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Encyclopedia > Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
Party chairperson Sonia Gandhi
Parliamentary Party Chairperson Sonia Gandhi
Leader in Lok Sabha Pranab Mukherjee
Leader in Rajya Sabha Manmohan Singh
Prime Minister
Founded 1885
Alliance United Progressive Alliance
Seats in Lok Sabha 145
Seats in Rajya Sabha 72
Political ideology Socialism
Social Democracy
Populism
Publications Congress Sandesh
Website www.congress.org.in
See also the politics of India series

Indian National Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. Founded in 1885 by Allan Octavian Hume, William Wedderburn, Dadabhai Naoroji and Dinshaw Wacha, the Indian National Congress became the leader of the Indian Independence Movement, with over 15 million members and over 70 million participants in its struggle against British rule in India. After independence in 1947, it became the nation's dominant political party, challenged for leadership only in more recent decades. In the 14th Lok Sabha (2004-2009), 145 members (out of 545), the largest contingent amongst all parties, serve in the house. The party is currently the chief member of the ruling United Progressive Alliance coalition. It is the only party to get more than 100 million votes in the past two general elections (1999, 2004)[1]. Image File history File links INC-flag. ... Sonia Gandhi (Hindi: , IPA: ), born Sonia Antonia Maino on December 9, 1946, is an Italian-born Indian politician, the President of the Indian National Congress and the widow of former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi. ... Sonia Gandhi (Hindi: , IPA: ), born Sonia Antonia Maino on December 9, 1946, is an Italian-born Indian politician, the President of the Indian National Congress and the widow of former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi. ... Pranab Mukherjee Pranab Mukherjee (born December 11, 1935, West Bengal, India) is the Defence minister of India in the Manmohan Singh government. ... This article is about the Prime Minister of India. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... United Progressive Alliance (UPA) is the present ruling coalition of political parties in India. ... Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Allan Octavian Hume (June 6, 1829 - July 31, 1912) son of Joseph Hume was a civil servant in British governed India, and a political reformer. ... Sir William Wedderburn, 4th Baronet (25 March 1838–25 January 1918) JP DL was a Scottish civil servant and politician. ... Statue of Naoroji in Mumbai Dadabhai Naoroji (6 September 1825 – 30 June 1917) was a Parsi intellectual, educator, cotton trader, and an early Indian political leader. ... Dinshaw Edulji Wacha (1844-1936) was aParsi Indian politician from Bombay. ... The term Indian independence movement is diffused, incorporating various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant philosophy and involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending the British Colonial Authority as well as other colonial... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ... United Progressive Alliance (UPA) is the present ruling coalition of political parties in India. ...

Contents

History

The history of the Indian National Congress falls into two distinct eras:

  • The pre-independence era, when the party was at the forefront of the struggle for independence;
  • The post-independence era, when the party has enjoyed a prominent place in Indian politics, ruling the country for 48 of the 60 years since independence in 1947.

The pre-independence era

Main article: Indian National Congress - Freedom Era
First session of Indian National Congress, Bombay, 28-31, December, 1885.

Founded in 1885 with the objective of obtaining a greater share in government for educated Indians, the Indian National Congress was initially not opposed to British rule. The Congress met once a year during December. Indeed, it was a Scotsman, Allan Octavian Hume, who brought about its first meeting in Bombay, with the approval of Lord Dufferin, the then-Viceroy. The flag adopted in 1931 and used by the Provisional Government of Free India during the Second World War. ... This article is about the country. ... Allan Octavian Hume (June 6, 1829 - July 31, 1912) son of Joseph Hume was a civil servant in British governed India, and a political reformer. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... Lord Dufferin as a young man Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, KP, GCB, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC (21 June 1826–12 February 1902) was a British public servant and prominent member of Victorian society. ...


Womesh Chandra Bonerjee was the first President of the INC. The first meeting was scheduled to be held in Pune, but due to a plague outbreak there, the meeting was later shifted to Bombay. The first Session of INC was held from 28-31 December 1885, and was attended by 72 delegates. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee (December 29, 1844 - 1906) was the first president of Indian National Congress. ... For the sport which developed into badminton, see Poona (sport). ... Bubonic plague is the best-known manifestation of the bacterial disease plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. ...


A few years down the line, the demands of INC became more radical in the face of constant opposition from the government, and the party became very active in the independence movement. By 1907 the party was split into two halves: the Garam Dal of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, or Extremists (literally "hot faction"), and the Naram Dal of Gopal Krishna Gokhale, or Moderates (literally "soft faction"), distinguished by their attitude towards the British. Under the influence of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, the Congress became the first integrated mass organization in the country, bringing together millions of people against the British. The term Indian independence movement is diffused, incorporating various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant philosophy and involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending the British Colonial Authority as well as other colonial... Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856 - 1920), was an Indian nationalist, social reformer and freedom fighter who was the first popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement. ... Gopal Krishna Gokhale (गोपाल कृष्‍ण गोखले) born May 9, 1866, in Kolhat, Maharashtra, India was one of the founding social and political leaders during the Indian Independence Movement against the British Empire in India. ...

The official flag of the Congress during the Independence struggle.
The official flag of the Congress during the Independence struggle.

In its time as the nation's leader in the freedom struggle, it produced the nation's greatest leaders. Before the Gandhi Era came leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Mohammed Ali Jinnah (later leader of the Muslim League and instrumental in the creation of Pakistan), all starting with the first legendary icon of Indians: Dadabhai Naoroji, the president of the sister Indian National Association and later the first Indian Member of Parliament in the British House of Commons. Image File history File links The flag of India used in 1931. ... Image File history File links The flag of India used in 1931. ... Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856 - 1920), was an Indian nationalist, social reformer and freedom fighter who was the first popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement. ... He was one of the trilogy of the three Extremist patriots of the Indian National Congress who had fought and gave his life during Indias freedom struggle in the first half of the twentieth century. ... Lala Lajpat Rai was an Indian author and politician who is chiefly remembered as a leader in the Indian fight for freedom from the British Raj. ... Gopal Krishna Gokhale (गोपाल कृष्‍ण गोखले) born May 9, 1866, in Kolhat, Maharashtra, India was one of the founding social and political leaders during the Indian Independence Movement against the British Empire in India. ... Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah (referred to in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam, or Great Leader, which is a legally defined title) (December 25, 1876 - September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim nationalist, who led the movement demanding a separate homeland for Muslims in... The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developed into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... Statue of Naoroji in Mumbai Dadabhai Naoroji (6 September 1825 – 30 June 1917) was a Parsi intellectual, educator, cotton trader, and an early Indian political leader. ... The Indian National Association was the first political organization founded in British India. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin...


With the rise of Mahatma Gandhi's popularity and his Satyagraha art of revolution came Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (the nation's first Prime Minister), Dr. Rajendra Prasad (the nation's first President), Khan Mohammad Abbas Khan, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Chakravarti Rajgopalachari, Jivatram Kripalani and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. With the already existing nationalistic feeling combinded with Gandhi's popularity the Congress became a forceful mass organization in the country, bringing together millions of people by specifically working against caste differences, untouchability, poverty, and religious and ethnic boundaries. Although predominantly Hindu, it had members from virtually every religion, ethnic group, economic class and linguistic group. At the time of the Quit India movement, the Congress was undoubtedly the strongest political and revolutionary organization in India. The Indian National Congress could claim to be the true representative of the Indian people. “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Mohandas Karamchand “Mahatma” Gandhi, who developed Satyagraha Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas K. Gandhi. ... Vallabhbhai Patel (Gujarati: , Hindi: ; Vallabhbhāī Paá¹­el, pronounced ) (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950) was a political and social leader of India who played a major role in the countrys struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू) (November 14, 1889 - May 27, 1964), also called Pandit (Teacher) Nehru, was the leader of the (moderately) socialist wing of the Indian National Congress during and after Indias struggle for independence from the British Empire. ... Dr. Rajendra Prasad (Hindi: डाक्टर राजेन्द्र प्रसाद) (December 3, 1884 – February 28, 1963) was the first President of India. ... Khan Muhammad Abbas Khan Khan Muhammad Abbas Khan Former member of Indian National Congress, a liberal reformer, Khan Mohammad Abbas Khan belonged to the democratic party, which formed a coalition with congress and served as the interim mister for industries. ... Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (Pashto/Arabic: خان عبد الغفار خان) (b. ... Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari (Tamil: சக்ரவர்தி ராஜகோபாலாச்சாரி) (b. ... Jivatram Kripalani, also referred to with the prefix Acharya (Teacher: Hindi), was an Indian freedom fighter and political leader, who became a nationwide leader of the Janata Party revolt against the Indian Emergency. ... Abul Kalam Muhiyuddin Ahmed (b. ... The Quit India Movement (Bharat chhodo) was a call for immediate independence of India from British rule. ...


The 1929 Lahore session under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru holds special significance as in this session "Poorna Swaraj" (complete independence) was declared as the goal of INC. The 26th January 1930 was declared as "Poorna Swaraj Diwas," Independence Day although the British remained in India a number of years longer. It was to commemorate this date particularly that The Indian Constitution was formally adopted on 26 January 1950 (even though it was passed on 26 November 1949). Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a major political leader of the Congress Party, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of independent India. ...


After the First World War the party became associated with Mahatma Gandhi, who remained its unofficial, spiritual leader and mass icon even as younger men and women became party president. The party was in many ways an umbrella organization, sheltering within itself radical socialists, traditionalists and even Hindu and Muslim conservatives. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ...


The post-independence era

The party remained in power for thirty continuous years between independence in 1947 and its first taste of electoral defeat (at the national level) in 1977.


Jawaharlal Nehru

Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Patel are said to have held the view that the INC was formed only for achieving independence and should have been disbanded in 1947.[1] However, at the time of independence, the INC (led by Jawaharlal Nehru) was a major political organization in the country, and was established as the major political party. The Congress thus, considering the perceived need for a stable leadership and guiding vision after the terrible chaos and confusion following the Partition of India and Independence, was re-established as an electoral party in independent India. Across several general elections, the party ruled uninterrupted until 1977, and has remained a major political force. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a major political leader of the Congress Party, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of independent India. ... This article is under construction. ...


After the murder of Gandhi in 1948, and the death of Sardar Patel in 1950, Jawaharlal Nehru was the sole remaining iconic national leader, and soon the situation became so that Nehru was key to the political potency and future of the Congress. Nehru embraced secularism, socialist economic policies and a non-aligned foreign policy, which became the hallmark of the modern Congress Party. Nehru's policies challenged the landed class, the business class and improved the position of religious minorities and lower caste Hindus. A generation of freedom fighting leaders were soon replaced by a generation of people who had grown up in the shadow of Nehru. Nehru led the Congress Party to consecutively majorities in the elections of 1952, 1957 and 1962. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a major political leader of the Congress Party, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of independent India. ...


After Nehru's death in 1964, the party's future first came into question. No leader was competitive enough to touch Nehru's iconic status, so the second-stage leadership mustered around the compromise candidate, the gentle, soft-spoken and Nehruvian Lal Bahadur Shastri. Shastri remained Prime Minister till his own death in 1966, and a broad Congress Party election opted for Indira Gandhi, Nehru's daughter, over the right-wing, conservative Morarji Desai. Lal Bahadur Shastri (Hindi लालबहादुर शास्त्री) (October 2, 1904 - January 11, 1966) was the third Prime Minister of independent India and a significant figure in the Indian independence movement. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... Morarji Ranchhodji Desai (Hindi: ) (February 29, 1896 – April 10, 1995) was an Indian freedom fighter and the first Prime Minister that did not belong to the Indian Congress Party. ...


In 1955 in Awadi session the party adopted a socialistic pattern of society for India.


Indira Gandhi

Congress mural in Kolkata
Congress mural in Kolkata

The first serious challenge to Congress hegemony came in 1967 when a united opposition, under the banner of Samyukt Vidhayak Dal, won control over several states in the Hindi belt. Indira Gandhi, the daughter of Nehru, and Congress president, was then challenged by the majority of the party leadership. The conflict led to a split, and Indira launched a separate INC. Initially this party was known as Congress (R), but it soon came to be generally known as the New Congress. The official party became known as Indian National Congress (Organisation) led by Kamaraj. It was informally called the Old Congress. As Indira Priyadarshini had control over the state machinery, her faction was recognized as the "real" INC by the Election Commission of India, although her organization was the break-away group. Download high resolution version (1279x403, 96 KB)Indian Youth Congress mural in Kolkata. ... Download high resolution version (1279x403, 96 KB)Indian Youth Congress mural in Kolkata. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... The regions where Hindi is the primary language are shown in Purple, while the regions marked in Pink have large communities of Hindi-speaking people. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू) (November 14, 1889 - May 27, 1964), also called Pandit (Teacher) Nehru, was the leader of the (moderately) socialist wing of the Indian National Congress during and after Indias struggle for independence from the British Empire. ... The Indian National Congress (Organisation) was a political party in India formed when Indira Gandhi (then the Congress president) broke away from the party leadership. ... K. Kamaraj (July 15, 1903–1975) was an Indian politician widely known as a kingmaker in Indian politics. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... The Election Commission of India is a constitutional body created to hold free and fair elections in India. ...


The split can in some ways be seen as a left-wing/right-wing division. Indira Gandhi wanted to use a populist agenda in order to mobilise popular support for the party. She raised slogans such as Garibi Hatao (Remove Poverty), and wanted to develop closer ties with the Soviet Union. The regional party elites, who formed the INC(O), stood for a more conservative agenda, and distrusted Soviet help. INC(O) later merged into the Janata Party. The Janata Party (Peoples Party in Hindi) was an Indian political party that contested the Indian Emergency (1975-77) and became the first political party to defeat the Indian National Congress in the 1977 elections, forming the national government from 1977 to 1980. ...


Gradually, Indira Gandhi grew more and more authoritarian. Following allegations of widespread rigging in the general elections, a court overturned Indira Gandhi's victory in the Parliamentary constituency. Facing growing opposition she proclaimed a state of National emergency in 1975, curtailed the powers of the courts, and unleashed a police state. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


After she lifted the emergency in 1977, more Congress factions were formed, the one remaining loyal to Indira Gandhi being popularly known as Congress(I) with an 'I' for Indira. The Congress (I) was routed in the general elections by the Janata Party, but the coalition government fell apart in two years. The Congress party returned to power in the ensuing 1980 elections. In 1984 Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two of her Sikh bodyguards, as a revenge for Operation Blue Star. In the following days more than 6 thousands of Sikhs were killed in the 1984 riots, mainly in Delhi, by activists and leaders of the Congress Party. [2]. The Janata Party (Peoples Party in Hindi) was an Indian political party that contested the Indian Emergency (1975-77) and became the first political party to defeat the Indian National Congress in the 1977 elections, forming the national government from 1977 to 1980. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... Belligerents Indian Army Sikh militiamen Casualties and losses Military: 83 killed, 248 wounded Militants (including civilians): 492 Killed Operation Blue Star ( ਬਿਲਯੂ ਸਟਾਰ , बिल्यू स्टार ) (June 3 to June 6, 1984) was an Indian military operation ordered by Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India,[1] to remove Sikh militants from Golden Temple... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... 1984 Anti-Sikh riots took place in India after the assassination of Indira Gandhi on October 31, 1984. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...


About the riots, the new PM and Indira's son, Rajiv Gandhi had infamously remarked, "When a big tree falls, the earth is bound to shake." Rajiv Ratna Gandhi राजीव गाधीं (IPA: ), born in Mumbai, (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 7th Prime Minister of India (and the 2nd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2...


The post-Indira era

Election symbol of the Congress

After Indira, her son Rajiv Gandhi, took over as Congress leader and led the party to victory with a large majority in the 1984 Lok Sabha elections. It governed from 1984-9 and then was defeated in the 1989 general election. Rajiv Gandhi was also assassinated by the LTTE during the course of the election campaign in 1991. Following Rajiv Gandhi's assassination, P.V. Narasimha Rao succeeded him as Congress leader and became prime minister. Indian National Congress (Congress I) flag File links The following pages link to this file: Indian National Congress ... Indian National Congress (Congress I) flag File links The following pages link to this file: Indian National Congress ... Rajiv Ratna Gandhi राजीव गाधीं (IPA: ), born in Mumbai, (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 7th Prime Minister of India (and the 2nd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao (June 28, 1921 - December 23, 2004) was the ninth Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ...


The 1990s was a period of prolonged crisis for the Congress. After gradually losing political influence the party asked the Rajiv Gandhi's widow, Sonia, to accept the position of Congress President. She refused at the time, and the Congress stuck with Narasimha Rao. Rao dramatically changed the party's traditionally socialist policies and introduced major economic reforms and liberalization, with the help of then Finance minister (and future Prime Minister) Manmohan Singh. Nonetheless, his involvement in the bribery of members of parliament was a major issue which led to the downfall of the Congress in 1996, and subsequently his own disgraced exit from politics. Sonia Gandhi (Hindi: , IPA: ), born Sonia Antonia Maino on December 9, 1946, is an Italian-born Indian politician, the President of the Indian National Congress and the widow of former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi. ... Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao (June 28, 1921 - December 23, 2004) was the ninth Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ... This article is about the Prime Minister of India. ...


Former treasurer Sitaram Kesri took over the reins of the party and oversaw the Congress support to the United Front governments that ran from 1996 - 1998. During his tenure, several key leaders broke away from the party, and serious infighting broke out among those left. In 1998, Sonia Gandhi finally accepted the post of Congress President, in a move that may have saved the party from extinction. Sitaram Kesri, was born at Danapur, Patna on November 1919. ... In Leninist bogus, a united front is a coalition of Clinton likeleft-wing working class forces which put forward a common set of demands and share a common plan of action, but which do not subordinate themselves to the front, retaining their abilities for independent political action and continuing to... The President of the All India Congress Committee, and therefore of the Congress Party as a whole, is known as the Congress President. ...


After her election as party leader, a section of the party, which objected to the choice, broke away and formed the Nationalist Congress Party. The use of "Congress (I)" continues to denote the party run by Indira Gandhi's successors. There have been repeated attempts by the Indian nationalist groups (such as the BJP) to discredit Sonia Gandhi's leadership on the basis of her foreign origin - she is Italian-born. This January 2007 needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... BJP could mean one of Indias largest political parties, the Bharatiya Janata Party British Journal of Photography British Journal of Psychiatry British Journal of Pharmocology This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Although the Congress expedited the downfall of the NDA government in 1999 by promising an alternative, Ms. Gandhi's decision was followed by fresh elections and the Congress party's worst-ever tally in the lower house. The party spent the interval period forging alliances and overseeing changes in the state and central organizations to revive the party. It has had many electoral successes which led up to the formation of a Congress-led government in 2004.


Indian Prime Ministers from the Congress Party

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a major political leader of the Congress Party, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of independent India. ... Gulzarilal Nanda (Hindi: ) (July 4, 1898 - January 15, 1998) was an Indian politician. ... Lal Bahadur Shastri (Hindi लालबहादुर शास्त्री) (October 2, 1904 - January 11, 1966) was the third Prime Minister of independent India and a significant figure in the Indian independence movement. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... Rajiv Ratna Gandhi राजीव गाधीं (IPA: ), born in Mumbai, (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 7th Prime Minister of India (and the 2nd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2... Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao (June 28, 1921 - December 23, 2004) was the ninth Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ... This article is about the Prime Minister of India. ...

Political accusations

Since the party has dominated the political landscape of India for over a century, there are many charges of corruption and similar charges against it. Some examples are:

  • Anti-Sikh riots - After the assassination of Indira Gandhi by Sikh Body Guards following Operation Bluestar, many Congress workers prominently including Jagdish Tytler and Sajjan Kumar were accused of inciting and participating in anti-Sikh riots that killed thousands. The Congress apologised many years later for its silence on these events, an apology that was considered inadequate by some of those concerned.
  • Volcker report - The Independent Inquiry Committee (IIC) appointed by the United Nations in its final report released on October 27, 2005 confirms that documents state: 'Beneficiary: India: Congress Party' with an entitlement of 4 million barrels of crude' and `Beneficiary: India: Singh Mr K. Natwar' with an entitlement of 4 million barrels'.
  • The opposition Bharatiya Janata Party has repeatedly accused the Congress of showing unnatural favouritism to the Indian Muslim community and the toleration, or even promotion of Islamic and obscurantism. It has been also accused of deliberately fragmenting Hindus while consolidating conservative Muslim votes (by allowing them a separate personal code, etc) Congress policy is also accused of causing fifty years of economic stagnation, following Independence, and of excessive veneration of the Nehru-Gandhi dynasty.

1984 Anti-Sikh riots took place in India after the assassination of Indira Gandhi on October 31, 1984. ... The Operation Blue Star (also known as the Golden Temple Massacre) (June 4 to June 6, 1984) was the Indian military raid of the Golden Temple in Amritsar, Punjab, the holiest temple of the Sikh religion. ... Jagdish Tytler (b. ... The Oil-for-Food Programme was established by the United Nations in 1996 to allow Iraq to sell oil on the world market in exchange for food, medicine and the like. ... The Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP] (Hindi: , translation: Indian Peoples Party), created in 1980, is a major right wing Indian political party. ... Indian Muslims constitute 13. ...

Formation of present Government of India

A Congress rally in New Delhi.
A Congress rally in New Delhi.

In the 2004 general elections, the Congress alliance won the largest number of seats and got an assurance of support from the Left Front upsetting the Atal Behari Vajpayee-led National Democratic Alliance, which was variously forecasted to win outright victory or at least emerge as the largest alliance. Shortly thereafter, Sonia Gandhi was nominated by the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance to be the next Prime Minister. But in what was described as the dropping of a political bombshell, Sonia Gandhi refused to take the position based on her "inner voice". She backed eminent economist, former Union Finance Minister and senior Congress leader Dr. Manmohan Singh for the post of Prime Minister, and he was sworn-in as Prime Minister on 22 May 2004. , This article is about the capital city of India. ... Legislative elections were held in India, the worlds largest democracy, in four phases between April 20 and May 10, 2004. ... United Progressive Alliance (UPA) is the present ruling coalition of political parties in India. ... Atal Bihari Vajpayee (often wrongly spelt Behari; अटल बिहारी वाजपेयी in Devnagari) (born December 25, 1924) was the Prime Minister of India in 1996 and again from 1998 until May 19, 2004. ... The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is a coalition in India. ... United Progressive Alliance (UPA) is the present ruling coalition of political parties in India. ... Alan Greenspan, former chairman, United States Federal Reserve. ... This article is about the Prime Minister of India. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Internal organization

The organization developed by Mahatma Gandhi's reorganization of the Congress in the years of 1918 to 1920 has largely been retained till today.


In every Indian state and union territory or pradesh, there is a Pradesh Congress Committee, which is the provincial unit of the party, responsible for directing political campaigns at local and state levels and assisting the campaigns for Parliamentary constituencies. Each PCC has a Working Committee of 10-15 key members, and the state president is the leader of the state unit. The Congressmen elected as members of the states legislative assemblies form the Congress Legislature Parties in the various state assemblies, and their chairperson is usually the party's nominee for Chief Ministership. The elected committee that directs the Congress Party in an Indian state is known as a PCC, or Pradesh Congress Committee. ...


The All India Congress Committee is formed of delegates sent from the PCCs around the country. The delegates elect various Congress committees, including the Congress Working Committee, which consists of senior party leaders and office bearers, and takes all important executive and political decisions. The All India Congress Committee or AICC is the central decision-making assembly of the Congress Party. ... The executive committee of the Congress Party in India, typically consisting of fifteen members elected from the All India Congress Committee or AICC, is known as the Congress Working Committee or CWC. It is headed by the Working President. ...


The President of the Indian National Congress is in effect the party's national leader, head of the organization, head of the Working Committee and all chief Congress committees, chief spokesman and the Congress choice to become the Prime Minister of India. The President of the All India Congress Committee, and therefore of the Congress Party as a whole, is known as the Congress President. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ...


Constitutionally, the president is to be elected by the vote of the PCCs and members of the AICC. However, this procedure has often been by-passed by the Working Committee, choosing to elect its own candidate as an emergency measure.


The Congress Parliamentary Party is the group of elected MPs in the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. The Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party) is the largest subscription-based organisation in the world. ... The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ... Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Dy. ...


Congress in various states

Congress is currently in power in five states (Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana and Manipur) where the party enjoys a majority of its own. In five other states — Assam, Goa, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra and Pondicherry — it has shared the spoils of power with other alliance partners. In the remaining states and union territories, with the exception of Tamil Nadu, various opposition parties or blocks are in power. Andhra redirects here. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi:   ) is the easternmost state of India. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... , Manipur   (Meiteilon: মনিপুর in Eastern Nagari script, mnipur in Meitei Mayek) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... , Assam  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm [É”xÉ”m]) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the area administered by India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...


List of Congress Chief Ministers

Vilasrao Deshmukh - Maharashtra
Ghulam Nabi Azad - Jammu and Kashmir
Yeduguri Sandinti Rajasekhara Reddy - Andhra Pradesh
Tarun Gogoi - Assam
Dorjee Khandu - Arunachal Pradesh
Sheila Dikshit - Delhi
Digambar Kamat - Goa
Bhupinder Singh Hooda - Haryana
Okram Ibobi Singh - Manipur
N. Rangaswamy - Pondicherry

Vilasrao Dadoji Deshmukh (विलासराव दादोजि देशमुख) (born May 26, 1945) is the current Chief Minister of Maharashtra (Term: October 2004 - October 2009). ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Ghulam Nabi Azad (born March 7, 1949 in Jammu and Kashmir, India) is an Indian politician from the Indian National Congress. ... This article is about the area administered by India. ... Dr. Yeduguri Sandinti Rajasekhara Reddy (born 8 July 1949), popularly known as Y.S.R., is currently serving as Chief Minister of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... Andhra redirects here. ... Tarun Kumar Gogoi is the Chief Minister of state of Assam in India. ... , Assam  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm [É”xÉ”m]) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... Dorjee Khandu (born March 3, 1955) at Gyangkhar village, is the current Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi:   ) is the easternmost state of India. ... Sheila Dikshit (sometimes rendered Shiela and Dixit) (born March 31, 1938) is the Chief Minister of Delhi since 1998. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Digambar Kamat is a politician from Goa, who was elected chief minister of the former Portuguese colony on the west coast of India, following elections held in June 2007. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Bhupinder Singh Hooda (born September 15, 1927) is an Indian politician and the current Chief Minister of Haryana. ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... Okram Ibobi Singh is the Chief Minister of Manipur, India. ... , Manipur   (Meiteilon: মনিপুর in Eastern Nagari script, mnipur in Meitei Mayek) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... N. Rangaswamy or N Rangasamy (born August 4, 1950) has been Chief Minister of Pondicherry, India, since October 27, 2001. ... Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ...

List of presidents of the Party

Name of President Life Span Year of Presidency Place of Conference
Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee December 29, 1844- 1906 1885 Bombay
Dadabhai Naoroji September 4, 1825- 1917 1886 Calcutta
Badaruddin Taiyabji October 10, 1844- 1906 1887 Madras
George Yule 1829- 1892 1888 Allahabad
Sir William Wedderburn 1838- 1918 1889 Bombay
Sir Pherozeshah Mehta August 4, 1845- 1915 1890 Calcutta
P. Ananda Charlappa August 1843- 1908 1891 Nagpur
Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee December 29, 1844- 1906 1892 Allahabad
Dadabhai Naoroji September 4, 1848- 1925 1893 Lahore
Alfred Webb 1834- 1908 1894 Madras
Surendranath Banerjea November 10, 1848- 1925 1895 Poona
Rahimtulla M. Sayani April 5, 1847- 1902 1896 Calcutta
Sir C. Sankaran Nair July 11, 1857- 1934 1897 Amraoti
Ananda Mohan Bose September 23, 1847- 1906 1898 Madras
Romesh Chunder Dutt August 13, 1848- 1909 1899 Lucknow
Sir Narayan Ganesh Chandavarkar December 2, 1855- 1923 1900 Lahore
Sir Dinshaw Edulji Wacha August 2, 1844- 1936 1901 Calcutta
Surendranath Banerjea November 10, 1825- 1917 1902 Ahmedabad
Lalmohan Ghosh 1848- 1909 1903 Madras
Sir Henry Cotton 1845- 1915 1904 Mumbai
Gopal Krishna Gokhale May 9, 1866- 1915 1905 Benares
Dadabhai Naoroji September 4, 1825- 1917 1906 Calcutta
Rashbihari Ghosh December 23, 1845- 1921 1907 Surat
Rashbihari Ghosh December 23, 1845- 1921 1908 Madras
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya December 25, 1861- 1946 1909 Lahore
Sir William Wedderburn 1838- 1918 1910 Allahabad
Pandit Bishan Narayan Dar 1864- 1916 1911 Calcutta
Rao Bahadur Raghunath Narasinha Mudholkar 1857- 1921 1912 Bankipur
Nawab Syed Muhammad Bahadur  ?- 1919 1913 Karachi
Bhupendra Nath Bose 1859- 1924 1914 Madras
Lord Satyendra Prasanna Sinha March 1863- 1928 1915 Mumbai
Ambica Charan Mazumdar 1850- 1922 1916 Lucknow
Annie Besant October 1, 1847- 1933 1917 Calcutta
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya December 25, 1861- 1946 1918 Delhi
Syed Hasan Imam August 31, 1871- 1933 1918 Mumbai (Special Session)
Pandit Motilal Nehru May 6, 1861- February 6, 1931 1919 Amritsar
Lala Lajpat Rai January 28, 1865- November 17, 1928 1920 Calcutta (Special Session)
C. Vijayaraghavachariar Ismail 1852- April 19, 1944 1920 Nagpur
Hakim Ajmal Khan 1863- December 29, 1927 1921 Ahmedabad
Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das November 5, 1870- June 16, 1925 1922 Gaya
Maulana Mohammad Ali December 10, 1878- January 4, 1931 1923 Kakinada
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad 1888- February 22, 1958 1923 Delhi (Special Session)
Mahatma Gandhi October 2, 1869- January 30, 1948 1924 Belgaum
Sarojini Naidu February 13, 1879- March 2, 1949 1925 Kanpur
S. Srinivasa Iyengar September 11, 1874- May 19, 1941 1926 Gauhati
Dr. M A Ansari December 25, 1880- May 10, 1936 1927 Madras
Pandit Motilal Nehru May 6, 1861- February 6, 1931 1928 Calcutta
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru November 14, 1889- May 27, 1964 1929 & 30 Lahore
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel October 31, 1875- December 15, 1950 1931 Karachi
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya December 25, 1861- 1946 1932 Delhi
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya December 25, 1861- 1946 1933 Calcutta
Nellie Sengupta 1886- 1973 1933 Calcutta
Dr. Rajendra Prasad December 3, 1884- February 28, 1963 1934 & 35 Mumbai
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru November 14, 1889- May 27, 1964 1936 Lucknow
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru November 14, 1889- May 27, 1964 1936& 37 Faizpur
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose January 23, 1897- August 18, 1945? 1938 Haripura
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose January 23, 1897- August 18, 1945? 1939 Tripuri
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad 1888- February 22, 1958 1940-46 Ramgarh
Acharya J.B. Kripalani 1888- March 19, 1982 1947 Delhi
Dr Pattabhi Sitaraimayya December 24, 1880- December 17, 1959 1948 & 49 Jaipur
Purushottam Das Tandon August 1, 1882- July 1, 1961 1950 Nasik
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru November 14, 1889- May 27, 1964 1951 & 52 New Delhi
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru November 14, 1889- May 27, 1964 1953 Hyderabad
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru November 14, 1889- May 27, 1964 1954 Calcutta
U N Dhebar September 21, 1905- 1977 1955 Avadi
U N Dhebar September 21, 1905- 1977 1956 Amritsar
U N Dhebar September 21, 1905- 1977 1957 Indore
U N Dhebar September 21, 1905- 1977 1958 Gauhati
U N Dhebar September 21, 1905- 1977 1959 Nagpur
Indira Gandhi November 19, 1917- October 31, 1984 1959 New Delhi
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy May 19, 1913- June 1, 1996 1960 Bangalore
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy May 19, 1913- June 1, 1996 1961 Bhavnagar
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy May 19, 1913- June 1, 1996 1962 & 63 Patna
K. Kamaraj July 15, 1903- October 2, 1975 1964 Bhubaneswar
K. Kamaraj July 15, 1903- October 2, 1975 1965 Durgapur
K. Kamaraj July 15, 1903- October 2, 1975 1966 & 67 Jaipur
S. Nijalingappa December 10, 1902- August 9, 2000 1968 Hyderabad
S. Nijalingappa December 10, 1902- August 9, 2000 1969 Faridabad
Jagjivan Ram April 5, 1908- July 6, 1986 1970 & 71 Mumbai
Dr Shankar Dayal Sharma August 19, 1918- December 26, 1999 1972- 74 Calcutta
Dev Kant Baruah February 22, 1914- 1996 1975- 77 Chandigarh
Indira Gandhi November 19, 1917- October 31, 1984 1978- 83 New Delhi
Indira Gandhi November 19, 1917- October 31, 1984 1983 -84 Calcutta
Rajiv Gandhi August 20, 1944- May 21, 1991 1985 -91 Mumbai
P. V. Narasimha Rao June 28, 1921- December 23, 2004 1992 -96 Tirupati
Sitaram Kesri November 1919- October 24, 2000 1997 -98 Calcutta
Sonia Gandhi December 9, 1946- 1998-present

Image File history File links Wikitext. ... Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee (December 29, 1844 - 1906) was the first president of Indian National Congress. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... Statue of Naoroji in Mumbai Dadabhai Naoroji (6 September 1825 – 30 June 1917) was a Parsi intellectual, educator, cotton trader, and an early Indian political leader. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... George Udny Yule (February 18, 1871 – June 26, 1951) was a Scottish statistician. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Sir William Wedderburn, 4th Baronet (25 March 1838–25 January 1918) JP DL was a Scottish civil servant and politician. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... Sir Pherozeshah Mehta was an early Indian political leader and social activist, and a renowned and wealthy barrister. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... , Nāgpur   (Marathi: नागपुर) Third largest city in the western Indian state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune with a population of 2. ... Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee (December 29, 1844 - 1906) was the first president of Indian National Congress. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Statue of Naoroji in Mumbai Dadabhai Naoroji (6 September 1825 – 30 June 1917) was a Parsi intellectual, educator, cotton trader, and an early Indian political leader. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Alfred Webb (1834-1908) was an Irish politician and Member of Parliament for the West Waterford constituency who played a role in every major nationalist organization from Butt’s Home Government Association to the United Irish League. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... Sir Surendranath Banerjea (b. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Pune, formerly called Poona, is the second largest city (after Mumbai) in the state of Maharashtra, India. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Sir C. Sankaran Nair - President of Indian National Congress in 1897. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Amravati (also known as Amrawati or Amraoti) is a city in the state of Maharashtra in India. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... Romesh Chunder Dutt (1848-1909) Romesh Chunder Dutt, CIE (Calcutta August 13, 1848 — Baroda November 30, 1909), or R. C. Dutt, was a Bengali writer, civil servant, economic historian, and translator of Ramayana and Mahabharata. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ... Sir Narayan Ganesh Chandavarkar (December 2, 1855 - 1923) (Marathi: ) was an early Indian National Congress politician and Hindu reformer. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Dinshaw Edulji Wacha (1844-1936) was aParsi Indian politician from Bombay. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Sir Surendranath Banerjea (b. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... , Ahmedabad (Gujarati: , Hindi: अहमदाबाद ) is the largest city in the state of Gujarat and the seventh-largest urban agglomeration in India, with a population of 56 lakhs (5. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... Gopal Krishna Gokhale (गोपाल कृष्‍ण गोखले) born May 9, 1866, in Kolhat, Maharashtra, India was one of the founding social and political leaders during the Indian Independence Movement against the British Empire in India. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Benares (also known as Banaras, Kashi, Kasi and Varanasi (वाराणसी)) is a Hindu holy city on the banks of the river Ganga or Ganges in the modern north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Statue of Naoroji in Mumbai Dadabhai Naoroji (6 September 1825 – 30 June 1917) was a Parsi intellectual, educator, cotton trader, and an early Indian political leader. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Surat (disambiguation). ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya was a national leader and a freedom fighter of India. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Sir William Wedderburn, 4th Baronet (25 March 1838–25 January 1918) JP DL was a Scottish civil servant and politician. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Bankipur is a residential area in Patna in the Indian state of Bihar. ... Not to be confused with Karachay-Cherkessia. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... Satyendra Prasanno Sinha, 1st Baron Sinha of Raipur (24 March 1863 – 5 March 1928) was a prominent lawyer and statesman in British India. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ... Annie Besant Plaque on house in Colby Road, London SE19 where Annie Besant lived in 1874. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya was a national leader and a freedom fighter of India. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... , Bombay redirects here. ... The family of Motilal Nehru, who is seated in the centre. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , Amritsar (Punjabi: , Hindi: ), meaning: The Ocean of the Nectar of Immortality,[1] is the administrative headquarter of the Amritsar District in Punjab, India. ... Lala Lajpat Rai was an Indian author and politician who is chiefly remembered as a leader in the Indian fight for freedom from the British Raj. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , Nāgpur   (Marathi: नागपुर) Third largest city in the western Indian state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune with a population of 2. ... Dr Hakim Ajmal Khan was an Indian freedom fighter, a Muslim doctor and educationalist. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , Ahmedabad (Gujarati: , Hindi: अहमदाबाद ) is the largest city in the state of Gujarat and the seventh-largest urban agglomeration in India, with a population of 56 lakhs (5. ... Chittaranjan Das (C.R.Das) (popularly called Deshbandhu) (November 25, 1870 - June 16, 1925) was a Bengali lawyer and a major figure in the Indian independence movement. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gaya was a confederacy of chiefdoms that existed in the Nakdong River valley of Korea during the Three Kingdoms era. ... Maulana Mohammad Ali Jouhar (1878 - 4 January 1931), was an Indian Muslim journalist and poet, and was among the leading figures of the Khilafat Movement. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , Kakinada   is a city and a municipal corporation in East Godavari district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... Abul Kalam Muhiyuddin Ahmed (b. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , Belgaum (Kannada: ಬೆಳಗಾವಿ, Marathi: बेळगांव;  ), also known as Belgaon and Belagaavi, is a city and a municipal corporation in Belgaum district in the state of Karnataka, India. ... Sarojini Naidu (February 13, 1879 - March 2, 1949), known as Bharatiya Kokila (The Nightingale of India), was a child prodigy, freedom fighter, and poet. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... -1... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , Kanpur   (Hindi: कानपुर, Urdu: کان پور, spelled as Cawnpore before 1948) is one of the most populous cities in the north India and the most populous within the state of Uttar Pradesh. ... S. Srinivasa Iyengar (1874-1941) was a distinguished lawyer, Indian freedom fighter and political leader. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Guwahati is the commercial capital of Assam and the gateway to the seven northeastern states of India. ... Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari was an Indian nationalist and political leader, and former president of the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League during the Indian Independence Movement. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... The family of Motilal Nehru, who is seated in the centre. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a major political leader of the Congress Party, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of independent India. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Vallabhbhai Patel (Gujarati: , Hindi: ; Vallabhbhāī Paá¹­el, pronounced ) (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950) was a political and social leader of India who played a major role in the countrys struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with Karachay-Cherkessia. ... Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya was a national leader and a freedom fighter of India. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya was a national leader and a freedom fighter of India. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Nellie Sengupta (1886-1973) was a Englishwoman who fought for Indian Independence and was elected President of the Indian National Congress // Born Nellie Gray, she was the daughter of Frederick and Edith Henrietta Gray. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Dr. Rajendra Prasad (Hindi: डाक्टर राजेन्द्र प्रसाद) (December 3, 1884 – February 28, 1963) was the first President of India. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... , Bombay redirects here. ... Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a major political leader of the Congress Party, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of independent India. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ... Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a major political leader of the Congress Party, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of independent India. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Faizpur is a city and a municipal council in Jalgaon district in the state of Maharashtra, India. ... Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: নেতাজী সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু ( सुभाष चदंर वसु ) Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj and was a prominent supporter of the Axis dictatorships as... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: নেতাজী সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু ( सुभाष चदंर वसु ) Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj and was a prominent supporter of the Axis dictatorships as... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Tripuri childrens in traditional attire grouping up for song presentation A beautiful and colourful pattern of rigwnai. ... Abul Kalam Muhiyuddin Ahmed (b. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... See Ramgarh for disambiguation. ... Jivatram Kripalani, also referred to with the prefix Acharya (Teacher: Hindi), was an Indian freedom fighter and political leader, who became a nationwide leader of the Janata Party revolt against the Indian Emergency. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Dr. Bhogaraju Pattabhi Sitaramayya (b. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , Jaipur   (Hindi: जयपुर), also popularly known as the pink city, is the capital of Rajasthan state, India. ... Purushottam Das Tandon (August 1, 1882 – July 1, 1962), was a freedom fighter, social reformer and national political leader of India. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nashik or Nasik is a city, and also a district and division, in Indias Maharashtra state. ... Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a major political leader of the Congress Party, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of independent India. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... , This article is about the capital city of India. ... Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a major political leader of the Congress Party, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of independent India. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Hyderabad   or Haydarābād // ( Urdu:حیدر آباد), (Telugu:హైదరాబాదు) is the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a major political leader of the Congress Party, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of independent India. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Uchharangrai Navalshankar Dhebar (1905-1977) was active in Indias struggle for Independence, and later served as Chief Minister of Saurashtra, and President of the Indian National Congress. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... , Avadi is a town and a municipality in Thiruvallur district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. ... Uchharangrai Navalshankar Dhebar (1905-1977) was active in Indias struggle for Independence, and later served as Chief Minister of Saurashtra, and President of the Indian National Congress. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... , Amritsar (Punjabi: , Hindi: ), meaning: The Ocean of the Nectar of Immortality,[1] is the administrative headquarter of the Amritsar District in Punjab, India. ... Uchharangrai Navalshankar Dhebar (1905-1977) was active in Indias struggle for Independence, and later served as Chief Minister of Saurashtra, and President of the Indian National Congress. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... , Indore (Hindi:इन्दौर ,Marathi:इंदूर)  , a large city in the Malwa region of Central India is the commercial capital of the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. ... Uchharangrai Navalshankar Dhebar (1905-1977) was active in Indias struggle for Independence, and later served as Chief Minister of Saurashtra, and President of the Indian National Congress. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... Guwahati is the commercial capital of Assam and the gateway to the seven northeastern states of India. ... Uchharangrai Navalshankar Dhebar (1905-1977) was active in Indias struggle for Independence, and later served as Chief Minister of Saurashtra, and President of the Indian National Congress. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... , Nāgpur   (Marathi: नागपुर) Third largest city in the western Indian state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune with a population of 2. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... , This article is about the capital city of India. ... Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (May 18, 1913 - June 1, 1996 ) was the sixth President of the republic of India from 1977 to 1982. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... , For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (May 18, 1913 - June 1, 1996 ) was the sixth President of the republic of India from 1977 to 1982. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... , Bhavnagar (Gujarati: , Hindi: , ) is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat. ... Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (May 18, 1913 - June 1, 1996 ) was the sixth President of the republic of India from 1977 to 1982. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Patna (disambiguation). ... Kumaraswami Kamaraj , (Tamil : காமராஜ்) better known as K. Kamaraj (15 July 1903 – 3 October 1975) was an Indian politician widely considered to be a kingmaker in Indian politics, and known for his honesty, integrity and simplicity. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , Bhubaneswar   (Oriya: ଭୁବେନଶ୍ବର, Hindi: भुवनेश्वर, in Sanskrit and Oriya/oDiA, The Lord of the Universe) is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of state of Orissa, India. ... Kumaraswami Kamaraj , (Tamil : காமராஜ்) better known as K. Kamaraj (15 July 1903 – 3 October 1975) was an Indian politician widely considered to be a kingmaker in Indian politics, and known for his honesty, integrity and simplicity. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , See Durgapur, Chandrapur for town of same name in Maharashtra Durgapur (Bengali: দুর্গাপুর) is an industrial metropolis in the state of West Bengal, India, located about 160 km from Kolkata. ... Kumaraswami Kamaraj , (Tamil : காமராஜ்) better known as K. Kamaraj (15 July 1903 – 3 October 1975) was an Indian politician widely considered to be a kingmaker in Indian politics, and known for his honesty, integrity and simplicity. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , Jaipur   (Hindi: जयपुर), also popularly known as the pink city, is the capital of Rajasthan state, India. ... Siddavanahalli Nijalingappa (December 10, 1902 - August, 2000 was a senior Congress politician and the Chief Minister of Karnataka between 1956 and 1958 and once again between 1962 and 1968. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Hyderabad   or Haydarābād // ( Urdu:حیدر آباد), (Telugu:హైదరాబాదు) is the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... Siddavanahalli Nijalingappa (December 10, 1902 - August, 2000 was a senior Congress politician and the Chief Minister of Karnataka between 1956 and 1958 and once again between 1962 and 1968. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... , Faridabad,   (Hindi: फरीदाबाद) is a city and a municipal corporation in Faridabad district in the state of Haryana, India. ... Jagjivan Ram (5 April 1908 - 6 July 1986), known popularly as Babuji was a freedom fighter and a social reformer hailing from the backward classes of Bihar in India. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... , Bombay redirects here. ... Shankar Dayal Sharma (August 19, 1918 - December 26, 1999) was the 9th President of republic of India serving from 1992 to 1997. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... , Chandigarh,  (Punjabi: , Hindi: ) also called City Beautiful, is a city in India that serves as the capital of two states, Punjab and Haryana, and is a union territory of India. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... , This article is about the capital city of India. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Rajiv Ratna Gandhi राजीव गाधीं (IPA: ), born in Mumbai, (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 7th Prime Minister of India (and the 2nd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao (Telugu: ) (28 June 1921 – 23 December 2004) was the twelth Prime Minister of the Republic of India[1] and led one of the most important administrations in Indias modern history overseeing a major economic transformation and several incidents affecting national security. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Sitaram Kesri, was born at Danapur, Patna on November 1919. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Sonia Gandhi (Hindi: , IPA: ), born Sonia Antonia Maino on December 9, 1946, is an Italian-born Indian politician, the President of the Indian National Congress and the widow of former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Congress Party in the states

Sikkim

After the merger of Sikkim with India in 1975, Kazi Lendup Dorjee's Sikkim National Congress merged with the Indian National Congress. The Congress Party in Sikkim lost power in 1979. At the last elections inof 32 seats in the state assembly, with all other seats going to the ruling Sikkim Democratic Front. , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... Sikkim National Congress, political party in Sikkim. ... The Sikkim Democratic Front is the largest and ruling party of the Indian state of Sikkim. ...


Election history

// Travancore-Cochin and Kerala Travancore-Cochin Kerala Madras and Tamil Nadu Madras Tamil Nadu Pondicherry Coorg, Mysore and Karnataka Coorg Mysore Karnataka Goa, Daman and Diu Goa, Daman and Diu Goa Daman and Diu Hyderabad and Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh Kutch, Saurashtra, Bombay, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Dadra and Nagar Haveli...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Indian National Congress

The family of Motilal Nehru, who is seated in the centre. ... Judiciary Supreme Court of India Chief Justice of India High Courts District Courts Elections Political Parties Local & State Govt. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ Jesudasan, Ignatius. A Gandhian theology of liberation. Gujarat Sahitya Prakash: Ananda India, 1987, pp 225.
  • Bipan Chandra, Amales Tripathi, Barun De. Freedom Struggle. India: National Book Struggle. ISBN 81-237-0249-X.

External links

  • Official Indian National Congress website
  • Indian National Congress Discussion Group
Judiciary Supreme Court of India Chief Justice of India High Courts District Courts Elections Political Parties Local & State Govt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Left Front election propaganda in Kolkata 2004 DSP-meeting in Kolkata West Bengal Left Front Committee meeting for solidarity with Tripura Left Front is an alliance of Indian leftist parties. ... The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is a coalition in India. ... United Progressive Alliance (UPA) is the present ruling coalition of political parties in India. ... For the Nepalese party, see Bahujan Samaj Party, Nepal. ... The Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP] (Hindi: , translation: Indian Peoples Party), created in 1980, is a major right wing Indian political party. ... The Communist Party of India (CPI) is a political party in India. ... The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (abbreviated CPI(M) or CPM) is a political party in India. ... This January 2007 needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Dr M. G. Ramachandran Janaki Ramachandran second Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu from AIADMK Party All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) (Tamil: அனைத்து இந்திய அண்ணா திராவிட முன்னேற்ற கழகம்) is a regional political party in Tamil Nadu state in India. ... The All India Forward Bloc is a leftwing nationalist political party in India. ... Prior to the merger the students wing of the party was known as Trinamool Chhatra Parishad, the teachers wing Nationalist Democratic Teachers’ Association and the trade union wing was called Indian National Trinamool Trade Union Congress. ... Arunchal Congress election symbol Arunachal Congress is a regional political party in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. ... Asom Gana Parishad (Assam Peoples Association), political party in Assam, India. ... The Biju Janata Dal is a regional party of the Indian state of Orissa. ... Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation is a communist political party in India. ... This article is about the political party in Tamil Nadu, India. ... The Federal Party of Manipur is a political party recognised in the Indian state of Manipur. ... Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Deputy Prime Minister The Union Ministries Legislative Parliament Rajya Sabha Chairman of the Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha Speaker of the House Judicial Supreme Court Chief Justice of the Supreme Court High Courts District Courts Constitution Fundamental Rights and Directive principles Regions States and territories... Indian National Lok Dal, a political party in India, based in the state of Haryana. ... INPT flag Indigenous Nationalist Party of Twipra, political party in the Indian state of Tripura. ... Executive President Prime Minister The Union Ministries Legislative Parliament Rajya Sabha Chairman of the Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha Speaker of the House Judicial Supreme Court Chief Justice of the Supreme Court High Courts District Courts Constitution Fundamental Rights and Directive principles Regions States and territories Elections General Elections State Assembly... The Jammu & Kashmir National Panthers Party is a political party based in Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... € The Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party is a political party in Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... The Janata Dal (Secular) is a left of centre Indian political party. ... Janata Dal (United) is a political party in India. ... JSS party emblem, on a mural in Alappuzha Janathipathiya Samrakshana Samithy (Association for Defence of Democracy) is a political party in the Indian state of Kerala. ... Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (झारखंड मुक्ति मोर्चा) is a political party in India. ... Executive President Prime Minister The Union Ministries Legislative Parliament Rajya Sabha Chairman of the Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha Speaker of the House Judicial Supreme Court Chief Justice of the Supreme Court High Courts District Courts Constitution Fundamental Rights and Directive principles Regions States and territories Elections General Elections State Assembly... The Kerala Congress (Mani faction) is a recognised state level political party in the Indian state of Kerala. ... Lok Jan Shakti Party is a political party in India. ... Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party, the oldest political party in the Indian state of Goa. ... Manipur Peoples Party, a political party in the Indian state of Manipur. ... Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (MDMK; Tamil: மறுமலர்ச்சித் திராவிட முன்னேற்றக் கழகம் a political party in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu formed in 1994. ... The Meghalaya Democratic Party is a political party recognised in the India state of Meghalaya. ... Mizo National Front, a regional political party in Mizoram, India. ... Mizoram Peoples Conference, a regional political party in Mizoram, India. ... Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Deputy Prime Minister The Union Ministries Legislative Parliament Rajya Sabha Chairman of the Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha Speaker of the House Judicial Supreme Court Chief Justice of the Supreme Court High Courts District Courts Constitution Fundamental Rights and Directive principles Regions States and territories... The Nagaland Peoples Front is a political party in the Indian state of Nagaland. ... Pattali Makkal Katchi (பாட்டாளி மக்கள் கட்சி, abbreviated PMK), a Tamil political party. ... RJD Womens wing office in Delhi The [Rashtriya Janata Dal]http://www. ... Rashtriya Lok Dal (National Peoples Party), a political party in India. ... Party flag Announcement of the 17th RSP National Conference in Pondicherry RSP-UTUC flagpole in Allepey, Kerala RSP poster in Kerala, honouring historical RSP leader T.K. Divakaran RSP mural in Agartala RSP election propaganda in Amarpur, Tripura Revolutionary Socialist Party is a Marxist-Leninist political party in India. ... Samajwadi Party flag Samajwadi Party (Socialist Party) is a political party in India. ... Akali Dal, also termed as Shiromani Akali Dal (Akali Religious Party), is a Sikh political party mainly based in Punjab, India. ... Shiv Sena (DevanāgarÄ«: शिव सेना Śīv Senā), meaning Army of Shiva, referring to Shivaji is a nationalist political party in India founded on June 19, 1966 by Bal Thackeray, who is currently the president of the party. ... The Sikkim Democratic Front is the largest and ruling party of the Indian state of Sikkim. ... Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) is a regional political party in the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... Telugu Desam Party (Telugu :తెలుగు దేశం Party for Telugu Land and people) or TDP is a regional political party in Indias Andhra Pradesh state. ... The United Democratic Party is a political party recognised in Meghalaya state, India. ... United Goans Democratic Party one of the two former dominating political parties in the Indian state of Goa. ... Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Deputy Prime Minister The Union Ministries Legislative Parliament Rajya Sabha Chairman of the Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha Speaker of the House Judicial Supreme Court Chief Justice of the Supreme Court High Courts District Courts Constitution Fundamental Rights and Directive principles Regions States and territories... Zoram Nationalist Party, formerly Mizo National Front (Nationalist), is a political party in Mizoram, India. ... All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen (meaning All India Council of the Union of Muslims, name in Urdu: , Kul Hind Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen) is a Muslim political party India. ... Bharatiya Navshakti Party (Indian New Force Party), a political party in India. ... Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Deputy Prime Minister The Union Ministries Legislative Parliament Rajya Sabha Chairman of the Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha Speaker of the House Judicial Supreme Court Chief Justice of the Supreme Court High Courts District Courts Constitution Fundamental Rights and Directive principles Regions States and territories... National Loktantrik Party (National Democratic Party), a political party in India, working amongst the Muslim minority community. ... Executive President Prime Minister The Union Ministries Legislative Parliament Rajya Sabha Chairman of the Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha Speaker of the House Judicial Supreme Court Chief Justice of the Supreme Court High Courts District Courts Constitution Fundamental Rights and Directive principles Regions States and territories Elections General Elections State Assembly... The Swatantra Bharat Paksh (Marathi: , Independent India Party) is a liberal political party in Maharashtra, India, formed in 1994 by Sharad Anantrao Joshi (former Shetkari Sanghatana leader). ... The Maharashtra Navnirman Sena is a regional political party operative in Maharashtra,India. ... The Socialist Unity Centre of India (SUCI) is a communist party in India. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This is an overview of political parties by country, in the form of a table with a link to a list of political parties in each country and showing which party system is dominant in each country . ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

 
 

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