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Encyclopedia > Indian Massacre of 1622
Indian massacre of 1622, depicted as a woodcut by Theodore de Bry
Indian massacre of 1622, depicted as a woodcut by Theodore de Bry

The Indian massacre of 1622 (also known as the Jamestown massacre) occurred in the Virginia Colony on March 22, 1622. Jamestown was the site of the first successful English settlement in North America in 1607, and was the capital of the Colony of Virginia, the most important British settlement in New World at the time. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (810x576, 346 KB) Summary From: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (810x576, 346 KB) Summary From: http://www. ... The 1609 charter for the Virginia colony from sea to sea The Virginia Colony refers to the English colony in North America that existed during the 17th and 18th centuries before the American Revolution. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (82nd in Leap years). ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq. ...


Although Jamestown itself was spared due to a timely last-minute warning, many smaller settlements had been established along the James River both upstream and downstream from it and were attacked without warning. Henricus was one of the most progressive of the smaller communities which bore the brunt of the coordinated attacks and many were abandoned in the aftermath. One of the highest death tolls occured at Wolstenholme Towne, the site of a recent archeological dig which was 7 miles downriver from Jamestown at Martin's Hundred, now part of Carter's Grove Plantation. The James River at Cartersville The James River in the U.S. state of Virginia is 547. ... The Citie of Henricus was a city founded by Sir Thomas Dale in 1611 as an alternative to the swampy and dangerous area around Jamestown Settlement, Virginia. ... Wolstenholme Towne was a fortified settlement in the Virginia Colony with a population of about 40 settlers of the Virginia Company of London which was located about 9 miles downstream from Jamestown. ... Martins Hundred was an early 17th century plantation located along about ten miles of the north shore of the James River in the Virginia Colony east of Jamestown in present-day James City County, Virginia. ... Carters Grove circa 2000 Carters Grove is currently a 750 acre Virginia plantation on the James River in the Grove Community of southeastern James City County. ...

Contents


Background

After the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609-1613), the marriage of Chief Powhatan's youngest daughter Pocahontas and colonist John Rolfe in 1614 began a period of more peaceful relations between the Englsih colonists and the Native Americans of the "Indian" Powhatan Confederacy. In 1618, after the death of Wahunsonacock, better known as the original Chief Powhatan, his half-brother Opechancanough became leader of the Powhatans. Opechancanough did not feel that peaceful relations with the colonists could be maintained. Having recovered from the defeat of his earlier command of the Pamunkey warriors at the end of the First Anglo-Powhatan War, he planned the destruction of the English settlers. In the spring of 1622, after the "murder" of his adviser, Nemattanew, by an Englishman, Opechancanough launched a campaign of surprise attacks upon at least thirty-one separate British settlements and plantations mostly along the James River. The War between 1609 - 1613 the English and Indians in Jamestown was called the First Anglo-Powhatan War. ... Chief Powhatan (detail of map published by John Smith (1612) Chief Powhatan (c. ... A 1616 engraving of Pocahontas by Simon van de Passe, the only portrait of Pocahontas made within her lifetime. ... John Rolfe (c. ... This article is the current U.S. Collaboration of the Week. ... The Powhatan (also spelled Powatan and Powhaten) were a very powerful tribe of Native Americans, speaking an Algonquian language, who lived in what is now Virginia at the time of the first European-Native encounters. ... The Powhatan (also spelled Powatan and Powhaten) were a very powerful tribe of Native Americans, speaking an Algonquian language, who lived in what is now Virginia at the time of the first European-Native encounters. ... Opechancanough or Opchanacanough was a chief of the Powhatan tribe, becoming chief after his older brother, Wahunsonacock, died. ... The Pamunkey Tribe has been in existence for around ten to twelve thousand years, since the Ice Age. ... The James River at Cartersville The James River in the U.S. state of Virginia is 547. ...


Jamestown forewarned

Jamestown, the capital and primary settlement of the colony, was saved when an Indian boy named Chanco, who was due to slay his employer, Richard Pace, woke Pace during the night and warned him of the imminent attack. Pace, who lived across the James River from Jamestown, secured his family and then rowed across the river to Jamestown in an attempt to warn the rest of the settlement. As a result, some preparations could be made for the attack in Jamestown. Outlying settlements, however, had no forewarning. Jamestown was established in 1607, on the James River in Virginia, in what is currently James City County, about 45 miles (70 kilometers) southeast of where Richmond, Virginia, is now located. ... Chanco or Chauco was an American Indian emissary between Opechancanough, chief of the Pamunkeys tribe, to and from Jamestown, Virginia. ...


Destruction of other settlements

During the one-day surprise attack, many of the smaller communities, which were essentially outposts of Jamestown, were attacked, including Henricus and its fledgling college for Native American children and those of colonists. At Martin's Hundred, over half the population was killed at its principal development of Wolstenholme Towne, where only two houses and a part of a church were left standing. In all, about four hundred colonists (a third of the white population) were killed and around twenty women captured, taken to serve as virtual slaves to the Indians until their death or ransom years later. The Citie of Henricus was a city founded by Sir Thomas Dale in 1611 as an alternative to the swampy and dangerous area around Jamestown Settlement, Virginia. ... Martins Hundred was an early 17th century plantation located along about ten miles of the north shore of the James River in the Virginia Colony east of Jamestown in present-day James City County, Virginia. ... Wolstenholme Towne was a fortified settlement in the Virginia Colony with a population of about 40 settlers of the Virginia Company of London which was located about 9 miles downstream from Jamestown. ...


Aftermath

The cultural differences were such that the Powhatans ended hostilities and waited in the days and months after the day of the attacks, apparently in the belief that the colonists would accept the losses as a signal that the Powhatans were more powerful and were to be respected and conflicts avoided. However, this proved to be a serious lack of understanding of the mindset of the English colonists.


Many of the colonists who witnessed and survived the attacks thereafter despised all Indians and vowed revenge. Their retaliatory raids on the tribes and particularly on the Indians' corn crops in the summer and fall of 1622 were so successful that Opechancanough decided in desperation to negotiate with the colonists. Through friendly Indian intermediaries, a peace parlay was finally made between the two groups, but some of the Jamestown leaders, led by Captain William Tucker, poisoned the Indians' share of the liquor for the parlay's ceremonial toast. The poison killed about two hundred Indians and another fifty were then killed by hand. However, Chief Opechancanough escaped. William Tucker was a guitarist whose credits included work with Ministry, Chemlab, and Chris Connelly. ...


Virginia became a royal colony of England two years later in 1624. The change meant that the English crown had direct authority over the colony instead of through the Virginia Company of London. The main result was that Royal favorites could now profit from the colonies instead of the members of the Virginia Company. As in most Colonies, the colonists there continued to be exploited for the personal profit of those few in charge, and the interests of the Powhatans were even less considered. Expansion into Indian land and breach of agreements continued to be the general relationship, leading to an increasing level of frustration amongst the tribes. A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population –mid-2004... Events January 24 - Alfonso Mendez, appointed by Pope Gregory XV as Prelate of Ethiopia, arrives at Massawa from Goa. ... Virginia Company of London Seal The London Company (also called the Virginia Company of London) was an English joint stock company established by royal charter by James I on April 10, 1606 with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America. ...


The next major uprising of the Powhatan Confederacy would occur in 1644 when around five hundred English colonists would perish. By then, this loss represented less than ten percent of the population, and had far lesser impact upon the colonists. This time, Opechancanough who was quite old and had to be transported by litter, was captured. Imprisoned at Jamestown, he was murdered by one of colonists appointed to guard him.


The death of Opechancanough clearly marked the beginning of the continual and increasingly precipitous decline of the once powerful Powhatan Confederacy, whose members were eventually left to either leave the area entirely, gradually intermix their residential communities with the colonists, or live on one of the few reservations established in Virginia, although even these were subject to incursion and seizure of land by the ever expanding white population. The Powhatan (also spelled Powatan and Powhaten) were a very powerful tribe of Native Americans, speaking an Algonquian language, who lived in what is now Virginia at the time of the first European-Native encounters. ...


In modern times, only seven tribes of the original Powhatan Confederacy are recognized in the Commonwealth of Virginia. The two longstanding reservations are those of the Pamunkey and Mattaponi, both located between the rivers of the same name within (but technically independent of) King William County. King William County is a county located on the Middle Peninsula in the state of Virginia. ...


References

  • Steve Rajtar, Indian War Sites, McFarland and Company, Inc., 1999.

Further reading

  • David A. Price, Love and Hate in Jamestown: John Smith, Pocahontas, and the Start of A New Nation, Alfred A. Knopf, 2003, chapter 14

See also


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Indian massacre of 1622 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1103 words)
Indian massacre of 1622, depicted as a woodcut by Theodore de Bry
The Indian massacre of 1622 (also known as the Jamestown massacre) occurred in the Virginia Colony on March 22, 1622.
In the spring of 1622, after the murder of his adviser, Nemattanew, by an Englishman, Opechancanough launched a campaign of surprise attacks upon at least thirty-one separate British settlements and plantations mostly along the James River.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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