Indias external intelligence agency. ... The Military of Sri Lanka consists of Three Branches which are the Army, Navy, Air Force. ... Tamileela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (Tamil: தமிழீழ மக்கள் விடுதலைப்புலிகள், English: Tamileela Peoples Liberation Tigers) is a political party and paramilitary group formed in 2004 by break-away LTTE Military Head of Batticaloa district V. Muralitharan (Colonel Karuna). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Assassinations, murders and massacres of civilians in Sri Lanka have become an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war since 1983. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri... Operation Poomalai or Eagle Mission 4 was the codename assigned to a mercy mission undertaken by the Indian Air Force to airdrop humanitarian relief supplies over the town of Jaffna and Jaffna Peninsula on 4 June 1987. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... The Sinhalese are the main ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are an ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Anthem: Political status      Unrecognized de facto quasi-independent state Languages      Tamil (de facto official) English Capital Trincomalee President Velupillai Prabhakaran[1] Independence (from Sri Lanka) No official declaration   Area           19,509 km² claimed[2] 6,600–9,750 km² administered (40–50% of claimed area) Population (of claimed area) 3... The Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is the official document that outlines the fundamental laws and the structure of government in the island nation of Sri Lanka. ...


Indian Involvement and intervention

India had initially, under Indira Gandhi[6][7]and later under Rajiv Gandhi, provided support to Tamil interests from the very conception of the secessionist movement. This included providing sanctuary to the separatists, as well as support the operations training camps for Tamil guerrillas in Tamil Nadu[8] of which the LTTE emerged as the strongest force. This was both as a result of a large Tamil community in South India, as well as India's Regional security and interests which attempted to reduce the scope foreign intervention, especially those linked to the United States, Pakistan, and China.[8] To this end, the Indira Gandhi Government sought to make it clear to the Sri Lankan President, Jayewardene that armed intervention in support of the Tamil movement was an option India would consider if any diplomatic solutions should fail.[8] The first round of civil violence flared in 1983 when the killing of 13 soldiers of the Sri Lankan army sparked anti-Tamil riots in which nearly four hundred Tamils were killed. The riots only aided in the deterioration of the already worsening ethnic strife, the militant factions, notably the LTTE, at this time recruited in large numbers and continued building on popular Tamil dissent and stepped up the guerrilla activities. By May 1985, the guerrillas were strong enough to launch an attack on Anuradhapura, attacking the Bodhi Tree shrine–a sacred site for Buddhist Sinhalese–followed by a rampage through the town. At least 150 civilians died in the hour-long attack. However, after Gandhi's assassination, the Indian support for the militant movement waned at the very time the violence escalated. Rajiv Gandhi's government attempted to re-establish friendly relations with its neighbours. It still however maintained diplomatic efforts to find a solution to the conflict as well as maintaining covert aid to the Tamil rebels.[8][9] This article is under construction. ... Rājiv Ratna GāndhÄ« (DevanāgarÄ«: राजीव रत्न गान्धी, IPA: ) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 9th Prime Minister of India (and the 3rd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... ... Junius Richard Jayewardene (September 17, 1906 November 1, 1996) was a Sri Lankan politician. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sri Lankan Army Flag The Sri Lankan Army is a branch of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces with the responsbility of overseeing land-based operations. ... Location of Sri Lanka Black July is the commonly used name of the pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. ... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... May is the fifth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anuradhapura, (අනුරාධපුර in Sinhala), is one of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, world famous for its well preserved ruins of the Great Sri Lankan Civilization. ... Sri Maha Bodhi, Anuradhapura. ... Rājiv Ratna GāndhÄ« (DevanāgarÄ«: राजीव रत्न गान्धी, IPA: ) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 9th Prime Minister of India (and the 3rd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December...


The Sri Lankan government, deducing a decline in support for the Tamil rebels from India, started rearming itself extensively for its anti-insuregent role with support from Pakistan,Israel,Singapore and South Africa.[8][10] In 1986, the campaign against the insurgency was stepped up and in 1987, retaliating against an increasingly bloody insurgent movement, Operation Liberation was launched against LTTE strongholds in Jaffna Peninsula, involving nearly four thousand troops, supported by helicopter gunships as well as Ground attack aircrafts.[8] In June 1987, the Sri Lankan Army laid siege on the town of Jaffna.[11] This resulted in large-scale civilian casualties and created a condition of humanitarian crisis.[12] India, which had a substantial Tamil population in South India faced the prospect of a Tamil backlash at home, called on the Sri Lankan government to halt the offensive in an attempt to negotiate a political settlement. However, the Indian efforts were futile.Added to this, in the growing involvement of Pakistani and Isreali advisors, it was necessary for Indian interest to mount a show of force.[8] Failing to negotiate an end to the crisis with Sri Lanka, India announced on 2 June 1987 that it wound send a convoy of unarmed ships to northern Sri Lanka to provide humanitarian assistance[13]but this was intercepted by the Sri Lankan Navy and turned back.[14] A helicopter gunship is a military helicopter armed for attacking targets on the ground, using automatic rifle fire, rockets, and precision guided missiles such as the Hellfire. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Jaffna District. ... A humanitarian crisis or (in the language of history) a humanitarian disaster is a health or otherwise natural disaster which mortally threatens a very large number of people. ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... Isreal may be: a common misspelling of Israel a common function in programming languages to test whether a variable is a real number. ... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Following the failure of the naval mission, the decision was made– the decision was made by the Indian Government to mount an airdrop of relief supplies in support of rebel forces over the besieged city of Jaffna. On 4 June 1987, in a blatant Show of force, the Indian Air Force mounted Operation Poomalai in broad daylight. Five An-32s under fighter cover flew over Jaffna to airdrop 25 tons of supplies, all the time keeping well within the range of Sri Lankan radar coverage. At the same time the Sri Lankan Ambassador to New Delhi was summoned to the Foreign Office to be informed by the Minister External Affairs, K. Natwar Singh, of the ongoing operation and also indicated that the operation was expected not to be hindered by the Sri Lankan Air Force. The ultimate aim of the operation was both to demonstrate the credibility of the Indian option of active intervention to the Sri Lankan Government, as a symbolic act of support for the Tamil Rebels, as well to preserve Rajiv Gandhi's credibility.[12] ... Jaffna District. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Show of force is a military term for an operation intended to warn or intimidate an opponent and to showcase ones own capability or will to act if provoked. ... The Indian Air Force (भारतीय वायु सेना : Bharatiya Vayu Sena) is the air-arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the prime responsibility of conducting aerial warfare and securing the Indian airspace. ... Operation Poomalai or Eagle Mission 4 was the codename assigned to a mercy mission undertaken by the Indian Air Force to airdrop humanitarian relief supplies over the town of Jaffna and Jaffna Peninsula on 4 June 1987. ... Antonov An-32P © ANTONOV ASTC The Antonov An-32 (NATO reporting name: Cline) is a twin-engined turboprop military transport aircraft. ... The External Affairs Minister commonly known as the Foreign Minister represents India and the government of India in the international community. ... K. Natwar Singh Kunwar Natwar Singh, popularly known as K. Natwar Singh (born May 16, 1931, Bharatpur, Rajastan, India) is an Indian politician and has been a cabinet minister. ... The Sri Lanka Air Force is the Airborne Wing of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces, and its key role is to provide tacical support to naval and land divisions. ... Rājiv Ratna GāndhÄ« (DevanāgarÄ«: राजीव रत्न गान्धी, IPA: ) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 9th Prime Minister of India (and the 3rd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December...


The Indo-Sri Lanka Accord

Main article: Indo-Sri Lanka Accord

Following Operation Poomalai, faced with the possibility of an active Indian intervention and lacking any possible ally, the President, J. R. Jayewardene, offered to hold talks with the Rajiv Gandhi government on future moves.[11] The siege of Jaffna was soon lifted, followed by a round of negotiations that led to the signing of the Indo-Sri-Lankan accord on July 29, 1987[15] that brought a temporary truce. Crucially however, the negotiations did not include the LTTE as a party to the talks. Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed on July 29, 1987, was signed by Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and President J.R. Jayewardene, the Sri Lankan Government made a number of concessions to Tamil demands, which included devolution of power to the provinces, merger--subject to later referendum--of... Operation Poomalai or Eagle Mission 4 was the codename assigned to a mercy mission undertaken by the Indian Air Force to airdrop humanitarian relief supplies over the town of Jaffna and Jaffna Peninsula on 4 June 1987. ... Junius Richard Jayewardene (September 17, 1906–November 1, 1996), famously abbreviated in Sri Lanka as JR, was the president of Sri Lanka from 1978 until 1989. ... Rājiv Ratna Gāndhī (Devanāgarī: राजीव रत्न गान्धी, IPA: ) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 9th Prime Minister of India (and the 3rd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December... Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed on July 29, 1987, was signed by Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and President J.R. Jayewardene, the Sri Lankan Government made a number of concessions to Tamil demands, which included devolution of power to the provinces, merger--subject to later referendum--of...


The signing of the Indo-Sri-Lankan accord on 29 July 1987[15] brought a temporary truce to the Sri Lankan Civil War. Under the terms of the agreement,[16][17] Colombo agreed to a devolution of power to the provinces the Sri Lankan troops were withdraw to their barracks in the north, the Tamil rebels were to disarm.[18] Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed on July 29, 1987, was signed by Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and President J.R. Jayewardene, the Sri Lankan Government made a number of concessions to Tamil demands, which included devolution of power to the provinces, merger--subject to later referendum--of... July 29 is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri... Map of Colombo with its administrative districts Coordinates: District Colombo District Government  - Mayor Uvaiz Mohammad Imitiyaz (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 37. ...


The mandate for the IPKF

Among the provisions undersigned by the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord was the commitment of Indian military assistance should this be requested for by the Sri Lankan Government, as well as the provision —also if requested by Colombo— of an Indian Peace Keeping Force that would "guarantee and enforce the cessation of hostilities".[16][8] It was on these grounds, and on the request of President J. R. Jayewardene, that Indian troops were inducted to Northern Sri Lanka. J N Dixit, the then Indian ambassador to Colombo, in an interview to rediff.com in 2000 described that ostensibly, Jayawardene's decision to request Indian assistance came in the face of increasing civil riots and violence within the southern Sinhala majority areas, including the capital Colombo that were initiated by the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna and the Sri Lanka Freedom Party that necessiated the withdrawal of the Sri Lankan Army from the Tamil areas of Northern Sri Lanka to maintain order.[2] It was under these conditions that the IPKF entered Sri Lanka. Junius Richard Jayewardene (September 17, 1906–November 1, 1996), famously abbreviated in Sri Lanka as JR, was the president of Sri Lanka from 1978 until 1989. ... Jyotindra Nath Dixit (January 8, 1936 – January 3, 2005) was an Indian diplomat and politician. ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... Rediff. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Colombo with its administrative districts Coordinates: District Colombo District Government  - Mayor Uvaiz Mohammad Imitiyaz (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 37. ... The Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (Sinhala janatā vimukti peramuṇa, Peoples Liberation Front) is a nationalist Marxist political party in Sri Lanka. ... The Sri Lanka Freedom Party is one of the major political parties in Sri Lanka. ... Sri Lankan Army Flag The Sri Lankan Army is a branch of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces with the responsbility of overseeing land-based operations. ...


The Indian Peace Keeping Force

IPKF troops in Sri Lanka.

Originally a reinforced division with small naval and air elements, the IPKF at its peak deployed four divisions and nearly 100,000 men with one mountain (4th) and three Infantry Divisions (36th, 54th, 57th) as well as supporting arms and services. At the peak of its operational deployment, IPKF operations also included a large Indian Paramilitary Force and Indian Special Forces elements. Indeed Sri Lanka was first theatre of operation for the Indian Navy Commandos. The main deployment of the IPKF was in northern and eastern Sri Lanka. Upon its withdrawal from Sri Lanka the IPKF was renamed the 21st Corps headquartered near Bhopal and became a sort-of quick reaction force for the Indian army. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Components Indian Army Indian Air Force Indian Navy Indian Coast Guard Indian Paramilitary Forces Strategic Nuclear Command History Military history of India British Indian Army Indian National Army Ranks Air Force ranks and insignia of India Army ranks and insignia of India Naval ranks and insignia of India Related Info... India has the following Special Forces: 1 Para Commando 2 Para Commando 9 Para Commando 10 Para Commando These are Indian Army Special Forces units and are trained to work in extreme climates and conditions behind enemy lines. ... Marcos may refer to: // Dayton Marcos, a Negro League baseball team from Dayton, Ohio Marcos Ambrose, Australian racing driver Marcos Armas, Venezuela-born American baseball player Marcos Assunção, Brazilian football player Marcos Baghdatis, Cypriot tennis player and 2006 Australian Open finalist Marcos Carvajal, Venezuela-born American baseball player Marcos... For other uses, see Bhopal (disambiguation). ...


IPKF Order of Battle

The first troops to be inducted into Sri Lanka was a ten thousand strong force from the 54th Infantry division, comprised of elements of the Sikh Light Infantry, the Maratha Light Infantry and the Mahar Regiment which flew into Palay airbase ,[19] from July 30 onwards. This was followed later by the 36th Infantry division. By August, the 54th Infantry Division under the command of Maj Gen Harkirat Singh and the 340th Indian Inf Bde had landed in Sri Lanka. By 1987, the IPKF comprised of-[20] The Sikh Light Infantry Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Mahar Regiment is an Infantry Regiment of the Indian Army. ... Kankesanturai Airport (IATA: JAF, ICAO: VCCJ) is a Sri Lanka Air Force base located near the city of Jaffna in Sri Lanka. ... Major General(retd. ...

  • 54th Air Assault Division. (Maj. Gen. Harkirat Singh GOC, Brigadier Kulwant Singh, Dy GOC):-
    • 10 Para Commando. (Jaffna)
    • 65 Armoured Regiment (originally with T-54 tanks and later with T-72's).
    • 91 Infantry Brigade (Jaffna)
    • 76 Infantry Brigade (Brigadier I.M. Dhar) (Munnar, Vavuniya, Mulliativu)
    • 47 Infantry Brigade (Trincomalee-Batticoloa-Amparai)
    • 340 Independent Infantry Brigade (Amphibious). (Trincomalee)
  • 36 Infantry Division.[21]
  • Independent Units
  • 18 Infantry Brigade. (Jaffna)
    • 5 Para Bn.

Later on during the conflict, the IPKF would draw on 57th Infantry Division, trained in jungle warfare, and two brigades of the 4th Mountain division. Major General(retd. ... Brigadier (IPA pronunciation: ) is a military rank, the meaning of which has a considerable variation. ... Para Commandos are an elite special forces unit of the Indian Army. ... The T-55 and T-54 main battle tanks were the Soviet Unions replacements for the World War II era T-34 tank. ... The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1971. ... The Maratha Light Infantry (MLI) Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army. ... Brigade of Gurkhas are the Nepalese soldiers who serve under the British Army Gorkha regiments form various infantry regiments in the Indian Army, recruited primarily from Nepal. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Rajputana Rifles are a regiment of the Indian Army, formerly the 6th Rajputana Rifles when part of the British Indian Army. ...


Conflict with LTTE

See also: Operation Pawan, Jaffna University Helidrop, Operation Trishul, Operation Viraat, and Operation Checkmate

The LTTE had enjoyed support from India till the IPKF started getting inducted.[9] However, not having been party to the negotiations leading up to the accord, it agreed to the truce only reluctantly. The Tigers had rejected the Provincial Council framework as inadequate and Prabhakaran had protested against the Indian military intervention.[22] The Tigers resisted the spread what was deemed India's self-serving aim of binding Sri Lanka into India's geo political sphere of influence,[22] as well as a symapthy for Sri Lanka's ruling Sinhala community in India outside the support-base in Tamil Nadu.[22] With the induction of the Indian troops, the Tigers initially complied by surrendering arms along the terms of the truce. However, the opposition to the induction of Indian troops soon flared into active confrontation. Along with this, there developed an increasingly brutal confrontation within Tamil factions, with allegations that the LTTE, predominantly a Northern Tamil powerbase, was attempting to destroy both the PLOTE and the EPRLF, which represented more of the Eastern provinces.[4][23] The LTTE boycotted the elections that were held in October and November 1988 along the lines outlined in the accord.[24] The Indian administration had not expected opposition from the Tigers[2] and was initially taken unaware. The support for Tamil Nationalism in India also raised the spectre to the Indian Govt. of a possible situation of Tamil secessionist movement in Tamil Nadu[25][22][23] However, faced with growing diligence from her erst-while partner, India adopted a strategy of aiding alternative Tamil power bases, including the Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front,[26] which ultimately emerged strongly in the November 1988 elections, and at the same time continue negotiations with the LTTE.[26] At the same time, however, Sinhalese nationalists, led by the JVP loathed the foreign presence on their soil.[2] Operation Pawan was the codename assigned to the operations by the Indian Peace Keeping Force to take control of Jaffna from the LTTE in late 1987 to enforce the disarmament of the LTTE as a part of the Indo-Sri Lankan Accord. ... The Jaffna University Helidrop was the first of the operations launched by the Indian Peace Keeping Forces (IPKF) aimed at disarming the Tamil Tigers (LTTE) by force and securing the town of Jaffna, Sri Lanka, in the opening stages of Operation Pawan during the active Indian mediation in the Sri... Operation Trishul, along with Operation Viraat, was an anti-insurgency operation launched by the IPKF against the LTTE in April 1988 in Northern Sri Lanka, in the provinces of Mannar to Mullaitivu and Elephant Pass to Vavuniya. ... Operation Trishul , along with Operation Trishul, was an anti-insurgency operation launched by the IPKF against the LTTE in April 1988 in Northern Sri Lanka, in the provinces of Mannar to Mullaitivu and Elephant Pass to Vavuniya. ... Operation Checkmate was an anti-insurgency operation carried out by the IPKF against the LTTE in the Vadamarachi areaof northern Sri Lanka in June 1988. ... Velupillai Prabhakaran (Tamil: வேலுப்பிள்ளை பிரபாகரன்; born November 26, 1954), sometimes referred to as V. Prabhakaran or Pirabaharan or as Thambi,[] was born in the northern coastal town of Velvettithurai, Sri Lanka to Thiruvenkadam Velupillai and Vallipuram Parvathy. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... PLOTE stands for Peoples Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam. ... The Eelam Peoples Revolutionary Liberation Front is a political party in Sri Lanka. ... This page is about boycott as a form of protest. ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... The Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (Sinhala janatā vimukti peramuṇa, Peoples Liberation Front) is a nationalist Marxist political party in Sri Lanka. ...


Two incidences that occurred in September-October 1987 marked the turning point of Indo-LTTE relationship. The first of these was the hunger strike and subsequent death of Lt. Col. Thileepan, a popular political wing leader of the LTTE, on 26 September 1987. Thileepan had begun his fast in protest against what was termed the failures of the Indian forces to satisfy the political demands of the Tamils,[3] and his death was mourned throughout the Tamil community and fuelled a growing dissatisfaction and impatience with the pace of promised reforms. In addition it was a huge propaganda victory for the LTTE, which started taking an increasingly hard line in the negotiations for the Interim Provincial Council.[23] The talks broke down. However, on 4 October 1988, the Sri Lankan Navy captured an LTTE boat off Point Pedro with seventeen Tigers, including some high-profile leaders of the movement, onboard.[27] The Colombo government alleged the boat was involved in smuggling arms across the Palk Straits and on the grounds denied immunity to these captured Tiger rebels.[27] The LTTE denied this claiming the rebels' movements were in accordance with the truce, being in the process of transferring documents for shifting the Tigers Headquarters from Madras to Jaffna. The Sinhalese government intended to bring a number of the rebels captured, including Pulendran, Kumarappa and others, to trial in Colombo for allegedly masterminding the massacre of a hundred and fifty civilians.[27] The Tigers, who were at the time still in negotiation with the Indian authorities, appealed for enforcement of protection by the IPKF. The rebels were at this time in IPKF custody at Palay Airbase pending transfer to Sinhalese authorities. Although the Indian authorities insist that they had explained the possible repercussions[26] of such an action on the fragile truce and exerted considerable pressure on the Sinhalese authorities to desist from proceeding,[27] ultimately the IPKF withdrew allowing the Sri Lankan forces to proceed with transferring the captured rebels to Colombo. The detainees however, attempted mass suicide by swallowing cyanide- a common LTTE practice when faced imminent capture. This singular event marked a total break-down of the truce. The night of 5 October saw large scale slaughter of Sinhalese people who had returned to Jaffna,[27] including eight soldiers of the Sri Lankan Army who were at the time being held hostages by the LTTE. These coincided with armed confrontations between the Tiger Cadres and the Indian Troops in and around Jaffna.[27]On 8 October, the LTTE carried out a number of mortar attacks and ambushes on the IPKF.[28] In the face of this detoriating situation, President Jayawardene threatened the visiting Indian Defence Minister and the Chief of Army Staff to re-induct the Sri Lankan Army to protect Sinhala interests if the IPKF did not take actions against the LTTE. The Indian government, already accused of inaction in the face of a failing accord, was forced into a position of having to enforce peace in Jaffna by force.[29][27] By 7 October, the COAS had issued directives to the IPKF, laying down its operations parameters in the directive[29]as: A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt or to achieve a goal such as a policy change. ... Thileepan also known as Lt. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Point Pedro is a relatively smaller city of Northern Sri Lanka, where Srilankan tamils live in majority. ... The Palk Strait is a 40-85 mi (64-137 km) wide strait that lies between Indias Tamil Nadu state and the island nation of Sri Lanka. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military unit peforming a peacekeeping operation that was formed to oversee the peace accord signed between India and Sri Lanka in 1987. ... a article about william palay ... Mass suicide occurs when a number of people kill themselves together with one another or for the same reason and is usually connected to a real or perceived persecution. ... The cyanide ion, CN−. From the top: 1. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 8 is the 281st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (282nd in leap years). ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... The Defence Minister of India is a cabinet position in the Government of India. ... The Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army (COAS) is the highest post in the Indian Army. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (281st in leap years). ...

  • Seize/destroy the LTTE radio/TV transmission equipment in the Jaffna Peninsula;
  • Seize or jam LTTE communication network;
  • Carry out raids on LTTE camps, caches and strong points;
  • Personnel manning LTTE offices in the East be detained and interrogated to gain information. In case of resistance,force to be used;
  • Actions to further consolidate hold of IPKF in the region.

It was declared on 9 October that the IPKF was to launch a final campaign against the LTTE.[29] This was the point of no return. October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Operation Pawan, October 1987

Main article: Operation Pawan

The first of the major IPKF operation was launched on 9 October 1987. Codenamed Operation Pawan (Hindi:Wind), it was expected to neutralise the LTTE operations capability in and around Jaffna. This included the capture or neutralisation of the LTTE's chain of command.[30] which was expected to leave the rebel movement directionless in the face of the impending assault on the LTTE strongholds by the IPKF. On the nights of October 9 and October 10, the IPKF raided and captured the LTTE radio station at Tavadi and TV station at Kokkuvil, while the printing presses of two LTTE sponsored newspapers were destroyed.[29] These operations also led to the capture of nearly two hundred Tiger rebels.[31] In retaliation, the LTTE ambushed a CRPF convoy near Tellipallai, killing four jawans, as well as an IPKF post at Tellipallai with automatic and mortar fire on IPKF post. Later that day, the Tigers hijacked a 10 Para Commando jeep on patrol, killing all five occupants.[29] Operation Pawan was the codename assigned to the operations by the Indian Peace Keeping Force to take control of Jaffna from the LTTE in late 1987 to enforce the disarmament of the LTTE as a part of the Indo-Sri Lankan Accord. ... Hindi (Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is one of the official languages of the Union government of India. ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years). ... Kokkuvil is a small town in the North Srilankan city of Jaffna. ... CRPF could mean Christopher Reeve Paralysis Foundation Cancer Research and Prevention Foundation In India, Central Reserve Police Force This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


On October 10, the Indian 91st Brigade, consisting of three battalions and led by Brigadier J. Ralli, began its push into the city of Jaffna.[32][33] October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years). ...


The Jaffna University Helidrop

The first battle signalling the real beginning of Operation Pawan was the Heliborne assault on Jaffna University head-quarters of the LTTE by a detachment of Indian Para Commandos and the Sikh LI on the night of 12 October. Jaffna University was the tactical headquarters of the LTTE. This was planned as a quick commando raid to capture the top LTTE leadership and local commanders who, based on Indian Intelligence, were supposed to be in the building at the time.[34][35] and was thus expected to cut short the Battle for Jaffna. The plan was to land a company of 70 men from 10 Para Cdo. to secure the football field. A second wave was to follow with a company of the 13th Sikh LI. The heliborne troops were to link up with 4/5 Gorkhas of 72 Brigade and the Sikh LI troops advancing on the ground.[32] However, the operation ended in disaster as the LTTE, having intercepted IPKF radio transmissions, set up an ambush. The helidropped troops came under intense LTTE fire as they were inserted which, while increasingly vicious fire from LTTE positions hit and crippled the Mi-8s enough to force the insertion to be terminated midway through operation. Over the battle that lasted through the night, twenty nine of the entire Sikh LI contingent of thirty troops and six of the one hundred and twenty commandos were killed before detachments of the 65th armoured regiments were able to extract the Paras from their defensive positions.[12] The Sikh LI radioman was shot by LTTE snipers early on, with the unit losing contact with the Indian High Command at Palay Air base and the lone survivor of the Sikh LI detachment, Sepoy Gora Singh was taken prisoner by the Tigers. It was not until his release later during the conflict that the fate of the unit was known.[36][12] The Jaffna University Helidrop was the first of the operations launched by the Indian Peace Keeping Forces (IPKF) aimed at disarming the Tamil Tigers (LTTE) by force and securing the town of Jaffna, Sri Lanka, in the opening stages of Operation Pawan during the active Indian mediation in the Sri... Operation Pawan was the codename assigned to the operations by the Indian Peace Keeping Force to take control of Jaffna from the LTTE in late 1987 to enforce the disarmament of the LTTE as a part of the Indo-Sri Lankan Accord. ... The Jaffna University Helidrop was the first of the operations launched by the Indian Peace Keeping Forces (IPKF) aimed at disarming the Tamil Tigers (LTTE) by force and securing the town of Jaffna, Sri Lanka, in the opening stages of Operation Pawan during the active Indian mediation in the Sri... SasquatchTC 06:40, July 22, 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... University of Jaffna // [edit] Overview Jaffna University has two campuses. ... The 5 Gorkha Rifles (Frontier Force) is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army comprising of Gurkha soldiers of Nepalese origin. ... The Mil Mi-8 (NATO reporting name Hip) is a large twin-turbine transport helicopter that can also act as a gunship. ... The Radioman was also spelled radio-man and radio man. ... Arkansas Army National Guard soldiers practice sniper marksmanship at their firing range near Baghdad, Iraq on February 15, 2005. ... a article about william palay ... For other uses, see Airport (disambiguation). ...


Battle for Jaffna

As the battle for Jaffna proggressed, the IPKF advance came under intense and vicious opposition from the Tigers. Fighting in built-up and an as-yet unevacuated Jaffna, the Indian High command insists that the slow advance was, in addition to Tiger resistance, more a result of reluctance on the part of the IPKF to use heavy weaponry to clear LTTE defences.[33] Furthermore all the approach roads had been armed with Claymore mines or explosives by the Tigers in its years of fighting with the Sri Lankan army.[32] The Tigers also made extensive use of IED[32] which could be remotely detonated from over a kilometre away. During this time, the Indian Navy, supported by the Coast Guards was key in establishing a 300-mile long blockade around the Northern Sri Lanka from October 1987 to disrupt the Tigers' supply and communications routes.[37] In addition, it was around this time the MARCOS commandos of the Navy first went into action. Detachments of the IMSF (Indian Marine Special Forces, as the MARCOS was then known), along with a battalion of the 340th Independent Brigade of the Indian Army, provided beach reconnaissance around Jaffna and Batticaloa.[38] The 340th Brigade was one of the first IPKF units to be deployed, and served until operations in the Trincomalee area were complete. The IMSF, at this time, also provided security patrols along the coastal road west of Jaffna until the 41st Brigade took charge later in November.[38] Munitions rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad, November 2005. ... The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. ... Indian Coast Guards coat of Arms. ... Look up October in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Marcos may refer to: // Dayton Marcos, a Negro League baseball team from Dayton, Ohio Marcos Ambrose, Australian racing driver Marcos Armas, Venezuela-born American baseball player Marcos Assunção, Brazilian football player Marcos Baghdatis, Cypriot tennis player and 2006 Australian Open finalist Marcos Carvajal, Venezuela-born American baseball player Marcos... The Indian Army is the largest branch of the Armed Forces of India and has the primary responsibility of conducting land-based military operations. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... Jaffna District. ... Batticaloa District. ... Trincomalee District Map Trincomalee (Tamil: (Thirukonamalai, hist: Sirigonakanda); Sinhala: (Thirikunamalaya)) is a port city on the northeast coast of Sri Lanka, about 110 miles northeast of Kandy. ...


On October 15/16, the IPKF advance stopped its advance to stabilize the front. In addition, Palay, the major operations headquarters for the 54th Infantry Division, was secured from Tiger attacks. At this time the Indian Air Force undertook a massive airlift to reinforce the 91st with three brigades and heavy equipments including T-72 Tanks s and BMP-1 fighting vehicless. The improvised controllers worked round the clock to fly in troops and equipment. In addition, the Indian Airlines is said to have contributed, with its Boeing 737s transporting troops.[32] In addition, this short interval saw the induction of the Mi-8s and the first induction of the Mi-25s of the No. 125 Sqn, along with the HAL Cheetahs. By end of October the IAF flew 2200 tactical transport and 800 helicopter sorties.[32] The Indian Air Force (भारतीय वायु सेना : Bharatiya Vayu Sena) is the air-arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the prime responsibility of conducting aerial warfare and securing the Indian airspace. ... The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1971. ... The BMP-1 is a Soviet infantry fighting vehicle which was first introduced in the early 1960s. ... The logo used while the company was called Indian Airlines Executive class cabin of an Indian Airbus A320 Indian Airlines, Limited or Indian (Hindi: ) is Indias state owned primarily domestic airline, under the federal Union Ministry of Civil Aviation and based in New Delhi. ... The Boeing 737 is the worlds most popular medium range, narrow body airliner. ... Russian Mi-8 Hip The Mil Mi-8 (NATO reporting name Hip) is a large transport helicopter that can also act as a gunship. ... The Mil Mi-24 is a large combat helicopter gunship and low-capacity troop transport operated from 1976 by the Soviet Air Force, its successors, and over thirty other nations. ... Alouette II The Alouette II is a light helicopter originally manufactured by Sud Aviation and later Aérospatiale of France. ...


Now reinforced, the IPKF resumed the battle for Jaffna town. The tanks and armoured fighting vehicles are said to have been an effective protection against the anti-personnel mines.[32] However, even with this protection, the IPKF advance was torturous in the face of the Tigers' sniper fire. The rebel snipers would take positions along rooftops of buildings, treetops and even coconut palms. Equipped with powerful telescopic infra-red sights, the Tiger snipers were able to selectively take out officers and radiomen, taking a heavy toll and bringing the advances to a grinding halt. In addition, Helicopters flying below 2000 feet also remained vulnerable, with at least five shot at and damaged before the Mi-25s took up their offensive role. The IPKF adapted quickly, with its officers taking off pips of their ranks, wearing slouch hats and carrying oversize back packs. However, as advances got bogged down, the battalions, instead of maneuvering around the defenders, were forced to commit more troops under orders from New Delhi.[32] In addition, the LTTE increasingly started the use of anti-tank mines, taking a further heavy toll on IPKF casualties. A frustrated IPKF cut off power to Jaffna to counter these.[32] In addition, the IPKF communications lines were extensively mined by the LTTE, which further compounded the sometimes perilous situations that the Indian troops faced. It was not before the IMSF commandos broke out of the besieged Jaffna port and cleared the heavily mined Navanturai Coastal Road, that a crucial link up between 1 Maratha Light Infantry in the Jaffna fort and the advancing troops of 41st Brigade could be established that secured the Nallur area.[32] On 21 October 1987, the commandos conducted a successful amphibious raid against a LTTE base at Guru Nagar.[38] It was also toward the end of the Jaffna campaign that the IPKF started the use of Mi-25s for close air support[39] when they flew against LTTE positions in Chavakacheri village on October 23, 1987. Italian Valmara 69 bounding type of Anti-personnel. ... Arkansas Army National Guard soldiers practice sniper marksmanship at their firing range near Baghdad, Iraq on February 15, 2005. ... Binomial name Cocos nucifera L. For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ... Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae (sometimes known by the names Palmae or Palmaceae, although the latter name is taxonomically invalid. ... View through a 4x rifle scope A telescopic sight, commonly referred to as a scope, is a device used to give an accurate point of aim for a firearm. ... The Mil Mi-24 is a large combat helicopter gunship and low-capacity troop transport operated from 1976 by the Soviet Air Force, its successors, and over thirty other nations. ... Look up PIP in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Slouch hat during the American Civil War A slouch hat is a wide-brimmed felt hat with a chinstrap most commonly worn as part of a military uniform. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... An Anti-tank mine, or AT mine is similar to a Landmine except generally designed with a less sensitive trigger and more explosive power so as to be able to take out an armored vehicle, and not go off until such a vehicle comes along. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Mil Mi-24 is a large combat helicopter gunship and low-capacity troop transport operated from 1976 by the Soviet Air Force, its successors, and over thirty other nations. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ultimately however, after two weeks of bitter fighting, the IPKF had wrested the control of Jaffna and other major cities from the LTTE, but operations were to continue well into November, with major operations coming to an end with the fall of Jaffna Fort on the 28th of November.[33] Through the duration of Operation Pawan, the casualties suffered by the IPKF has been put at varying figures between 600 [2] and 1200.[4][5] In addition to the LTTE's defensive tactics alluded to above, the IPKF's problems were compounded by the fact that the Tigers, using classical guerrilla strategy, blended in with the local population. In addition, the IPKF came face to face with the child soldiers of the LTTE, something it had not expected.[32] Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... The military use of children refers to children being placed in harms way in military actions, the desire being to protect a location or provide propaganda. ...


By the time Jaffna fell, however, the LTTE had merely exfiltrated out of the town, moving south to the jungles of Vavuniya. Its hard core fighters moved to the safety of the jungles by skirting the coast of Jaffna from Point Pedro to Elephant Pass, sheltered by the impenetrable jungles and criss-cross waterways of the Nittkaikulam jungles. Vavuniya, city of Sri Lanka Market In Vavuniya Being a frontline town, Vavuniya has been a strategic location in Sri Lanka’s conflict between the Government - Sri Lankan Army and LTTE forces. ...


This was however only the first of the IPKF's three year campaign to neutralise the LTTE.


The IPKF at this point still consisted mostly of an overstretched 54th Division. Following the Jaffna Operation, the 36th Infantry Division was inducted, along with two additional brigades, to take over the Vavuniya sector and the Trincomalee-Batticaloa axis. This relieved the 54th Division which, led by Brigadier Manjit Singh, could now focus on consolidating the Jaffna sector.[40] The 4th Mountain Division and the 57th Infantry Division were inducted still later in February 1988 to take charge of Vanni and Batticaloa from the 36th. Vavuniya, city of Sri Lanka Market In Vavuniya Being a frontline town, Vavuniya has been a strategic location in Sri Lanka’s conflict between the Government - Sri Lankan Army and LTTE forces. ... Trincomalee District Map Trincomalee (Tamil: (Thirukonamalai, hist: Sirigonakanda); Sinhala: (Thirikunamalaya)) is a port city on the northeast coast of Sri Lanka, about 110 miles northeast of Kandy. ... Batticaloa District. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vavuniya is town in the the northern part of Sri lanka. ... Batticaloa District. ...


Within Jaffna sector, although the LTTE had shifted out of the town itself, it nevertheless harassed the 54th's efforts to consolidate its positions using IEDs and anti-personnel mines. In turn, however, the IPKF was able to disrupt the LTTE's activities with regular raids that led to capture of large caches of Rebel weaponry.[40] Brigadier Manjit Singh was later replaced by Brigadier JS Dhillon, under whom the 54th underwent considerable modifications of its operations routine. Small highly mobile units became the staple of the 54th's operations.[40]


The Northern Sri Lankan jungles- Operations Viraat and Trisul

The major force of the Tigers' fighting capacity had retreated to the jungles of Vavuniya following Operation Pawan.[41] By December 1987,the LTTE was able to build up a network of a large number of camps in the jungles that allowed it to regain a position of power within the local population, instituting taxes and revenues.[41] The Vavuniya sector was strategically and geographically key to accessing the North-South as well as East-West communications routes. Operation Trishul , along with Operation Trishul, was an anti-insurgency operation launched by the IPKF against the LTTE in April 1988 in Northern Sri Lanka, in the provinces of Mannar to Mullaitivu and Elephant Pass to Vavuniya. ... Operation Trishul, along with Operation Viraat, was an anti-insurgency operation launched by the IPKF against the LTTE in April 1988 in Northern Sri Lanka, in the provinces of Mannar to Mullaitivu and Elephant Pass to Vavuniya. ... Vavuniya, city of Sri Lanka Market In Vavuniya Being a frontline town, Vavuniya has been a strategic location in Sri Lanka’s conflict between the Government - Sri Lankan Army and LTTE forces. ... Operation Pawan was the codename assigned to the operations by the Indian Peace Keeping Force to take control of Jaffna from the LTTE in late 1987 to enforce the disarmament of the LTTE as a part of the Indo-Sri Lankan Accord. ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A tax is a financial charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (for example, tribes, secessionist movements or revolutionary movements). ...


The LTTE was able to withstand the IPKF operations here as well, owing to natural cover from the dense jungles, an intimate knowledge of the terrain, and a low density of population which also probably held sympathy for the Tigers. The Vavuniya sector remained the most active sector throughout the IPKF's deployment and its casualties in this area were the highest after those suffered during the operations in Jaffna. The LTTE also managed to carry out a large number of successful ambushes against the IPKF patrols in the dense jungles.[41]


By summer the following year, the Indian High Command had evolved its doctrine from holding key strong points to conducting extensive search and destroy missions against LTTE strongholds and bases, denying them ground. In April 1988, the IPKF intiated two near simultaneous operations through the jungles of Northern Sri Lanka. These, codenamed Operation Viraat and Operation Trishul, were launched in the provinces of Mannar to Mullaitivu and Elephant Pass to Vavuniya[40] and utillised approximately 15,000 troops of the IPKF, including armoured corps, Paratroops, as well as the infantry troops and army aviation. These achieved some success in disrupting LTTE operations, seizing weaponry and inflicting limited casualties among the LTTE cadres. During Operation Viraat, the IPKF uncovered well prepared LTTE defenses, including concrete bunkers with electric generators, as well as caches of arms and reserves. The IPKF also suffered in this unconventional warfare, with the LTTE frequently ambushing IPKF convoys and patrols. By the end of summer 1988, however, the Tigers were forced to move to another stronghold, when it started to operate out of Nithikaikulam and adjacent riverine areas.[40] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Search and Destroy, or Seek and Destroy, or simply S&D, refers to a military strategy that became a notorious element of the Vietnam War. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mannar is a district of Sri Lanka. ... Mullaitivu is a small town on the north-eastern coast of Sri Lanka. ... Elephant Pass, Northern Province, Sri Lanka is a importnat military base and a salt field located in the gateway of Jaffna Peninsula. ... Vavuniya, city of Sri Lanka Market In Vavuniya Being a frontline town, Vavuniya has been a strategic location in Sri Lanka’s conflict between the Government - Sri Lankan Army and LTTE forces. ... Para Commandos are an elite special forces unit of the Indian Army. ...


Withdrawal from Sri Lanka

The last contingent of IPKF Jawans leaves Sri Lanka by ship from the Trincomalee Harbor. The Sri Lanka Air Force presents arms.

Ranasinghe Premadasa was elected President on 2 January 1989 and he on April 1989 demanded the IPKF withdraw within 3 months from Sri Lanka. In the 1989 elections both Premadasa and the SLFP wanted the IPKF to withdraw. They got 95% of the vote and Sinhala public opinion was against the accord.[42][43] Consumed by his hatred for the Indians, Premadasa even opened up secret channels to the LTTE to arm them against the Indians. Premadasa demanded that the IPKF leave the island and asked the Sri Lankan Armed forces to throw them out. Any movement of the Sri Lankan forces outside their barracks would kill the still alive ISLA. Lt. Gen. A. S. Kalkat warned that the IPKF would retaliate if fired upon by the Sri Lankans. IAF squadrons moved to the South while naval units moved off the Sri Lankan coast. Thanks to the professionalism of the Indian and Sri Lankan armed forces a conflict was avoided.[44] Rajiv Gandhi refused to withdraw the IPKF in a situation which clearly showed the failure of his Sri Lanka policy both diplomatically and militarily. Rajiv believed that the only way he could succeed was to politically force Premadasa and militarily force the LTTE to accept the accord. In December 1989 Indian elections V. P. Singh became the Prime Minister. He viewed Rajiv Gandhi's Sri Lanka as a miserable failure as it had cost over 1100 soldiers, over 5000 Sri Lankan lives and cost over 20 billion (2000 crore) rupees of Indian tax payers money in over 32 months and both politically and militarily it was a stalemate.V. P. Singh withdrew the IPKF and the last ship left on 24 March 1990. The Tamils were now paradoxically unhappy at the IPKF's departure but had to bear the start of a new ordeal. IPKF's arrival in India was boycotted by the Tamil Nadu government headed by Karunanidhi. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (548x740, 114 KB) Army, Sri Lanka. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (548x740, 114 KB) Army, Sri Lanka. ... Trincomalee District Map Trincomalee (Tamil: (Thirukonamalai, hist: Sirigonakanda); Sinhala: (Thirikunamalaya)) is a port city on the northeast coast of Sri Lanka, about 110 miles northeast of Kandy. ... Sri Lankan Air Force Ensign. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Rājiv Ratna Gāndhī (Devanāgarī: राजीव रत्न गान्धी, IPA: ) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 9th Prime Minister of India (and the 3rd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... Vishwanath Pratap Singh (विश्वनाथ प्रताप सिंघ, born 25 June 1931) was the tenth Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ... Rājiv Ratna Gāndhī (Devanāgarī: राजीव रत्न गान्धी, IPA: ) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 9th Prime Minister of India (and the 3rd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December... Vishwanath Pratap Singh (विश्वनाथ प्रताप सिंघ, born 25 June 1931) was the tenth Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ... Categories: Indian people stubs | Tamil people | Indian politicians ...

The officers of the IPKF comprising all three services bid 'Adieu'. End another chapter in Sri Lankan History.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (876x399, 87 KB) Army, Sri Lanka. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (876x399, 87 KB) Army, Sri Lanka. ...

Intelligence Failures

Indian intelligence agencies failed to give foolproof info to the forces. One example is the Jaffna football ground massacre. The LTTE's disinformation machinery leaked information to the Indian army that the LTTE leader Prabhakaran was hiding in a building near the Jaffna university football ground.[citation needed] The operation plan was chalked out. It was decided to airdrop commandos on the ground while subsequent movement by tank formation ensured that Parabhakaran was caught alive. It was a good plan on paper. The formation moved out. Battle-hardened commandos were selected for the operation. The commandos started moving down from helicopter. But soon a rain of bullets from the LTTE fighters and sharpshooters perched on the tree tops started to fall on the commandos. The choppers also came under fire. The fate of the tanks moving in pincer formation on the ground was not much different. The LTTE had laid anti-tank mines in the way leading to the operational zone. And the football ground massacre was complete. The irony of the entire story was that the man they were hunting for was nowhere around the area on the day of the operation.[45] The Jaffna University Helidrop was the first of the operations launched by the Indian Peace Keeping Forces (IPKF) aimed at disarming the Tamil Tigers (LTTE) by force and securing the town of Jaffna, Sri Lanka, in the opening stages of Operation Pawan during the active Indian mediation in the Sri... Disinformation, in the context of espionage, military intelligence, and propaganda, is the spreading of deliberately false information to mislead an enemy as to ones position or course of action. ...


The IPKF in Sri Lanka and its fallouts

The IPKF's role in the Sri Lankan conflict was much maligned by voices both there and at home at the time. It was alleged by the LTTE to have engaged in a number of incidents of human rights violation. Some neutral organisations also alleged the IPKF and LTTE to have engaged with scant regard for civilian safety and to have violated human rights. These allegations led to considerable outcry and public resentment within Sri Lanka as well as India, especially South India, where the IPKF came to be viewed as an invading and oppressing force. Whether it was successful militarily is an open question. On May 21, 1991, the LTTE assasinated Rajiv Gandhi for his role in sending the IPKF to Sri Lanka. The IPKF, although it shaped India's counter-insurgency techniques and military doctrine considerably, in the international scene, does not find significant mention in National and international military doctrines. The political fallout, the IPKF's casualties, as well as the deterioration of international relations has however shaped India's foreign policy towards the Sri Lankan conflict. (see below) May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military unit peforming a peacekeeping operation that was formed to oversee the peace accord signed between India and Sri Lanka in 1987. ... Rājiv Ratna Gāndhī (Devanāgarī: राजीव रत्न गान्धी, IPA: ) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 9th Prime Minister of India (and the 3rd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December... Counter-insurgency is the combating of insurgency, by the government (or allies) of the territory in which the insurgency takes place. ...


Alleged Human Rights violations by Indian Forces

Indian forces were accused of indulging in number of civilian massacres, Involuntary disappearances and rapes during their time in the Northeastern province of Sri Lanka.[46] These include allegations of involvement or complicity in the incidents noted below. Photographs of the My Lai massacre provoked world outrage and made it an international scandal. ... Disappear redirects here. ... The North Province of Sri Lanka is the merger of the Northern province of Sri Lanka into a single province. ...


Valvettiturai massacre

On 2, 3, and 4 August 1989 over 50 Tamils were allegedly massacred by the Indian Peace Keeping Force in Valvettiturai, Jaffna. In addition to the killings over 100 homes, shops and other property were also burnt and destroyed. The bodies of 52 Tamils were identified, including seven children and six women. Over 100 homes, over 40 shops, 70 vehicles, fishing boats and nets were burnt and completely destroyed. The town of 15,000 people was empty following the massacre and more than 5,000 people took refuge in churches and schools. Allegedly, in the days following the massacre, attempts were made to cover up the killings, and few reporters managed to reveal the details of the massacre[47] August 4 is the 216th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (217th in leap years), with 149 days remaining. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Valvettithurai fish market, May 2004, before it was damaged by the December Tsunami Valvettithurai or VVT is a small coastal village on the northeast coast of the Jaffna Peninsula in Sri Lankas north. ...


Jaffna teaching hospital massacre

Another incident was the massacre at the Jaffna Teaching Hospital in which a number of Tamil patients, doctors and nurses were allegedly killed by Indian soldiers.[48] see Sri Lankan Tamils ...


Complicity in the Trincomalee massacre

Main article: Trincomalee massacre

According to Asian Times in August of 1987, a number of majority Sinhalese civilians were massacred by the LTTE. The then Sri Lankan government accused the Madras Regiment posted in the Trincomalee district of complicity, although the Indian officials denied responsibility, they withdrew the Madras Regiment from Trincomalee district.[49] Trincomalee massacre can refer to number of incidents of massacres of civilians in the Trincomalee district of Sri Lanka during the duration of the Sri Lankan civil war. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... The Madras Regiment is one of the oldest regiments in the Indian army formed around the middle of 18th century. ... Trincomalee District Map Trincomalee (Tamil: (Thirukonamalai, hist: Sirigonakanda); Sinhala: (Thirikunamalaya)) is a port city on the northeast coast of Sri Lanka, about 110 miles northeast of Kandy. ...


Casualties

The IPKF suffered around 1,155 killed in action and several thousands wounded. After several years, the Sri Lankan Armed Forces realised the role of IPKF and proposed building a memorial to the Indian dead in Sri Lanka. The LTTE casualties are not known reliably.


Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi

The decision to send the IPKF in Sri Lanka was taken by then prime-minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi. The LTTE assassinated him at a public rally that he was attending at Sriperumbudur on 21 May 1991. The assassination was done by a suicide bomber named Dhanu, who was a member of the LTTE. Rājiv Ratna GāndhÄ« (DevanāgarÄ«: राजीव रत्न गान्धी, IPA: ) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 9th Prime Minister of India (and the 3rd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December... Sriperumbudur, located in proximity to Chennai, is a town in Kanchipuram district of Tamilnadu, India. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Suicide (Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of intentionally taking ones own life. ... The B-17 Flying Fortress is one of the most recognizable and famous bombers of World War II. A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... Thenmuli Rajaratnam (1974 ?? -1991) was the assassin who killed Rajiv Gandhi, herself, and 16 others in a suicide bombing on May 21, 1991, in the Indian town of Sriperumbudur, near Madras. ...


Shaping future Indian policy

The debacle that was IPKF's intervention in Sri Lanka is raised at times in Indian political discourse whenever the situation in Sri Lanka shows signs of deteriorating, and there is a question of intervening; or, in Sri Lankan politics (particularly by the LTTE), when it is proposed that India, or, more broadly, other foreigners, ought to have a role in promoting peace on the island nation. As a result, relations between India and Sri Lanka became extremely sour and India vowed never to offer any military help to Sri Lanka again. This policy has not been changed since and no defence pact has been signed between India and Sri Lanka. India has never been directly involved in the peace talks between the LTTE and Sri Lanka but has supported Norway's efforts.


See also

Thileepan also known as Lt. ... Operation Poomalai or Eagle Mission 4 was the codename assigned to a mercy mission undertaken by the Indian Air Force to airdrop humanitarian relief supplies over the town of Jaffna and Jaffna Peninsula on 4 June 1987. ... Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed on July 29, 1987, was signed by Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and President J.R. Jayewardene, the Sri Lankan Government made a number of concessions to Tamil demands, which included devolution of power to the provinces, merger--subject to later referendum--of... The Jaffna University Helidrop was the first of the operations launched by the Indian Peace Keeping Forces (IPKF) aimed at disarming the Tamil Tigers (LTTE) by force and securing the town of Jaffna, Sri Lanka, in the opening stages of Operation Pawan during the active Indian mediation in the Sri... Operation Pawan was the codename assigned to the operations by the Indian Peace Keeping Force to take control of Jaffna from the LTTE in late 1987 to enforce the disarmament of the LTTE as a part of the Indo-Sri Lankan Accord. ... This article is being considered for deletion for the third time in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Location of Sri Lanka Black July is the commonly used name of the pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. ... Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri...

References

  1. ^ a b c The Peace Accord and the Tamils in Sri Lanka.Hennayake S.K. Asian Survey, Vol. 29, No. 4. (Apr., 1989), pp. 401-415.
  2. ^ a b c d e J N Dixit (ex-Indian Ambassador to Colombo) speaking to Rediff.com
  3. ^ Statistics on civilians affected by war from 1974 - 2004. NESOHR. Retrieved on 2007-01-30.
  4. ^ a b University Teachers for Human Rights History of the Organisation
  5. ^ a b Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), World Tamil Association (WTA), World Tamil Movement (WTM), Federation of Associations of Canadian Tamils (FACT), Ellalan Force. GlobalSecurity.org
  6. ^ India's search for power:Indira Gandhi's Foreign Policy.1966-1982. Mansingh S. New Delhi:Sage 1984. p282
  7. ^ A commission, before it proceeded to draw up criminal proceedings against others, must recommend Indira Gandhi's posthumous prosecution Mitra A. Rediff on Net
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h India's Regional Security Doctrine. Hagerty D.T. Asian Survey, Vol. 31, No. 4. (Apr., 1991), pp. 351-363
  9. ^ a b Research and Analysis Wing. Fas.org
  10. ^ The Colombo Chill. Bobb D.India Today.March 31.1986. p95.
  11. ^ a b India Airlifts Aid to Tamil Rebels", The New York Times. 5 June 1987
  12. ^ a b c d "Operation Poomalai - India Intervenes" Bharat-rakshak.com
  13. ^ "Indians To Send convoy to Sri Lanka", The New York Times. 2 June 1987
  14. ^ "Indian Flotilla is turned back by Sri Lankan Naval Vessels", The New York Times. 4 June 1987
  15. ^ a b Background Note: Sri Lanka. U.S Dept. of State
  16. ^ a b ETHNIC POLITICS AND CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM: THE INDO-SRI LANKAN ACCORD. Marasinghe M.L. Int Compa Law Q.Vol. 37. p551-587
  17. ^ Sri Lanka: The Untold Story Chapter 35: Accord turns to discord
  18. ^ New Delhi & the Tamil Struggle. The Indo Sri Lanka Agreement. Satyendra N. Tamil Nation
  19. ^ Sri Lanka- war without end, peace without hope. Colonel(retd) A A Athale
  20. ^ Operation Poomalai - India Intervenes. Bharat-rakshak.com
  21. ^ Indian Peace Keeping Mission in Sri Lanka. India's Vietnam
  22. ^ a b c d New Delhi & the Tamil Struggle- An Amoral Role. A Post Mortem on the Indian Intervention. Tamilnation.org
  23. ^ a b c Sri Lanka in 1987: Indian Intervention and Resurgence of the JVP. Pfaffenberger B. Asian Survey, Vol. 28, No. 2, A Survey of Asia in 1987: Part II. (Feb., 1988), pp. 137-147.
  24. ^ The day the elected government was in place, the military role of the IPKF was over. Lt. Gen A S Kalkat, speaking to rediff.com
  25. ^ Jain Commission Interim Report.Growth of Sri Lankan Tamil Militancy in Tamil Nadu.Chapter I - Phase II (1987-1988)
  26. ^ a b c Shoot Prabhakaran, shoot Mahathiah!. Gen Harikat Singh speaking to Josy Joseph on the IPKF role. rediff.com
  27. ^ a b c d e f g Background to the Breakdown of the Accord. University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna), Sri Lanka
  28. ^ "Tamil Armed Resistance & the Law", Tamil Nation, Unknown. 
  29. ^ a b c d e Jain Commission Interim Report. Indo-Sri Lankan Agreement: Evolution and its Aftermath. Chapter II - Indian Peace Keeping Force. Sourced from Tamil Nation
  30. ^ Nobody sounded even a Last Post for our dead in Colombo. Gen Harikat Singh to Josy Joseph. rediff.com
  31. ^ Accord, Airlift, and Discord. Bharat-rakshak.com
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Operation Pawan- The Battle for Jaffna. Bharat-rakshak.com
  33. ^ a b c The Tamil Militants-Before the Accord and After. Hellmann-Rajanayagam D.Pacific Affairs, Vol. 61, No. 4. (Winter, 1988-1989), pp. 603-619.
  34. ^ Descent Into Danger. The Jaffna University Helidrop. Bharat-rakshak.com
  35. ^ "Tamil Armed Resistance & the Law", Tamil Nation, Unknown. 
  36. ^ "Tamil Armed Resistance & the Law", Tamil Nation, Unknown. 
  37. ^ Operation Pawan. Indian Navy.
  38. ^ a b c India.Marine Commando Force.Special Operations.Com.
  39. ^ Crocodiles into the Attack.No. 125 Helicopter Squadron. Bharat-rakshak.com
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  41. ^ a b c Jain Commission Interim Report. India-Today
  42. ^ http://www.srilankatruth.com/PeaceTalks/LTTE-SLGTalks.php
  43. ^ http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Army/History/1987/Chapter05.html
  44. ^ http://www.tamilnation.org/intframe/india/89exchange.htm
  45. ^ http://www.atimes.com/ind-pak/DF08Df01.html
  46. ^ Statistics on civilians affected by war from 1974 - 2004. NESOHR. Retrieved on 2007-01-30.
  47. ^ Massacre at Point Pedro. Indian Express. Retrieved on 2007-01-30.
  48. ^ IPKF Jaffna Hospital massacre remembered. Tamilnet. Retrieved on 2007-01-30.
  49. ^ Chapter 36: Indians rule the roost. Asian Times. Retrieved on 2007-01-30.

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... India Today is one of the Indias best-selling and most widely circulated weekly magazines, and is run by Aroon Purie. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... TamilNet is a news website that provides news and feature articles on current affairs in Sri Lanka, specifically related to the ongoing ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes and Further reading

Adele Ann Wilby (Born ?-) or Adele Balasingham is the Australian born former leader of the women’s wing of the separatist Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam of Sri Lanka. ... TamilNet is a news website that provides news and feature articles on current affairs in Sri Lanka, specifically related to the ongoing ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
AllRefer.com - India - Peacekeeping Operations - Sri Lanka | Indian Information Resource (781 words)
Indian involvement, encouraged by pro-Tamil sentiments in its state of Tamil Nadu, which is close to Sri Lanka, and the Indian government's covert aid to and training of Tamil militants between 1977 and 1987, drew India into the conflict.
Nearly 60,000 Indian troops drawn from two divisions (one from the Central Command and the other from the Southern Command) were in Sri Lanka as the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) between 1987 and 1990.
Despite the growth of the IPKF to 70,000 strong, the predominantly urban context of northern Sri Lanka imposed constraints on the use of force.
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam - definition of Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in Encyclopedia (1016 words)
The LTTE's early years of struggle reportedly enjoyed considerable sympathy from the Indian government, especially in the state of Tamil Nadu where there was sympathy for the discrimination against Sri Lankan Tamils by the majority Sinhalese.
India remains an outside observer to the ongoing peace process, with frequent demands to press for an extradition of Prabhakaran, even if a peace deal is struck between the parties in the future.
The peace process has been mediated by Norway, a country that has often found favour with both the government and the insurgents.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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