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Encyclopedia > Indian Muslim nationalism

Islam in India


Islam is the second-largest religion in India (after Hinduism80. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2040x1681, 2396 KB) Description: Taj Mahal Source: Dhirad, picture edited by J. A. Knudsen Uploaded to en: on March 1, 2005, 14:30, by Deep750 who added the following comment On April 9, 2005, 19:22 Nichalp added that heemailed Deep750...


History The Islamic conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the seventh to the twelfth centuries. ...

Architecture

Mughal architecture • Indo-Islamic Architecture Mughal architecture is the distinctive style of Islamic, Persian and Indian architecture, developed by the Mughal Empire in India in the 16th century. ... The Lotus Mahal at Hampi is a example of Indo-Islamic architecture. ...

Major figures

AkbarMaulana Azad Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar (Persian: جلال الدین محمد اکبر), (alternate spellings: Jellaladin, Celalettin) also known as Akbar the Great (Akbar-e-Azam) (October 15, 1542 – October 27, 1605) was the son of Nasiruddin Humayun whom he succeeded as ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1556 to 1605. ... Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (1888 - August 1958) was a freedom fighter in Indias struggle for Independence from Britain. ...

Communities

North Indian MuslimsMappilasTamil Muslims
Konkani Muslims • Marathi Muslims • Memons
North East Muslims • Kashmiris • Hyderabadi Muslims
Dawoodi BohrasKhojaNawayathMeo
Sunni BohrasKayamkhani • Bengali Muslims
Pathan The gate of the Jami mosque built in 1571 in Fatehpur Sikri, a city built by the Mughal emperor Akbar. ... The Mappilas (historically called Moplahs in Malayalam :മാപ്പിള) are a Muslim community in Kerala and neighbouring states and territories of India. ... Marakkar or Maraikayar is a common title, surname or name of a sub group of Tamil speaking Muslim people of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Memon (Gujarati: મેમણ ) people are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group that originated in Sindh province of what is now Pakistan and later settled in Gujarat. ... For other uses, see Kashmiri (disambiguation) Kashmiri is a Dardic language spoken primarily in Kashmir, an Asian region now split between India, Pakistan and China. ... Dawoodi Bohras (Arabic: داؤدی بوہرہ, Hindi: दवूदि बोह्रा) are the main branch of the Bohras, a MustaˤlÄ« subsect of IsmāīlÄ« Shīˤa Islām, and are based in India. ... The Khwajahs or officially Khojas (Urdu: خوجہ) are a (mostly Muslim) community that are mainly concentrated in South Asia, but due to migrations over the centuries have spread to many parts of the globe. ... The Nawayaths (also spelled as Navayath or Nawayat) are a small Muslim community found living in and around the town of Bhatkal prosperous little picturesque town with quaint old abodes and villas on the west coast of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. ... Meo (Hindi: मेव, Urdu: میو) is a prominent Muslim Rajput tribe from Northern India and Pakistan. ... Sunni Bohras are a Sunni Muslim community in Sindh province of Pakistan and Gujarat state of India. ... Kayamkhani is a community of Muslims living in Shekhawati region of Rajasthan. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun (Persian: پختون) (Urdu: پشتون ), or Pathan) or ethnic Afghans[4] are an ethno-linguistic group living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ...

Islamic Sects

DeobandiBarelviShia The Deobandi (Hindi: देवबन्दि, Urdu: دیو بندی) is an Islamic revivalist movement in South Asia which has more recently also spread to other countries, such as Afghanistan, South Africa and the United Kingdom. ... A name given to the Sunni Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...

Culture

Muslim culture of Hyderabad Makkah masjid on the last Friday of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan Muslims praying by the historic Charminar after filling the Makkah Masjid, congregations of more than two hundred thousand pray on special occasions there. ...

Other Topics

Indian Muslim nationalismIndian Wahabi movement
Muslim chronicles for Indian history Indian Muslim nationalism refers to the political and cultural expression of nationalism, founded upon the religious tenets and identity of Islam, of the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

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Indian Muslim nationalism refers to the political and cultural expression of nationalism, founded upon the religious tenets and identity of Islam, of the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...


Rising from the first days of Islamic empires in India, this article endeavors to explore and trace Muslim nationalism through medieval India and into the events of the 20th and early 21st century, within the modern nations of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ...


The Indian subcontinent's Muslim population numbers around 400-450 million.

Contents

Historical foundations

The historical foundations of Muslim nationalist thinking derives inspiration from the years of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire in northern and central India. Those were the years when Muslim kingdoms were the most powerful military forces in India, and an elite Islamic society that descended from Central Asia, Afghanistan and the Middle East spread the religion amongst common Indians. The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Ideological foundations

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (1817 - 1898)


The first Muslim uprising began with the Muslim Sultan-The Tiger of Mysore, Tipu Sultan in 1766, whose infamous armed resistance of Mysore, using bamboo Rockets, was the catalyst for the demise of the British from India and earned him the title Father of the Indian Rocket. . In fact, the battle against the British in Mysore,1766 seems to be at the pinnacle of unrest in the colonised lands of all the European colonoisers. Download high resolution version (434x724, 35 KB) This work is copyrighted. ... Download high resolution version (434x724, 35 KB) This work is copyrighted. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The first organized expressions began with Muslim scholars and reformers like Syed Ahmed Khan, Syed Ameer Ali and the Aga Khan who had an influential major hand in the Anti-British Resistance movements during the "Indian Revolution" Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Bahadur, GCSI (Urdu: سید احمد خان بہا در; October 17, 1817 – March 27, 1898), commonly known as Sir Syed, was an Indian educator and politician who pioneered modern education for the Muslim community in India by founding the Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College, which later developed into the Aligarh Muslim University. ... Syed Ameer Ali was an Indian Muslim religious scholar and teacher at the Aligarh Muslim University, who is credited for his contributions to education of Indian Muslims, as well as development of political philosophy for Muslims. ... This article is about the hereditary title. ...


Expression of Muslim separatism and nationhood emerged from modern Islam's pre-eminent poet and philosopher, Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal and political activists like Choudhary Rahmat Ali. Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) was an important Indian Muslim poet from the colonial era, a philosopher and thinker of Kashmiri origin. ... Choudhary Rahmat Ali Choudhary Rahmat Ali (1895 - February 12, 1951) was the reactionary founder of the Pakistan National Movement, and was an early proponent of the formation of Pakistan. ...


In politics

Some prominent Muslims politically sought a base for themselves, separate from Hindus and other Indian nationalists, who espoused the Indian National Congress. Muslim scholars, religious leaders and politicians founded the All India Muslim League in 1906. Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party or Congress (I), abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the Great Leader of the Muslim League The All India Muslim League was a political party in British India was the driving force behind the creation of a Muslim state on the Indian subcontinent. ...


Muslims comprised 25% to 30% of (pre-partition) India's collective population. Some Muslim leaders felt that their cultural and economic contributions to India's heritage and life merited a significant role for Muslims in a future independent India's governance and politics.


But others, led by Allama Iqbal and ultimately Muhammad Ali Jinnah felt a separate homeland must be obtained for all of India's Muslims. They espoused the Two-Nation Theory, that India was in fact home to the Muslim and Hindu nations, who were distinct in every way. Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) was an important Indian Muslim poet from the colonial era, a philosopher and thinker of Kashmiri origin. ... Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu: محمد على جناح)  (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


Another section of Muslim society, led by Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari and Maulana Azad felt that participation in the Indian Independence Movement and the Indian National Congress was a patriotic duty of all Muslims. Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (Pashto/Arabic: خان عبد الغفار خان) (b. ... Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari was an Indian nationalist and political leader, and former president of the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League during the Indian Independence Movement. ... Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (1888 - August 1958) was a freedom fighter in Indias struggle for Independence from Britain. ... The Indian independence movement incorporated the efforts by Indians to liberate the region from British rule and form the nation-state of India. ... Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party or Congress (I), abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ...


Religious leaders like Maulana Maudoodi did not prefer a single nation over two or vice versa, but sought to propagate the religion and create an Islamic republic in India. An Islamic republic in its modern context has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ...


Partition of India

Muhammad Ali Jinnah led the Muslim League's call for Pakistan. Some historians have come to believe that Jinnah did not actually want the partition of the Indian subcontinent, but used it as a potent weapon to secure greater political power for Indian Muslims. However, as time went on, communal tensions rose and so partition won increasing support among many Muslims in Muslim-majority areas of the Indian subcontinent. Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu: محمد على جناح)  (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. ...


On August 14, 1947, Pakistan was created out of the Muslim majority provinces of British India, Sind, the west of Punjab, Baluchistan, the east of Bengal and the North West Frontier Province. Communal violence broke out and millions of people were forced to flee their homes and many lost their lives. Hindus and Sikhs fled from Pakistan to India and Muslims fled from India to Pakistan. Le de de Sind de ou de Sindh de (Sindhi: ‎, Urdu: ‎, Hindi: ) peut se rapporter : * Sindh de le Pakistan (de 1970), retitré du ** de province de Sind dedans 1990 * [[provinces de |Sind] de province de Sind (1936-1955)] de lInde britannique (1936-04-01 - 1947-08-13) ** de le... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... Baluchistan (or Balochistan), also known as Greater Baluchistan is an arid region of south Asia, presently split between Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in the Bengali language, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ...


However, because Muslim communities existed throughout the Indian subcontinent, partition actually left tens of millions of Muslims within the boundaries of the secular Indian state. Currently, approximately 12% of the population of India is Muslim.


The Muslim League idea of a Muslim Nationalism encompassing all of the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent seemed to lose out to ethnic nationalism in 1971, when East Pakistan, a Bengali dominated province, fought and won its independence from Pakistan, and became the independent country of Bangladesh. An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating back four millennia. ...


Pakistani nationalism

Pakistan has more than 160 million Muslims. It is also the fastest growing population among the 10 most populated countries with greater than 2% population growth each year and is expected to become the most populated Muslim country in the world within 10 years. Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ...


Pakistani Nationalism has varied from the original idea in the early 1900s to the status quo, usually varying by socio-economic class and political ideology. Originally, it was a concept defined by the Western regions of British India and their religious affiliation of Islam. During the late years of British rule and leading up to Partition, it had three distinct supporters:


1) Realists, such as Mohammad Ali Jinnah, who driven by political inflexibility demonstrated by the Congress Party, feared a systematic disenfranchisement of Muslims (and not necessarily Islam). This also included many members of the Parsi, and Nizari Ismaili communities. The Ismaili ( اسماعيلي, Persian Esmaaili) branch of Islam is the second-largest Shia community, after the Twelvers who are dominant in Iran. ...


2) Technocratic Elitists, such as the majority of Aligarh students who were driven by a fear of being engulfed in "false secularism" that would assimilate their beliefs and values into a common system that defied Islamic tenets while hoping to create a state where their higher education and wealth would keep them in power over the other Muslims of India.


3) Idealists, primarily lower Orthodoxy (Barelvi), that feared the dominative power of the upper Orthodoxy (Deoband) and saw Pakistan as a safe haven to prevent their domination by State-controlled propaganda. Although some upper Orthodoxy also supported the state in the interests of an Islamic State.


Through the years this situation varied, however all parties secular and religious see Pakistan as a member of the global community, and Pakistanis as global citizens hailing from many different backgrounds including (and with great pride): Iran, Arabia, and India. Their primary purpose it to represent themselves as honest hard-working Muslims and provide safe haven to the millions of Muslim refugees from around the world such as Afghanistan and Burma.


In more recent times and through the efforts of Pervez Musharraf, there has been a distinctive U-turn on this policy, as the West sees this "Muslim melting pot" a manifest of Muslim Transnationalism which secular fundamentalists in the West see as a threat to Western society. Unfortunately, this effort has created strong rifts in Pakistani society with Westernized, classes benefitting from government patronage and support for their lifestyles have enjoyed the fruits of an economic boom while even the slightly religious classes of Pakistan have suffered from discriminatory treatment due to their unwillingless to change their lifestyles to European ones.


Many Pakistanis believe in the implementation of Shariah, in a way that respects their religion and does not compromise its ideals and tenets to appease outsiders. This includes controversial legislation such as Hudood, which even many strict Muslims realize, requires strong institutions to properly enforce. For the controversial nature of these ordinances, see the separate entry on them. There is a small smattering of secularists who, primarily educated in the West, believe in the separation of Church and State, and their power and influence is greater due to their knowledge of English and interest in politics.


Today Pakistan is a thriving nation-state but not without its fair share of problems. It is second only to Malaysia in terms of economic diversification, and is one of the "Next Eleven" nations that will drive the world economy, as determined by Goldman Sachs.


Discrimination against non-Muslims in Pakistan

The United States Department of State lists several instances of religious discrimination against the Hindu and Christian minorities. The Hindu community faced harassment and demands for bribes from security forces, particularly during tense periods in the relationship between Pakistan and India.[1] This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ...


The Ahmadi, Christian, Hindu, and Shi'a Muslim communities reported significant discrimination in employment and access to education, including at government institutions[2]. Ahmadis (Urdu: ‎ Ahmadiyya), are followers of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Kaafir from Qadian, in the Punjab, India. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ...


Insults against minority religions were rarely prosecuted. For example, Ameer Hamza, a leader of the banned terrorist group Lashkar-e-Tayyibba, was not prosecuted for writing a highly derogatory book about Hinduism in 1999 called "Hindu Ki Haqeeqat" ("Reality of (a) Hindu"). Christian scriptures and books are readily available, but Christians have reported concerns about pressure leading to self-censorship[3].


On July 26, 2004, police illegally detained Hindu agricultural laborer Manu Kohli in Dadu District and subjected him to severe beatings and other forms of torture before releasing him. The two officers involved were charged with assault.


Forced and coerced conversions of religious minorities to Islam occurred at the hands of societal actors. Religious minorities claimed that Government actions to stem the problem were inadequate[4].


There were several incidents involving the abuse of specific religious groups carried out by individuals or organizations designated as terrorist organizations by the Secretary of State under Section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act.[5]


Although there were few Jewish citizens in the country, anti-Semitic sentiments appeared to be widespread, and the press commonly published anti-Semitic and anti-Zionist press articles[6].


However, some members of the Pakistani Muttahida Majlis-i-Amal (a coalition of Islamistparties), despite calls for further Islamization of Pakistan, made efforts to eliminate its rhetoric against Christians, Sikhs, Hindus, Buddhists, and Parsis, and under government pressure, many of its leaders joined various interfaith efforts to promote religious tolerance.


The Pakistani government has taken further steps to bolster religious freedom.


Bangladeshi nationalism

Bangladesh is home to more than 120 million Muslims. It is the third-largest Muslim community in the world. Originally the Eastern wing of Pakistan, it gained independence in 1971 following a bloody civil war that claimed the lives of many people. Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ...


The founding of Bangladesh is open to controversy. While many Indian analysts see it as proof positive of the failure of the two-nation concept as purported by Mohammad Ali Jinnah, its formation is more due to socio-economics and political feudalism than a strong desire by the members of the state to step away from the idea of a Muslim homeland.


After the founding of Pakistan, the dominant political parties within the Western block were controlled by Urdu-speaking Indian migrants (especially those from Aligarh), who were seen as the leaders of Muslims in British India and (right or wrong) the "champions" of Pakistan. Because of their fluency in the lingua franca of Muslim South Asia, Urdu, and desire to transplant the tried-and-true institutions of the old Indian state to newly-created Pakistan, Urdu became the National language. This caused great concern among native Western and Eastern Pakistanis, the majority of whom spoke languages such as Bengali, Punjabi, Kashmiri, Pashto, and Gujarati rather than Urdu. On the other hand, due to its neutrality, it was seen as the perfect language to build the nation-state upon.


Unfortunately, Urdu itself came under attack, to the chagrin of some prominent Bengalis who spoke it and believed in it as a means of bridging the many gaps throughout the newly-created Pakistan. Some Technocrats and Elitists saw Urdu as a means by which to retain power, keeping non-speakers out, alienating most Bengalis. This, along with the economic disparity between West and East Pakistan that saw massive transfers of capital from the West to the East, created a situation where Bengalis felt increasingly isolated and unable to participate in the new nation-state. Few West Pakistanis saw this and continued to participate in both sides of the country (many Memons and Gujaratis were living and building businesses in East Pakistan). This led to the creation of Bengali political parties that espoused greater regional autonomy and recognition of Bengali as a second National Language. This was ironic given that English, not Urdu, was the primary language of the State, and most analysts at that time were hard-pressed to believe that would change.


Following a stunning victory whereby Bengali parties captured the majority of the seats in the elections of 1970, the elite enclaves of Western Pakistani Muslims, primarily residing in Karachi and Lahore at that time, feared ethnic domination and sectarianism. With the rise of ethnic politics, it would be very easy for other ethnicities to feel threatened, and besides, they argued, it would be counter-intuitive to the idea of one Muslim state where ethnicity is irrelevant and greater importance should be placed on the common heritage of Islam.


The Western Pakistani response was bloodthirsty, killing hundreds of innocent Bengalis and few Indian terrorists in an effort to suppress who they deemed were insurgents. In the end, Bangladesh was created and millions of residents of the former West and East wings were displaced. Most non-Bengalis, fearing persecution, attempted to flee to Western Pakistan. A significant number of Biharis, who identify with Pakistan, continue to live in Bangladesh with no status and no recognition from the Bangladeshi government, while a strong number of Bengalis continue to live in Pakistan and are mostly integrated into the fabric of a culturally diverse Pakistan.


Today, following an initial brutal secular dictatorship run by the original "fathers for freedom," Bangladesh is a more economically diverse state with good relations with Pakistan. It has reverted from its ethnocetric apparatus in the 1970s and has slowly progressed to become an Islamic Republic in-line with Pakistan. One where the majority of the people are in-favor of Shariah and want to see a sincere effort to abide by it within strong institutions. This has been driven partially by the rise of an educated religious class that is highly professional, and believes in the original ideals for Pakistan without having to give up their own sovereignty to attain it. Bangladesh has also produced some of the best economists in the world, and has made a strong comeback, though it has not fully recovered from the brutal slayings of its scientists and intellectuals.


The current Prime Minister, Khaleda Zia, has even made overtures to India in an attempt to increase trade, achieve peace and a speedy resolution to the region's outstanding disputes, particularly Kashmir, which has been the catalyst for an escalating arm's race within the region. However, it largely remains uninvolved and this has allowed it to focus on human development which has won it recognition around the world. There is however continued fear in Bangladesh that the rise of Sheikh Hasina's Awami League, a product of the secular dictatorship of the 1970s would reverse much of the progress the country has made in improving relations with Pakistan, and rather invite greater Indian involvement in running state affairs akin to Nepal and Bhutan. This would likely also impact the State's ability to retain its moderate Islamic composition.


Discrimination against non-Muslims in Bangladesh

As of 2004, the Bangladeshi government's human rights record has been reprted as poor by the United States Department of State[7], and the government continued to commit numerous serious abuses, some on the Hindu and Christian minorities.[8]


Reports of BNP harassment of Hindus, who traditionally vote for the AL, preceded and followed the 2001 election. Reported incidents included killings, rape, looting, and torture. The BNP acknowledged reports of atrocities committed between Muslims and Hindus; but claimed that they were exaggerated[9]


During 2004 the Bangladeshi government did not take any measures to implement the 2001 Vested Property Act providing for property restitution to (mostly) Hindus who had their property seized by the government after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 under the Vested Property Act. The government did not publish a list of vested property under its control and as a result, the original land owners cannot reclaim their entitled property.As in previous years the government failed to prepare a list of property that was expropriated by the government from Hindus following the 1965 India-Pakistan War.[10] The Vested Property Act is a controversial law in Bangladesh. ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Gen J N Chaudhuri, Lt Gen Harbakhsh Singh Field Marshal Ayub Khan, Gen Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800[2] - 6,917 killed[3] (17 day period alone) 4,000 - 7,000 killed/ captured[4...


Discrimination against Ahmadiyas, Hindus, and Christians occurred during the year. On June 22, unknown actors set ablaze an Ahmadiya mosque in Nator, and two days later, unknown actors detonated several bombs at an Ahmadiya mosque in Brahmanbaria, and four bombs at an Ahmadiya mosque in Bhadugarh in the Branmanbaria area. At year's end eight persons were arrested in connection with the attacks.


On July 28, unknown assailants in Faridpur district killed two employees of the NGO Christian Life Bangladesh, allegedly because they showed an evangelical film. Police arrested several suspects for the killing, but at year's end police released all suspects and no charges were filed.


In January 2004 according to press reports, armed attackers led by a local BNP leader set on fire 20 houses belonging to Hindus, injuring 30 persons. Victims alleged that the attack originated over a pending property dispute.[11]


n September 2004 unidentified assailants killed Dr. Joseph Gomes, a Christian convert, near his home in Jamalpur district. Police arrested a local madrasah teacher, Maulana Abdus Sobhan Munshi for the killing, held him for two weeks, and released him. At year's end no one else was charged for the crime.


While there is no known local Jewish community, anti-Semitic commentary sometimes appeared in the press.


The Government has taken some steps to promote interfaith understanding. The Government promoted the peaceful celebration of Durga Purja, a major Hindu holiday in October 2004, and supported peaceful activities during Ramadan and before Eid Al-Azha.[12]


Muslim nationalism in India

India has a population of over 120 million Muslims spread across many states including Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Kerala, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. It is the second-largest home to Muslims after Indonesia and the second-largest home to Shia Muslims (after Iran and before Pakistan). Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ...


Since partition, there has been a great deal of conflict within the various Muslim communities as to how to best function within the complex political and cultural mosaic that defines Indian politics in India today. Due to scare tactics by secular fundamentalist parties invoking an image of militant Hinduism, many Muslims ally themselves with Congress and other left-wing parties in the hopes of securing rights and privileges within the nation-state. This approach, driven primarily by the elite and educated classes is driven both by an alienation from "Islamic" Pakistan and realism. On the other hand it has estranged less privileged Indian Muslims who identify more with religious Hindus and believe that the Indian state has an obligation to enforce universal religious sensitivities. Despite this, many common Muslims will vote and identify with Congress for welfare support and a rejection of militant Hinduism. The recent economic policies of the left-wing coalition within the Indian Parliament has challenged this, and governmental overtures to attract right-wing Hindus has played a role in increasing support for the BJP, especially in the Southern states.


All in all, Muslim perseverance in sustaining their continued advancement along with Government efforts to focus on Pakistan as the primary problem for Indian Muslims in achieving true minority rights has created a sometimes extreme support for Indian nationalism,giving the Indian State much-needed credibility in projecting a strong secular image throughout the rest of the world.


The creation of Pakistan has created a deep identity crisis for Muslim Indian. Hindus in India bitterly resent the fact that their motherland was divided by Muslims to gain their own land. This bitterness more often then not turns against Indian Muslims. Thus Muslim Indians although patriotic, resent their patriotism being questioned.Recent terrorist attacks have been the Mumbai Bomb Blast, Varanasi Temple bombing, Delhi Bomb Blasts , Akshardham Temple attack. These attacks place the Muslim Indian community in an awkward situation as the attacks occur due to some local support. Due to the misguided action of some Muslims, the entire community gets a black name. Map showing the Western line and blast locations. ... VārāṇasÄ«   (HindÄ«: वाराणसी, UrdÅ«: وارانسی, IPA: ), also known as Benares, Banaras, or Benaras (HindÄ«: बनारस, UrdÅ«: بنارس, ; IPA: ), or Kashi or Kasi (काशी کاشی ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... A reference to Akshardham may be alluding to any of the following: Akshardham (Philosophy): the beliefs of the Swaminarayan sect, a Hindu denomination of relatively recent origin. ...


Moreover, majority of Muslims live in poverty. Thus they are breeding ground for inciting anger against the majority Hindu community.


But in the recent past, many modern educated muslims have come forward and denounced the brand of Islam taught in the madrasas, and reaffirmed their patriotism. Also, Muslims are present in all the major fields. The Indian film industry popularly known as Bollywood has many popular Muslim stars. The Indian cricket team, has its share of Muslim players who play with zeal and patriotism as any other players. The players have performed with distinction especially in matches against Pakistan.


Given this situation, the intermediate economic state of the Muslims in India has created a transitory composition of its population. Tens of thousands of Bangladeshis migrate to India each year, and while India also bans immigration INTO India (owing to its own overpopulation), this has set the tone for relatively hostile relations between the two countries, and has a profound impact on Muslim Nationalism


South Asian Muslim leaders

Reformers


Syed Ahmed Khan, Maulana Mohammad Ali, Maulana Shaukat Ali Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Bahadur, GCSI (Urdu: سید احمد خان بہا در; October 17, 1817 – March 27, 1898), commonly known as Sir Syed, was an Indian educator and politician who pioneered modern education for the Muslim community in India by founding the Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College, which later developed into the Aligarh Muslim University. ... Note : Do not confuse with Ahmadi Maulana Muhammad Ali , Muhammad Ali ,the Muslim boxer or any other people named Muhammad Ali : Muhammad Ali (disambiguation) Muhammad Ali Jouhar Maulana Mohammad Ali (1878 - 1931), also addressed with the suffix Jauhar, which was his pen name, was an Indian Muslim nationalist and leader... Maulana Shaukat Ali (Born in 1873) is an Indian nationalist Muslim and freedom fighter. ...


Freedom Fighters(primarily against the British)


Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari, Maulana Azad, Saifuddin Kitchlew, Hakim Ajmal Khan, Abbas Tyabji Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari was an Indian nationalist and political leader, and former president of the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League during the Indian Independence Movement. ... Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (1888 - August 1958) was a freedom fighter in Indias struggle for Independence from Britain. ... Dr Saifuddin Kitchlew was an Indian freedom fighter and a Muslim Indian nationalist leader. ... Dr Hakim Ajmal Khan was an Indian freedom fighter, a Muslim doctor and educationalist. ... Abbas Tyabji was an Indian freedom fighter from Gujarat, who was a key ally and supporter of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel during the 1918 Kheda Satyagraha, and the 1928 Bardoli Satyagraha. ...


Pakistan Movement


Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Liaquat Ali Khan, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, A.K. Fazlul Huq Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu: محمد على جناح)  (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. ... Liaquat Ali Khan Liaquat Ali Khan Nawabzaada Khan Liaquat Ali Khan (October 1, 1896 – October 16, 1951) was the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. ... Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy (September 8, 1892 - December 5, 1963) was a politician from Bengal in undivided India, and later in East Pakistan, who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1956 until 1957. ... Sher-e-Bangla Abul Kashem Fazlul Huq (born 26 October 1873-died 27 April 1962) was a famous Bengali statesman in the first half of the 20th century. ...


See also

  • Arrow of a Blue-Skinned God by Jonah Blank
  • Patel: A Life by Rajmohan Gandhi
  • India and Pakistan in War and Peace by J.N. Dixit

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