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Encyclopedia > Indian National Army
Indian National Army

The ensign of Azad Hind
Active August 1942- September 1945
Country India
Allegiance Azad Hind
Branch Infantry
Role Infantry
Commanders
Ceremonial chief Subhash Chandra Bose
Notable
commanders
Shaukat Malik, Lakshmi Sehgal.
Insignia
Identification
symbol
The ensign of the springing Tiger
Culture and history
Battles/wars Battle of Imphal, Battle of Kohima

The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second World War. It consisted mostly of Indian prisoners of war who, in the course of service in the Indian Army, had been captured by Axis forces, although a significant portion were recruited from Indian civilians in Japanese-controlled Malaya and Burma. Image File history File links AzadHindFlag. ... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ... Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) (January 23, 1897 – August 18, 1945?note), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj. ... Captain Doctor Lakshmi Sehgal, an India doctor and politician. ... Binomial name Panthera tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) Synonyms Felis tigris Linnaeus, 1758 Tigris striatus Severtzov, 1858 Tigris regalis Gray, 1867 Tigers (Panthera tigris) are mammals of the Felidae family and one of four big cats in the Panthera genus. ... The Battle of Imphal took place in Manipur district of North East India from April until June 1944. ... The Burma Campaign was a campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II. It was fought primarily between Commonwealth, Chinese and American forces against the Empire of Japan. ... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (: 大日本帝國陸軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Japan from 1867 to 1945 when it was Imperial Japan. ... The Battle of Imphal took place in Manipur district of North East India from April until June 1944. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The Indian Army in the time of the British Raj (1857–1947) // Administrative Name The Indian Army is the name for the Indian Armed forces of that country; the meaning of that name changed over time: History The Indian Army was formed after the Indian Mutiny in 1857 by the... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ...

Contents

[edit]

Background

The origins of the concept of an armed force fighting its way into India to break the shackles of the Raj goes back to the First World War, when the Ghadar Party and the nascent embryo of the Indian Independence League planned to intiate rebellion in the British Indian Army from the Punjab through Bengal to Hong Kong. This plan failed after the information was leaked to British Intellignece, but only after the Hong Kong Garrison had rebelled. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The Ghadar Party was an organization founded by the Indians(mostly Punjabis, of the United States and Canada in June, 1913 with the aim to liberate India from British rule. ... Kartar Singh Sarabha was an Indian freedom-fighter and a leading luminary of the Ghadar Party, which advocated violent uprisings to free India from Imperial British control. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (meaning: Land of five Rivers (c. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bangla, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ...

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose in full military uniform
Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose in full military uniform

During the Second World War, this plan was reopened by the Indian Independence League, and came to be acted out in two phases: the formation and subsequent disbandment of the Indian National Army under Capt. Mohan Singh Deb, and the formation of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Govt. of free India) under Subhash Chandra Bose and the reformation of the INA as its army. The concept of INA as the Azad Hind Fauj that lives in Indian Public Memory, and indeed as it is analysed by Historians as a fighting force is essentially the INA as the army of the Azad Hind Government under Netaji Subhash Bose. Image File history File links Subhas_Bose. ... Image File history File links Subhas_Bose. ... Netaji poster in Thiruvananthapuram Subhas Chandra Bose (January 23, 1897 - August 18, 1945) also known as Netaji, was a Orissa born and Bengal based Indian leader of the movement to win independence from British rule. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ... Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) (January 23, 1897 – August 18, 1945?note), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj. ...


The INA was extensivley supported by the Japanese Government, both militarily as well as politically. Although the Japanese had not seriously planned on invading India themselves, ostensibly, the idea that their western boundary would be controlled by a more friendly government was attractive. It would aslo have been reconciliatory with the idea that Japanese expansion into Asia was part of an effort to support Asian government of Asia, and forming the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere [1]. Poster of Manchukuo promoting harmony between Japanese, Han Chinese and Manchu. ...


In the same breath as the INA ought to be mentioned the Free India Legion. Formed in Europe with Indian PoWs from the battle fields of Europe and Africa, it was built as an assault force for Western Frontier of British India. However, the Free India Legion only ever saw action in Europe, fighting as a Heer unit attached to the Wehrmacht and later incorporated into Waffen SS (as were other national legions of the Wehrmacht) [2], especially after the Allied Invasion of France. Segments of the Free India Legion were parachuted into eastern Persia (present day Iran) to infiltrate into India through Baluchistan and commence sabotage operations against the British in preparation for the anticipated national revolt[3]. A larger segment was also incorporated into the Indian National Army in South Asia [4] after its formation, while segment of the Free India Legion fought British and Polish Forces in Italy in 1944. The Legion Freies Indien, or the Indische Freiwilligen-Legion Regiment 950 variously known as the Tiger Legion, the Free India Legion (in English), The Azad Hind Legion, or the I.R 950 (Indisches Infanterie Regiment 950) was an Indian armed unit raised in 1941 attached to the Wehrmacht, ostensibly according... British India (otherwise known as The British Raj) was a historical period during which most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar, were under the colonial authority of the British Empire (Undivided India). ... German cavalry and motorized units entering Poland from East Prussia during the Polish Campaign of 1939 Wehrmacht (Defence force) was the name of the armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (absent) (Heeresgruppe B) Friedrich Dollmann () Strength 326,000 (by June 11) Unknown, probably some 1,000... Baluchistan (or Balochistan), also known as Greater Baluchistan is an arid region of south Asia, presently split between Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan. ... Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening an enemy through subversion, obstruction, disruption, and/or destruction. ...

[edit]

Origin

On 17 February 1942, two days after the fall of Singapore, some 45,000 Indian prisoners-of-war (POWs), were gathered at Farrer Park where they were surrendered over to the Japanese. The intial dread of mistreatment at the hands of Japanese troops, however, gave way when the Japanese welcomed them and pledged their support for India's Independence. Capt. Mohan Singh, 1/14th Punjab Regiment, was announced as leader and he called upon the Indians to form an army to free India. Almost 20,000 soldiers immediately came forward to join what became the INA.[5]

Military parade of the INA at the Padang on 5 July 1943.
Military parade of the INA at the Padang on 5 July 1943.

Earlier on, the Japanese Military Administration had encouraged various Indian nationalist groups in East Asia to form an anti-British alliance. These Indian nationalist groups then established the Indian Independence League (IIL), with its headquarters in Singapore. At the same time, the IIL looked after the welfare of Indian communities in East Asia. Image File history File links INA_Parade. ... Image File history File links INA_Parade. ...


In early March 1942, it had been proposed by the Japanese adivsors that the INA become the military arm of the IIL, with Rash Behari Bose as the leader of the entire movement . This was formally announced in June 1942 in Bangkok. By late 1942, however, the divisions appeared as the Indian troops increasingly felt as pawns in the hands of the Japanese. In December, Mohan Singh and other INA leaders ordered the INA to disband after severe disagreements with the Japanese. Mohan Singh was subsequently arrested by the Japanese and exiled to Pulau Ubin. Between December 1942 and February 1943, Rash Behari Bose tried but failed to keep the IIL and INA going. Thousands of INA soldiers returned to the status of POWs again and most of the IIL leaders resigned. The movement was seen to be doomed to failure. In a series of meetings between the INA leaders and the Japanese in 1943, it was decided to cede the leadership of the IIL and the INA to Subhash Chandra Bose. The Bangkok Skytrain at sunset on Thanon Narathiwat Ratcha Nakharin with Empire Tower at the back. ...


Bose had, at the start of the war in Europe, escaped from house arrest to make his way to Germany, reaching Berlin on 2 April 1941. In Germany he convinced Hitler, in a series of conferences, to support the cause of Indian Independence,[6]forming the Free India Legion and the Azad Hind Radio. By early 1943, Bose had turned his attention to Southeast Asia. With its large overseas Indian population, it was recognised that the region was fertile ground for establishing an anti-colonial force to fight the Raj. In January 1943, the Japanese invited Bose to lead the Indian nationalist movement in East Asia. He accepted and left Germany on 8 February. After a three-month journey by submarine, and a short stop in Singapore, he reached Tokyo on 11 May 1943, where he made a number of radio broadcasts to the Indian communities, exhorting them to join in the fight for India’s Independence. Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) (January 23, 1897 – August 18, 1945?note), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj. ... Radio Service wich was started in leadership of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose in Germany to unite Indians to fight for freedom. ...

The Tokyo Boys,Tokyo Imperial Military Academy.
The Tokyo Boys,Tokyo Imperial Military Academy.

On 4 July 1943, two days after reaching Singapore, Subhas Chandra Bose assumed the leadership of the IIL and the INA in a ceremony at Cathay Building. Bose's influence was notable. His appeal not only re-invigorated the fledgling INA, which previously comprised mainly POWs, his appeals also touched a chord with the Indian expatriates in South Asia as local civilians- ranging from barristers to plantation workers – had no military experience joined the INA, doubled its troop strength. [7] An Officers’ Training School for INA officers and the Azad School for the civilian volunteers were set up to provide training to the recruits. A youth wing of the INA, comprised of 45 Young Indians personally chosen by Bose and affectionately known as the Tokyo Boys, were also sent to Japan’s Imperial Military Academy to train as fighter pilots. Also, possibly the first time in Asia, and even the only time outside the USSR, a women's regiment, the Rani of Jhansi regiment was raised as a combat force. Image File history File links Tokyo_Boys. ... Image File history File links Tokyo_Boys. ... Equestrian statue of Jhansi ki Rani Rani Lakshmi Bai, the queen of the Maratha-ruled princely state of Jhansi in central India, was one of the great nationalist heroes of the War of Independence of 1857, and a symbol of resistance to British rule in India. ...

A soldier of the Rani of Jhansi Regiment in training, c 1940s.
A soldier of the Rani of Jhansi Regiment in training, c 1940s.

The anti-British feeling on the island of Sri Lanka was high, especially after the imprisonment of the leaders of the independence movement, the Lanka Sama Samaja Party in 1941. The Japanese were in secret contact with two junior Sri Lankan politicians, JR Jayawardene and Dudley Senanayake. In 1942, the Ceylon Garrison Artillery in the Cocos Islands mutinied, with the aim of handing the islands over to the Japanese, in emulation of their Indian cousins on Christmas Island, However, the Cocos Islands Mutiny failed. Sri Lankans in Singapore and Malaya formed the 'Lanka Regiment' of the Indian National Army. An abortive plan was made to land these troops in Sri Lanka by submarine. Image File history File links Jhansi_Trooper. ... Image File history File links Jhansi_Trooper. ... The Lanka Sama Samaja Party (literally Ceylon Equal Society Party, in Sinhala: ලංකා සම සමාජ පක්ෂය, in Tamil: லங்கா சமசமாஜக் கட்சி) is a trotskyist political party in Sri Lanka. ... This article is about the year. ... Junius Richard Jayewardene (September 17, 1906 November 1, 1996) was a Sri Lankan political figure. ... Dudley Shelton Senanayake (June 19, 1911 April 13, 1973) was a Sri Lankan politician who served as prime minister of Sri Lanka three times during the 1950s and 1960s. ... Cocos (Keeling) Islands The Cocos Islands Mutiny was one of many among British Commonwealth forces during the Second World War. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... German UC-1 class World War I submarine A model of Gunter Priens Unterseeboot 47 (U-47), German WWII Type VII diesel-electric hunter-killer (SSK) submarine Inside of the Argonaute, showing the typical obstructed, tiny space of a post-WWII diesel attack submarine. ...


The army's relationship to the Japanese was an uncomfortable one. Bose wished to establish his political independence from the regime that sponsored him (he had, in fact, led protests against the Japanese expansion into Manchuria, and supported Chiang Kai-Shek during the 1930s), but his complete dependence on them for arms and resources made this difficult. On the Japanese side, members of the high command had been personally impressed by Bose, and were thus willing to grant him some latitude; more importantly, the Japanese were interested in maintaining the support of a man who had been able to mobilize large numbers of Indian expatriates--including, most importantly, 40,000 of the 45,000 Indians captured by the Japanese at Singapore.


The clarion call of the INA was "Jai Hind" (meaning Victory to India) and "Give me blood and I will give you freedom".


Japanese Army assigned to advising at Indian Army at officer Hideo Iwakuro and Major-General Isoda during wartimes.

[edit]

Rise and Fall of the INA

Jubilant INA and Japanese troops after capturing a post on the Indo-Burmese Border.
Jubilant INA and Japanese troops after capturing a post on the Indo-Burmese Border.

Although Japanese troops saw much of the combat in India against the British, the INA was certainly by itself an effective combat force, having faced British and allied troops and making their mark in the Battle of Imphal, as well as the battles of Arakan and Burma . On 18 April 1944 the suicide squads led by Col. Shaukat Malik broke through the British defence and captured Moirang in Manipur. The Azad Hind administration took control of the this independent Indian territory.[8]. Following Moirang, the advancing INA breached the Kohima road, posing a threat to the British positions in both Silchar and Kohima. Col. Gulzara Singh's column had penetrated 250 miles into India. The Azad Brigade advanced, by outflanking the Anglo-American positions. However, INA's most serious, and ultimately fatal, limitaltions were the reliance on Japanese logistics and supplies and the total air-dominance of the allies, which, along with a supply line deluged by torrential rain, frustrated the INA's and the Japanese bid to take Imphal. Image File history File linksMetadata INA_Jubilation. ... Image File history File linksMetadata INA_Jubilation. ... The Battle of Imphal took place in Manipur district of North East India from April until June 1944. ... The Burma Campaign was a campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II. It was fought primarily between Commonwealth, Chinese and American forces against the Empire of Japan. ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Suicide (from Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of willfully ending ones own life. ... Moirang is a district situated in the south of India, 45 km from Imphal, Manipur. ... Manipur (Hindi: मणिपुर) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... Silchar (Xilsôr) is the headquarters of Cachar district in the state of Assam in India. ... Kohima is the hilly capital of Indias north eastern border state of Nagaland which shares its borders with Burma. ... Imphal is the capital of Manipur, India. ...


At the conclusion of the war, the government of British India brought some of the captured INA soldiers to trial on treason charges. The prisoners would potentially face the death penalty, life imprisonment or a fine as punishment if found guilty. After the war, three officers of the I.N.A., General Shah Nawaz Khan, Colonel Prem Sehgal and Colonel Gurbux Singh Dhillon were put to trial at the Red Fort in Delhi for "waging war against the King Emperor", i.e. the British sovereign. The three defendants were defended by Jawaharlal Nehru, Bhulabhai Desai and others based on the defence that they should be treated as prisoners of war as they were not paid merceneraries but bona fide soldiers of a legal government, the Provisional Government of Free India, or the Arzi Hukumate Azad Hind, "however misinformed or otherwise they had been in their notion of patriotic duty towards their country" and as such they recognized the free Indian state as their sovereign and not the British sovereign [9]. British India (otherwise known as The British Raj) was a historical period during which most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar, were under the colonial authority of the British Empire (Undivided India). ... Major General Shahnawaz Khan was an Indian freedom fighter, politician and army officer // [edit] Indian National Army Lt. ... Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon (born 18 March 1914 died 06 February 2006), popularly known as Col. ... The Delhi Fort is located in Delhi, India. ... This article is about the metropolis of Delhi. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू, Javāharlāl Nehrū) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964), also called Pandit (Scholar, Teacher) Nehru, was one of the most important leaders of the Indian Independence Movement and, as the head of the Indian National Congress, became the first Prime Minister of India when India won its... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ...


The Indian National Congress and the Muslim League both made the release of the three defendants an important political issue during the agitation for independence of 1945-6. Beyond the on-going campaigns of noncooperation and nonviolent protest, this spread to include mutinies and wavering support within the British Indian Army. This movement marked the last major campaign in which the forces of the Congress and the Muslim League aligned together; the Congress tricolor and the green flag of the League were flown together at protests. In spite of this aggressive and widespread opposition, the court martial was carried out, and all three defendants were sentenced to deportation for life. This sentence, however, was never carried out, as the immense public pressure of the demonstrations forced Claude Auchinleck, Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army, to release all three defendants. Most of the I.N.A. soldiers were set free after cashiering and forfeiture of pay and allowance [10]. On the recommendation of Lord Mountbatten, and agreed by Nehru, as a precondition for Independence the I.N.A. soldiers were not reinducted into the Indian Army. Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party or Congress (I), abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Aga Khan III, one of the founders of the Muslim League Navin had a boner and put it in his mouth The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ) was a political party in British India and was the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British... Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck, GCB, GCIE, CSI, DSO, OBE (June 21, 1884 - 1981), nicknamed The Auk, was a British army commander during World War II. // Early life and career Born in Aldershot, he grew up in impoverished circumstances, but was able through... Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (June 25, 1900 – August 27, 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू) (November 14, 1889 - May 27, 1964), also called Pandit (Teacher) Nehru, was the leader of the (moderately) socialist wing of the Indian National Congress during and after Indias struggle for independence from the British...


Independent India's attitude to the I.N.A. was somewhat confused: on one hand, following the recommendations of Lord Mountbatten, the I.N.A. soldiers were not permitted to re-enroll in the Indian Army; on the other, members of the I.N.A. received an Indian state pension as freedom fighters which Indian volunteers for the British Indian Army during World War II did not. Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (June 25, 1900 – August 27, 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ...

[edit]

Consequences of the I.N.A. Trials

Subhas Chandra Bose laying foundation stone of INA War Memorial, Singapore, 8 July 1945.
Subhas Chandra Bose laying foundation stone of INA War Memorial, Singapore, 8 July 1945.
Demolition of INA War Memorial by the British, 1945.
Demolition of INA War Memorial by the British, 1945.

Whether a measure of the pain that the allies had suffered in Imphal and Burma, as an act of vengeance, Lord Mountbatten, Head of Southeast Asia Command, ordered the INA Memorial to its fallen soldiers destroyed when the Singapore was recaptured in 1945.[11] It has been suggested later that Mountbatten's actions may have been to erase completely the records of INA's existence, to prevent the seeds of the idea of a revolutionary socialist liberation force from spreading into the vestiges of it's colonies amidst the spectre of cold-war politics already taking shape at the time, and had haunted the Colonial powers before the war. [12] [13] Image File history File links INA_Memorial_1945. ... Image File history File links INA_Memorial_1945. ... Image File history File links Destruction_of_INA_Memorial_1945. ... Image File history File links Destruction_of_INA_Memorial_1945. ...


After the war ended, the story of the INA and the Free India Legion was seen as so inflammatory that, fearing mass revolts and uprisings—not just in India, but across its empire—the British Government forbid the BBC from broadcasting their story.[14]. However, if this was the last ditch attempt to preserve the Raj, it certainly failed miserably. The stories of the trials at the Red Fort filtered through. Newspapers reported at the time of the trials that some of the INA soldiers held at Red Fort had been executed[15], which only succeeded in causing further protests. The Legion Freies Indien, or the Indische Freiwilligen-Legion Regiment 950 variously known as the Tiger Legion, the Free India Legion (in English), The Azad Hind Legion, or the I.R 950 (Indisches Infanterie Regiment 950) was an Indian armed unit raised in 1941 attached to the Wehrmacht, ostensibly according... The British Broadcasting Corporation, invariably known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest public broadcasting corporation in the world. ... There used to be a redirect from the Red Fort in Delhi to Agra Fort in Agra. ...


During the trial, mutiny broke out in the Royal Indian Navy, incorporating ships and shore establishements of the RIN throughout India, from Karachi to Bombay and from Vizag to Calcutta. The most significant, if disconcerting factor for the Raj, was the significant militant public support that it received.[16]. At some places, NCOs in the British Indian Army started ignoring orders from British superiors. In Madras and Pune, the British garrisons had to face revolts within the ranks of the British Indian Army. The Bombay Mutiny was the mutiny of the Royal Indian Navy in Bombay (Mumbai) harbour on 21 February 1946. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Karachi Towns. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... Visakhapatnam (Also Vishākhapatnam, shortened and Anglicized: Vizag) is a large city in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... The Indian Army in the time of the British Raj (1857–1947) // Administrative Name The Indian Army is the name for the Indian Armed forces of that country; the meaning of that name changed over time: History The Indian Army was formed after the Indian Mutiny in 1857 by the... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... Pune (IPA: , Marathi: पुणे) is a city located in the western Indian state of Maharashtra. ...


Another Army mutiny took place at Jabalpur during the last week of February 1946, soon after the Navy mutiny at Bombay. This was suppressed by force, including the use of the bayonet by British troops. It lasted about two weeks. After the mutiny, about 45 persons were tried by court martial. 41 were sentenced to varying terms of imprisonment or dismissal. In addition, a large number were discharged on administrative grounds. While the participants of the Naval Mutiny were given the freedom fighters' pension, the Jabalpur mutineers got nothing. They even lost their service pension.

Indian and Azad Hind stamps on Subhas Bose and his Azad Hind Bahini issued by India Post
Indian and Azad Hind stamps on Subhas Bose and his Azad Hind Bahini issued by India Post

Reflecting on the factors that guided the British decision to relinquish the Raj in India, Clement Attlee, the then British prime minister, cited several reasons, the most important of which were the INA activities of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, which weakened the Indian Army - the foundation of the British Empire in India- and the RIN Mutiny that made the British realise that the Indian armed forces could no longer be trusted to prop up the Raj. [17]. Although Britain had made, at the time of the Cripps' mission in 1942, a commitment [18] to grant dominion status [19] to India after the war this suggests that, contrary to the usual narrative of India's independence struggle, (which generally focusses on Congress and Mahatma Gandhi), the INA and the revolts, mutinies, and public resentment it germinated were an important factor in the complete withdrawal of the Raj from India. Image File history File links Bose_stamp. ... Image File history File links Bose_stamp. ... The Common Man featured in a Commemorative stamp released by Indian Postal Service in 1988 to mark 150 years of The Times of India. ... The British Empire at its zenith in 1919. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, FRS, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from 1945 to 1951. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Sir Stafford Cripps Mission was an attempt in late March of 1942 by the British War Cabinet to secure Indian cooperation and support for their efforts in World War II. Led by Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, the majority Indian National Congress and its supporters were engaged in a program of... In many Indian languages, Raj literally means Prince or Royalty though is often used to mean something more like the English term of empire and as such is often used in reference to the Mughal Raj and the British Raj: the period of direct colonial rule of India by the...


Why would, however, the story of the INA and the Free India Legion be forbidden from public broadcast and archived beyond public reach? [20]. In 1946, with Britain attempting to hold on to its declining empire, it is certainly imaginable what inspiration the story of Bose and his revolutionary army would have been to the rising nationalism in Africa and Asia. One only needs to analyse the examples of the charismatic legends of Chairman Mao and the Chinese uprisings on Korea and Vietnam to understand what proportions the INA's legend would have reached and how that, in the hands of revolutionary nationalists would have destabillised what would remain of the British Empire after they left India. The mutinies and movements mentioned above proves this in the context of India. However, that still does not answer why these stories have been ignored or even actively suppressed by the Indian government after Independence.[21] [22][23] The Legion Freies Indien, or the Indische Freiwilligen-Legion Regiment 950 variously known as the Tiger Legion, the Free India Legion (in English), The Azad Hind Legion, or the I.R 950 (Indisches Infanterie Regiment 950) was an Indian armed unit raised in 1941 attached to the Wehrmacht, ostensibly according... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893—September 9, 1976) was the chairman of the Communist Party of China from 1935 until his death. ... Korea (Korean: (ì¡°ì„  or 한국, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... ...

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Troop Strength

Although there are slight variations in estimates, the I.N.A. is considered to have comprised about 40,000 troops when it was disbanded. The following is an estimate attributed to Lt. Colonel G.D. Anderson of British intelligence:


There were 45,000 Indian troops from Malaya captured and assembled in Singapore when the Japanese captured it. Of these, about 5,000 refused to join the I.N.A. The I.N.A. at this time had 40,000 recruits.


The Japanese were prepared to arm 16,000. When the "first I.N.A." collapsed, about 4,000 withdrew.


The "second I.N.A.", commanded by Subhas Chandra Bose, started with 12,000 troops.


Further recruitment of ex-Indian army personnel added about 8,000-10,000. About 18,000 Indian civilians enlisted during this time. In 1945, at the end of the I.N.A., it consisted of about 40,000 soldiers [24].

[edit]

Azad Hind decoration

An "Azad Hind" (Free India) decoration was also instituted by Bose for the Indian Legion fighting alongside Germany. Both Indians and Germans were eligible for the decorations.

  • Grand Star: "Sher-e-Hind" (Tiger of India)
  • 1st Class Star: "Sardar-e-Jang" (Leader of Battle)
  • 2nd Class Star: "Vir-e-Hind" (Hero of India)
  • Shahid-e-Bharat: (Martyr of the Motherland)
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See also

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Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The Battaglione Azad Hindoustan was a unit of Indian troops formed in Fascist Italy under the Raggruppamento Centri Militari in July 1942. ... The Legion Freies Indien, or the Indische Freiwilligen-Legion Regiment 950 variously known as the Tiger Legion, the Free India Legion (in English), The Azad Hind Legion, or the I.R 950 (Indisches Infanterie Regiment 950) was an Indian armed unit raised in 1941 attached to the Wehrmacht, ostensibly according... The Legion Freies Indien, or the Indische Freiwilligen-Legion Regiment 950 variously known as the Tiger Legion, the Free India Legion (in English), The Azad Hind Legion, or the I.R 950 (Indisches Infanterie Regiment 950) was an Indian armed unit raised in 1941 attached to the Wehrmacht, ostensibly according... The Legion Freies Indien, or the Indische Freiwilligen-Legion Regiment 950 variously known as the Tiger Legion, the Free India Legion (in English), The Azad Hind Legion, or the I.R 950 (Indisches Infanterie Regiment 950) was an Indian armed unit raised in 1941 attached to the Wehrmacht, ostensibly according... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon (born 18 March 1914 died 06 February 2006), popularly known as Col. ...

References

  1. ^ Freedom Depends on Nippon Victory.The Syonan Sinbun, 26 January 1943
  2. ^ Davis, Flags of the Third Reich 2: Waffen SS, pp. 22
  3. ^ Weale, Renegades, p. 137-138.
  4. ^ ibid
  5. ^ Historical Journey of the Indian National Army. Birth and Early Years. National Archives of Singapore. http://www.s1942.org.sg/indian_national_army/birth.htm. URL accessed on 20 Aug 06.
  6. ^ Axis War Makes Easier Task of Indians. Chandra Bose's Berlin Speech. Syonan Sinbun, 26 January 1943.
  7. ^ Journey of the Indian National Army. Revival. National Archives of Singapore. http://www.s1942.org.sg/indian_national_army/revival.htm. URL accessed on 20 Aug 06.
  8. ^ The Hindustan Times.http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/specials/Netaji/enlisting9.htm
  9. ^ Stephen P. Cohen "Subhas Chandra Bose and the Indian National Army" Pacific Affairs Vol. 36, No. 4 (Winter, 1963) pp 411-429
  10. ^ Nirad C. Chaudhuri "Subhas Chandra Bose-His Legacy and Legend" Pacific Affairs Vol. 26, No. 4 (Dec. 1953), pp. 349-350
  11. ^ Historical Journey of the Indian National Army. INA war Memorial in Singapore. National Archive of Singapopre URL accessed on 20 Aug 06
  12. ^ Lebra, Joyce C., Jungle Alliance: Japan and the Indian National Army, Singapore, Asia Pacific Library
  13. ^ Borra R. Subhash Chandra Bose. Journal of Historical Review, 3, no. 4 (Winter 1982), pp. 407-439
  14. ^ Hitler's Secret Indian Army Last Section: Mutinies URL accessed on 08-Aug-06
  15. ^ Many I.N.A. men already executed, Lucknow . The Hindustan Times, November 2, 1945. URL Accessed 11-Aug-06
  16. ^ Wikipedia entry on The RIN mutiny URL accessed on 9-Aug-06.
  17. ^ Dhanjaya Bhat, Writing in The Tribune, Sunday, February 12, 2006. Spectrum Suppl. Which phase of our freedom struggle won for us Independence? http://www.tribuneindia.com/2006/20060212/spectrum/main2.htm.URL accessed on 17-Jul-2006
  18. ^ Judith Brown Modern India. The making of an Asian Democracy (Oxford University Press) 1999 (2nd Edition) pp328-330
  19. ^ James L. Raj; Making and unmaking of British India. Abacus. 1997. p557
  20. ^ BBC, Hitler's Secret Indian Army URL accessed 09-Aug-06
  21. ^ Radhakrishnan met Netaji in Moscow, says witness.The Hindustan Times, November 17, 1970. URL Accessed on 11-Aug-06. Source URL
  22. ^ Gandhi, others had agreed to hand over Netaji. Hindustan Times, January 23, 1971. URL Accessed on 11-Aug-06
  23. ^ Interview with Capt. Lakshmi Sahgal.The Tribune India, Spectrum Suppl Sunday, June 12, 2005 URL accessed 09-Aug-06
  24. ^ Peter Ward Fay The Forgotten Army. India's Armed Struggle for Independence 1941-45 (Ann Arbor) 1993 pp525-6
  • Japanese-trained armies in Southeast Asia : independence and volunteer forces in World War II / Joyce C. Lebra, New York : Columbia University Press, 1977
  • Jungle alliance, Japan and the Indian National Army / Joyce C. Lebra, Singapore, Donald Moore for Asia Pacific Press,1971
  • Brothers Against the Raj --- A biography of Indian Nationalists Sarat and Subhas Chandra Bose / Leonard A. Gordon, Princeton University Press, 1990
  • Lost hero : a biography of Subhas Bose / Mihir Bose, Quartet Books, London ; 1982
  • Democracy Indian style : Subhas Chandra Bose and the creation of India's political culture / Anton Pelinka ; translated by Renée Schell, New Brunswick, NJ : Transaction Publishers (Rutgers University Press), 2003
  • Subhas Chandra Bose : a biography / Marshall J. Getz, Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., USA, 2002
  • Netaji and India's freedom : proceedings of the International Netaji Seminar, 1973 / edited by Sisir K. Bose. International Netaji Seminar (1973 : Calcutta, India), Netaji Research Bureau, Calcutta, India, 1973
  • Japan's Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere in World War II : selected readings and documents / edited and introduced by Joyce C. Lebra, Kuala Lumpur ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1975
  • A Concise History of India / Barbara D. Metcalf and Thomas R. Metcalf
  • A History of India / Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund
  • The Glass Palace / Amitav Ghosh, London: HarperCollins, 2001 (a novel which has a large section on the Burma front which describes the motivations of those Indian officers who joined the INA and those who did not)
  • The Forgotten Army / Fay, Peter Ward : University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1995 ISBN 0472083422
  • Arsecularatne, SN, Sinhalese immigrants in Malaysia & Singapore, 1860-1990: History through recollections, KVG de Silva & Sons, Colombo, 1991
  • Crusz, Noel, The Cocos Islands Mutiny, Fremantle Arts Centre Press, Fremantle, WA, 2001
  • Sundaram, C.S., "A Paper Tiger: the Indian National Army in Battle, 1944-1945", in War & Society, vol. 13, no. 1, May 1995, pp. 35-59.
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