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Encyclopedia > Indian Independence
This article is about the History of South Asia. The territory of South Asia has been the home of many civilizations both ancient and modern. It is one of the cradles of civilization and one of the longest continuous civilizations in the world. Pre historic civilizations The ancient village of... History of South Asia
The Indus Valley Civilization existed along the Indus River and the Vedic Sarasvati River in present-day Pakistan. The Mohenjo-daro ruins pictured above were once the center of this ancient society. The Indus Valley Civilization, 2800 BC–1800 BC, was an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus River... Indus Valley Civilization
Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Vedic civilization is the earliest civilization in Indian history of which we have written records that we understand. It is named after the Vedas, the earliest Hindu texts. The Vedic texts have astronomical dates that some have claimed go back to the 5th... Vedic civilization
Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India in the 6th century BC through the 6th century AD. Kingdoms and Empires From their original settlements in the Punjab region, the Aryans gradually began to penetrate eastward, clearing dense forests and establishing tribal settlements along the Ganga and... Middle kingdoms
During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in India. The rise of Islam in South Asia The initial entry of Islam into South Asia came in the first century after the death of the Prophet Muhammad. The Umayyad caliph in Damascus sent an expedition to Balochistan and Sindh... Islamic empires
The Mughal empire Main article: Mughal empire India in the 16th century presented a fragmented picture of rulers, both Muslim and Hindu, who lacked concern for their subjects and who failed to create a common body of laws or institutions. Outside developments also played a role in shaping events. The... Mughal era
Company Rule, 1757-1857 Expansion and territory It was not until the middle of the 19th century that almost all of the territory that now constitutes Bangladesh, India and Pakistan came under the rule of the British East India Company. The patterns of territorial acquisition and rule as applied by... Company rule
The British Raj is an informal term for the period of British colonial rule of most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka (previously known as Ceylon). It lasted from 1858, when the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the... British Raj
Independence
Prehistory The prehistory of India goes back to the old Stone age (Palaeolithic). While India lies at the eastern limit of the hand axe distribution, there are numerous Acheulean findspots. Hathnora, in the Narmada Valley has produced hominid remains of middle Pleistocene date. Recent finds include a middle palaeolithic quarry... History of India
Pakistan, along with India, was one of two states created out of the territory of British colonial India in 1947. In 1971, East Pakistan became independent as Bangladesh. Ancient South Asia Main article: History of South Asia The territory of present-day Pakistan has been the home of many civilizations... History of Pakistan
This article or section should include material from East Pakistan This is the history of Bangladesh. See also the history of South Asia, history of Asia, and history of present-day nations and states. The area which is now Bangladesh has a rich historical and cultural past, combining Dravidian, Indo... History of Bangladesh

The Indian independence movement was a series of steps taken in the The Indian subcontinent is the peninsular region of larger South Asia in which the nations of India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka as well as parts of Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and some disputed territory currently controlled by China are located. It is also known as the Indian Subcontinent and, primarily in... Indian subcontinent for independence from The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. The British Empire was the worlds first global power; by 1921, it held sway over a population of 400–500 million people — roughly a quarter of the worlds population... British colonial rule, beginning with the An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from the British perspective. 1857–1858 was a period of armed uprising and rebellions in northern and central India against British colonial rule on the subcontinent. The war... Rebellion of 1857. The term 'Indian independence movement' is fairly diffuse, since it involves several different movements with similar objectives. The mainstream movement was led by the The Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party) is the largest subscription-based organisation in the world. It is also the largest democratic political organisation in the world; the oldest surviving political organisation in India. In the 14th Lok Sabha (2004-2009), it is the single largest party... Indian National Congress, which followed non-violent agitation and Civil disobedience encompasses the active refusal to obey certain laws, demands and commands of a government or of an occupying power without resorting to physical violence. Civil disobedience has been used in struggles in India in the fight against British colonialism, South Africa in the fight against apartheid and civil... civil disobedience under Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to... Mahatma Gandhi, among others. Other leaders, notably Netaji poster in Thiruvananthapuram Subhas Chandra Bose (January 23, 1897 - August 18, 1945) also known as Netaji, was a Orissa born and Bengal based Indian leader of the movement to win independence from British rule. Bose helped organize and later lead the Indian National Army put together with Indian prisoners... Subhash Chandra Bose, also adopted a military approach to the movement. The movement culminated in the independence of the subcontinent from the British Empire and the formation of The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. India has grown significantly, both in population and in strategic importance in the last two decades. The Indian economy is... India and The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (پاکستان in Urdu), or Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia. Pakistan borders India, Iran, Afghanistan, China and the Arabian Sea. With over 150 million inhabitants it is the sixth most populous country in the world. It also... Pakistan in August is the eighth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. August begins (astrologically) with the sun in the sign of Leo and ends in the sign of Virgo. Astronomically speaking, the sun begins in the constellation... August 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 1 - British mines nationalized January 1 - Nigeria gains limited autonomy January 1 - The Canadian Citizenship Act went into effect January 3 - Proceedings of the U.S. Congress are televised for the first time... 1947.


The independence movement also served as a major catalyst for similar movements in other parts of the world, leading to the dismantling of the British Empire and its replacement with the Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of independent sovereign states, most of which were once governed by the United Kingdom and are its former colonies. It was formerly known as the British Commonwealth (or British Commonwealth of Nations), and many still call... Commonwealth of Nations.

Contents

The beginnings of the British empire

An action shot of Vasco da Gama on a boat, with a flag. Vasco de Gamma standing in prow of rowboat This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend...
An action shot of Vasco da Gama on a boat, with a flag. Vasco de Gamma standing in prow of rowboat This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend... Enlarge
Vasco da Gama on board a boat

Main articles: European colonies in India were set up by several European nations beginning at the end of the 15th century. In 1498, the Portuguese set foot in Goa. Rivalry between reigning European powers saw the entry of the Dutch, British and French among others. The fractured debilitated kingdoms of India were... European colonies in India, The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was a joint-stock company of investors, which was granted a Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intent to favor trade privileges in India. The Royal Charter effectively gave the newly created British East... British East India Company


European traders came to The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. India has grown significantly, both in population and in strategic importance in the last two decades. The Indian economy is... Indian shores with the arrival of See Clube de Regatas Vasco da Gama for the football club. Vasco da Gama Vasco da Gama (1469?-December 24, 1524), was a Portuguese explorer who was the first person to sail from Europe to Malabar, India. From the early 15th century, the nautical school of Henry the Navigator had... Vasco da Gama in Events Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama visits Quelimane and Moçambique in southeastern Africa. May 20 - Vasco da Gama arrives at Calicut (now Kozhikode), India, becoming the first European to get there by sailing around Africa. May 23 - Girolamo Savonarola, ruler of Florence, is executed for criticizing the Pope. July... 1498 at the port of Kozhikode, also known as Calicut, is the third largest city (pop. 801,190:1991) in the southern state of Kerala, India and was a part of the erstwhile Malabar District. This city is famous as the place where Vasco da Gama landed in 1498. He landed in the remote beach... Calicut, Kerala (or Keralam, കേരളം) is a state in South India. It is known for being the most literate state in India, with a literacy rate greater than 90%. It is also the only state in India with a sex ratio of more than 990 females/1000... Kerala in search of External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything)...Top 30 Spices with Antimicrobial Properties... May 22... spice trade. The The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was a joint-stock company of investors, which was granted a Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intent to favor trade privileges in India. The Royal Charter effectively gave the newly created British East... British East India Company was established in Events January January 1 - Scotland adopts January 1st as being New Years Day February February 17 - Giordano Bruno burned in a stake for heresy July July 2 - Battle of Nieuwpoort: Dutch forces under Maurice of Nassau defeat Spanish forces under Archduke Albert in a battle on the coastal dunes... 1600. In Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. June 4 - Forces under the shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu took Osaka Castle in Japan. The second volume of Miguel Cervantes Don Quixote is published. End of the Sengoku Period in Japan. Births January 30 - Thomas Rolfe March... 1615, Sir Thomas Roe (or Row) (c. 1581 - November 6, 1644) was an English diplomat of the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods. The son of Robert Rowe, and of Elinor, daughter of Robert Jermy of Worstead in Norfolk, he was born at Low Leyton near Wanstead in Essex, and at the age... Sir Thomas Roe was instructed by James VI and I King of England, Scotland and Ireland James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. He... King James I to visit the The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. It was largely conquered by Sher Shah during the time of... Mughal Emperor Nuruddin Jahangir (August 31, 1569 - October 28, 1627) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1605 until 1627. He signed a treaty with the British East India Company promising their merchants preferential treatment, opening India to Britain for the first time. He is also the person known to history... Jahangir to arrange a commercial treaty which would give the Company exclusive rights to reside and build factories in Surat is a port city in the Indian state of Gujarat. As of 1999, Surat and its metropolitan area had a population of approximately 3.5 million. The city is situated on the left bank of the Tapi River, 14 miles from its mouth. A moat indicates the dividing-line... Surat and other areas. This mission was highly successful and Jahangir sent a letter to the King through Sir Thomas. He wrote:

"Upon which assurance of your royal love I have given my general command to all the kingdoms and ports of my dominions to receive all the merchants of the English nation as the subjects of my friend; that in what place soever they choose to live, they may have free liberty without any restraint; and at what port soever they shall arrive, that neither Portugal nor any other shall dare to molest their quiet; and in what city soever they shall have residence, I have commanded all my governors and captains to give them freedom answerable to their own desires; to sell, buy, and to transport into their country at their pleasure.
For confirmation of our love and friendship, I desire your Majesty to command your merchants to bring in their ships of all sorts of rarities and rich goods fit for my palace; and that you be pleased to send me your royal letters by every opportunity, that I may rejoice in your health and prosperous affairs; that our friendship may be interchanged and eternal. (Full text and the source can be found here (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/india/1617englandindies.html)).

The Europeans fought on Indian soil to capture a major portion of the trade. Soon, they began maintaining regular armies to protect their warehouses, factories, and shipments. The A sepoy (from Persian سپاهی Sipâhi meaning soldier) was a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power, usually of the United Kingdom. Specifically, it was the term used in the British Indian Army for an infantry private (a... sepoys (soldiers) of the British army were usually British-trained Indians. Eventually, local rulers used the services of the British army to settle scores with their enemies.


The establishment of the Company's rule

Clive This work is copyrighted. The individual who uploaded this work and first used it in an article, and subsequent persons who place it into articles assert that this qualifies as fair use of the material under United States copyright law. Taken from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is...
Clive This work is copyrighted. The individual who uploaded this work and first used it in an article, and subsequent persons who place it into articles assert that this qualifies as fair use of the material under United States copyright law. Taken from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is... Enlarge
Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive

Main Articles: The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was a joint-stock company of investors, which was granted a Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intent to favor trade privileges in India. The Royal Charter effectively gave the newly created British East... British East India Company, Company Rule, 1757-1857 Expansion and territory It was not until the middle of the 19th century that almost all of the territory that now constitutes Bangladesh, India and Pakistan came under the rule of the British East India Company. The patterns of territorial acquisition and rule as applied by... Company rule in India


The British East India Company established itself after the The Battle of Plassey was a battle that took place in June 1757, at Plassey (pronounced Palashee, in Bengali ), a small village between Calcutta and Murshidabad. It was a battle between the forces of the British East India Company and of Siraj Ud Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal... Battle of Plassey, fought in Events March 14 - On-board the HMS Monarch, Admiral John Byng is executed by firing squad for neglecting his duty. June 23 - Indian Mutiny: Battle of Plassey - 3000 British troops under Robert Clive defeat a 50,000 strong Indian army under Siraj-ud-Dawlah at Plassey. Change of emperor of... 1757 against the A Nawab was originally the provincial governor or viceroy of a province or region of the Mughal empire. The term is derived from the Arabic naib, meaning deputy. In some areas, especially Bengal, the term was pronounced Nabob. (The last variation has entered the English language. See below.) Most of... Nawab of For the breed of cat, see Bengal cat; for the tiger, see Bengal Tiger; for the American football franchise , see Cincinnati Bengals Bengal (Banga, Bangla, Bangadesh, or Bangladesh in Bengali) comprises a region in the northeast of the Indian subcontinent, today divided between the independent country of Bangladesh and the... Bengal, Siraj-ud-daulah. The British army, under Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive Another Robert Clive was formerly British ambassador to Japan. See Robert Clive (diplomat). Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey (September 29, 1725 - November 22, 1774) was the statesman and general who established the empire of British India. Early Life Robert Clive was born at... Robert Clive, defeated the army of the Nawab in a few hours. This battle is widely seen as the beginning of the The British Raj is an informal term for the period of British colonial rule of most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka (previously known as Ceylon). It lasted from 1858, when the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the... British Raj in India.


In Events March 9 - Judges in Paris find Jean Calas innocent, (after having been tortured and executed in 1762) of murdering his son, Marc-Antoine, who had committed suicide), mainly because Voltaire wrote a series of articles calling for the case to be re-opened. March 22 - The British Parliament passes... 1765, Clive defeated The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. It was largely conquered by Sher Shah during the time of... Mughal forces in the Battle of Buxar. After this, the Mughal emperor The mosque in Shah Alam. Shah Alam (population 120,000) is a city in Malaysia, about 20 km west of the countrys capital, Kuala Lumpur. In 1978, it replaced Kuala Lumpur as the capital city of the state of Selangor due to Kuala Lumpurs incorporation into a Federal... Shah Alam conferred to the company administrative rights over For the breed of cat, see Bengal cat; for the tiger, see Bengal Tiger; for the American football franchise , see Cincinnati Bengals Bengal (Banga, Bangla, Bangadesh, or Bangladesh in Bengali) comprises a region in the northeast of the Indian subcontinent, today divided between the independent country of Bangladesh and the... Bengal, For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). Bihar (बिहार) is a India. Its capital is Patna. It is bordered on the north by the Kingdom of Nepal, on the west by Uttar Pradesh, south by Jharkhand, and the east by West Bengal. Bihar lies in the very... Bihar, and Orissa (ଓଡ଼ିଶା) is a state situated in the east coast of India. Orissa is bounded on the north by Bihar, on the north-east by West Bengal, on the east by the Bay of Bengal, on the south by Andhra Pradesh and on the west... Orissa, a region of roughly 25 million people with an annual revenue of 40 million The Rupee (₨ or Rs.) is the common name for the currencies used in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Mauritius; in Indonesia the unit of currency is known as the rupiah and in the Maldives the rufiyah. An Indian rupee is equivalent to one hundred new paise or pice... Rupees. Clive became the first British governor of Bengal.


The British parliament enacted a series of laws to handle the administration of the newly conquered provinces. The Regulating Act of Events January 12 - The first American museum open to the public is opened in (Charleston, South Carolina). January 17 - Captain James Cook becomes the first European explorer to cross the Antarctic Circle April 27 or May 10 - The British Parliament passes the Tea Act, designed to save the British East... 1773 curbed the company traders' unrestrained commercial activities, and gave the British government supervisory rights over the For the breed of cat, see Bengal cat; for the tiger, see Bengal Tiger; for the American football franchise , see Cincinnati Bengals Bengal (Banga, Bangla, Bangadesh, or Bangladesh in Bengali) comprises a region in the northeast of the Indian subcontinent, today divided between the independent country of Bangladesh and the... Bengal, This article or section should be merged with Mumbai (Bombay) This article is about the city formerly known as Bombay. For other uses of this word, see Bombay (disambiguation) Mumbai (renamed from Bombay in 1995) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in... Bombay, and Chennai (சென்னை in Tamil), formerly known as Madras, is a city on the east coast of southern India. Situated on the shores of the Bay of Bengal, this capital of the state of Tamil Nadu is Indias fourth largest metropolitan city and one of... Madras presidencies. The India Act of Events January 6 - the Turks agree to Russias annexation of the Crimea in the Treaty of Constantinople January 14 - The US Congress ratifies the Treaty of Paris with England to end the American Revolutionary War February 27 – Count of St Germain dies of pneumonia in Schleswig-Holstein February... 1784 enhanced parliament's control by establishing the Board of Control, whose members were selected from the cabinet. The Charter Act of 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). Events March 17 - Through a newspaper, the Prussian king Frederick William III of Prussia calls for resistance against the Napoleonic occupation April 27 - War of 1812: Battle of York - United States troops raid, destroy, but do... 1813 introduced laws that evolved into future social legislation. The Governor-General of Bengal was elevated to the position of The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William. The officer had direct control only over Fort William, but supervised... Governor-General of India.


In 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). Events January 1 – Ole Pedersen Hoiland breaks into the Bank of Norway and steals 64.000 dalers January 7 - HMS Beagle anchors off the Chonos Archipelago. January 30 - Unsuccessful assassination attempt against President Andrew Jackson in the... 1835, William Cavendish Bentinck, the Governor-General from Events January 4 - The Vicomte de Martignac succeeds the Comte de Villèle as Prime Minister of France. January 22 - The Duke of Wellington succeeds Lord Goderich as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He repeals the Test Act, Catholics, and introduces the Roman Catholic Relief Act the following year... 1828 to 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). Events January 1 – Ole Pedersen Hoiland breaks into the Bank of Norway and steals 64.000 dalers January 7 - HMS Beagle anchors off the Chonos Archipelago. January 30 - Unsuccessful assassination attempt against President Andrew Jackson in the... 1835, introduced the The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. It is the third most common first language (native speakers), with around 402 million people in 2002. English has lingua franca status in many parts of the world, due to the military, economic, scientific, political and cultural influence... English language as the medium of instruction. Western-educated Hindu elites sought to rid This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). Aum, the most sacred syllable and quintessential symbol of Hinduism, represents the first manifestation of the unmanifest Brahman. Hinduism (सनातन धर्म; commonly called Sanātana Dharma... Hinduism of its much criticized social practices: the The word Caste is derived from the Portuguese word casta, meaning lineage, breed or race. The term caste, when used in human culture, is usually in conjunction with the social division in Hindu society, particularly in India. This term is also used in entomology to describe social insects species who... caste system, child marriage, and For sati in Buddhism, see mindfulness. In Hinduism, Satī, also called Dakshayani, is one of the daughters of Prasuti and Daksha. She loved Shiva, but her father Daksha forbade her marriage to Shiva. She married Shiva anyway, and Daksha got revenge by not inviting Shiva to a festival during... sati. Literary and debating societies were initiated in This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. Mumbai is located on the west coast of India and is the capital of the state of Maharashtra. The... Bombay and Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu a former province of British India, with its capital at the Indian city of Madras (now Chennai): see Madras Presidency a type of fabric which first originated there. an... Madras, becoming forums for open discourse. Educational attainments and skillful use of the press by these early reformers enhanced the possibility of effecting broad reforms without compromising societal values or religious practices.


Indian uprising of 1857

The Sepoy Mutany of 1857 Source: [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to...
The Sepoy Mutany of 1857 Source: [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to... Enlarge
Indian mutiny

Main article: An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from the British perspective. 1857–1858 was a period of armed uprising and rebellions in northern and central India against British colonial rule on the subcontinent. The war... Indian rebellion of 1857


The An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from the British perspective. 1857–1858 was a period of armed uprising and rebellions in northern and central India against British colonial rule on the subcontinent. The war... Indian Mutiny (also Sepoy Mutiny) as known to the British, or The First War Of Indian Independence as known to the Indians was a period of A rebellion is, in the most general sense, a refusal to accept authority. It may thus be seen as encompassing a range of behaviors from a mild flouting of social norms to a violent organized attempt to destroy established authority. It is often used to refer to armed resistance to... uprising in northern and central The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. India has grown significantly, both in population and in strategic importance in the last two decades. The Indian economy is... India against British rule in 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). Events January 9 - Earthquake at Fort Tejon, California with an estimated magnitude of 7.9 February 16 - The National Deaf Mute College (later renamed Gallaudet University) is established in Washington, DC becoming the first school for the advanced... 1857- 1858 is a common year starting on Friday. Events January 14 - Felice Orsini and his accomplices fail to assassinate Napoleon III in Paris but their bombs kill 156 bystanders. Because of the involvement of French émigrés living in Britain, there is a brief anti-British feeling in France but... 1858. It is considered to be the first united rebellion against colonial rule in The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. India has grown significantly, both in population and in strategic importance in the last two decades. The Indian economy is... India.


Causes

The rebellion was the outcome of decades of ethnic and cultural differences between Indian soldiers and their British superiors. The specific reason that triggered the rebellion was the use of cow and pig fat in .557 calibre Pattern 1853 Enfield (P/53) rifle cartridges. Since soldiers had to break the cartridges with their teeth before they could load them into their rifles, this was offensive to Hindu and Muslim soldiers, who considered tasting beef and pork to be against their respective religious tenets. In February 1857, sepoys (Indian soldiers in the British army) refused to use their new cartridges. The British claimed to have replaced the cartridges with new ones and tried to make sepoys make their own grease from Beeswax is a tough wax formed from a mixture of several compounds secreted by honeybees in the form of thin scales from glands on the ventral surface of the abdomen and used in building the honeycomb cells in which the young are raised and honey and pollen are stored. Approximately... beeswax and A vegetable oil or vegoil is an oil extracted from oilseeds or another plant source. Some vegetable oils, such as rapeseed, cottonseed or castor oil, are not fit for human consumption without further processing. Like all fats, vegetable oils are esters of glycerin and a varying blend of fatty acids... vegetable oils, but the rumor persisted.


Mangal Pande and the march to Delhi

In March 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). Events January 9 - Earthquake at Fort Tejon, California with an estimated magnitude of 7.9 February 16 - The National Deaf Mute College (later renamed Gallaudet University) is established in Washington, DC becoming the first school for the advanced... 1857, Mangal Pande, a soldier of the 34th Native Infantry, attacked his British sergeant and wounded an adjutant. General Hearsay, who said Pande was in some kind of "religious frenzy," ordered a jemadar to arrest him but the jemadar refused. Mangal Pande was hanged on April 7 along with the jemadar. The whole regiment was dismissed as a collective punishment. Other sepoys felt this was too harsh.


On May is the fifth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. May begins (astrologically) with the sun in the sign of Taurus and ends in the sign of Gemini. Astronomically speaking, the sun begins in the constellation... May 10th, when the 11th and 20th cavalry assembled, they broke rank and turned on their commanding officers. They then liberated the 3rd Regiment, and on May 11th, the sepoys reached Delhi. They were joined by other Indians from the local bazaar. They attacked and captured the Agra Fort is located in Agra near Delhi, India. The fort is also known as Lal Qila, Fort Rouge and Red Fort of Agra. It is about 2.5 km northwest of its much more famous sister monument, the Taj Mahal. The fort can be more accurately described as a... Red Fort, which was the residence of Bahadur Shah II (1775-1862) aka Bahadur Shah Zafar (Zafar was his nom de plume, or takhallus, as an Urdu poet) was the last of the Mughal emperors in India. He was the son of Akbar Shah II. After the Mutiny of 1857 he was deposed and exiled to Rangoon... Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last emperor of the The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. It was largely conquered by Sher Shah during the time of... Mughal dynasty. The sepoys demanded that he reclaim his throne. He was reluctant at first, but eventually agreed to the demands and became the leader of the rebellion.


About the same time in Jhansi is a city of Uttar Pradesh state, India. Jhansi is a major road and rail junction, and is the administrative seat of a district and division of the same name. The walled city grew up around its stone fort, which crowns a neighboring rock. Jhansi District Jhansi District, of... Jhansi, the army rebelled and killed the British army officers. In 1858 is a common year starting on Friday. Events January 14 - Felice Orsini and his accomplices fail to assassinate Napoleon III in Paris but their bombs kill 156 bystanders. Because of the involvement of French émigrés living in Britain, there is a brief anti-British feeling in France but... 1858, when the British army marched towards Jhansi, Rani Lakshmi Bai, the queen of Jhansi, a Maratha-ruled princely state of northern India, was one of the great nationalist heroes of the Revolt of 1857, and a symbol of resistance to British rule in India. Lakshmi Bai was born on 19 November 1835 at Kashi (Presently known as... Rani Lakshmi Bai, the queen of Jhansi, assembled an army of 14,000 volunteers to fight the invaders. The war lasted 2 weeks but eventually the British won. The queen escaped on horseback to the fortress of Kalpi. Here she organized a few other kingdoms to rebel against the British. The rebel forces captured Teli-ka-Mandir Gwalior is a city in Madhya Pradesh, India. It lies 76 miles (122 km) south of Agra with a population of 690,342. The City At the heart of Gwalior is its fortress, one of the most formidable in India. It occupies an isolated rock outcrop, and... Gwalior from the British, who placed a prize of Rs. 20,000 on the capture of Rani Lakshmibai.


The British response

Interior of the Secundra Bagh after the Slaughter of 2,000 Rebels by the 93rd Highlanders and 4th Punjab Regiment. First Attack of Sir Colin Campbell in November 1857, Lucknow. Located on the outskirts of Lucknow, it was the scene of intense fighting in November, 1857. Following the action, the...
Interior of the Secundra Bagh after the Slaughter of 2,000 Rebels by the 93rd Highlanders and 4th Punjab Regiment. First Attack of Sir Colin Campbell in November 1857, Lucknow. Located on the outskirts of Lucknow, it was the scene of intense fighting in November, 1857. Following the action, the... Enlarge
Secundra Bagh after the 93rd Highlanders and 4th Punjab regiment fought the rebels, Nov 1857

The British were slow to respond at first but eventually two columns left Meerut is a city to the north west of New Delhi. Its claim to fame lies in the fact that the famous chant of Dilli chalo (Move to Delhi) was taken up first from here during the Great Uprising of 1857 against the East India Company. It is one of... Meerut and Shimla Shimla (शिमला) is the capital of Himachal Pradesh and a hill station in North India. Geography Located at an average height of 2000 meters (5500 ft) above mean sea level in the middle Himalayas, this small city is surrounded by fir and pine forests. Transportation... Simla. At the same time, the British moved regiments from the The Crimean War lasted from 28 March 1854 to 1856. It was fought between Russia and an alliance of the United Kingdom, France, and the Ottoman Empire, joined somewhat tardily by Piedmont-Sardinia. The majority of the conflict took place on the Crimean peninsula in the Black Sea. Beginning of... Crimean War and diverted European regiments headed for The Great Wall of China, stretching over 6,700 km, was erected beginning in the 3rd century BC to guard the north from raids by men on horses. China  listen? ( Traditional: 中國; Simplified: 中国; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo) is a nation located chiefly in continental East... China to India.


After a march lasting two months, the British fought the main army of the rebels near Delhi in Badl-ke-Serai and drove them back to Delhi before laying a siege on the city. The siege of Dehli lasted roughly from July 1st to August 31st. After a week of street fighting, the British retook the city. The last significant battle was fought in Teli-ka-Mandir Gwalior is a city in Madhya Pradesh, India. It lies 76 miles (122 km) south of Agra with a population of 690,342. The City At the heart of Gwalior is its fortress, one of the most formidable in India. It occupies an isolated rock outcrop, and... Gwalior on June 20, 1858. It is during this battle that Rani Lakshmi Bai, the queen of Jhansi, a Maratha-ruled princely state of northern India, was one of the great nationalist heroes of the Revolt of 1857, and a symbol of resistance to British rule in India. Lakshmi Bai was born on 19 November 1835 at Kashi (Presently known as... Rani Lakshmi Bai lost her life. Sporadic fighting continued until 1859 but most of the rebels were subdued.


Aftermath

The war of 1857 was a major turning point in the history of modern India. The British abolished the British East India Company and replaced it with direct rule under the British crown. A The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William. The officer had direct control only over Fort William, but supervised... Viceroy was appointed to represent the Crown. In proclaiming the new direct-rule policy to "the Princes, Chiefs, and Peoples of India," Queen Victoria promised equal treatment under British law, but Indian mistrust of British rule had become a legacy of the 1857 rebellion.


The British embarked on a program of reform, trying to integrate Indian higher castes and rulers into the government. They stopped land grabs, decreed religious tolerance and admitted Indians into civil service, albeit mainly as subordinates. They also increased the number of British soldiers in relation to native ones and allowed only British soldiers to handle artillery.


Bahadur Shah was exiled to Yangôn, formerly Rangoon, population 4,504,000 (2001), is the capital of Myanmar. The city is located on the Yangôn River, near the Gulf of Martaban. Major exports include rice, teak, petroleum, cotton, and metal ores. There are rice mills, sawmills, oil refineries, and steel, iron, and copper... Rangoon, The Union of Myanmar, formerly known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. The country has been ruled by a military government since a coup in 1988. The country is a developing nation. It has a population of approximately forty-two million (July 2003 est.). National motto: none Official... Burma where he died in 1862, finally bringing the The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. It was largely conquered by Sher Shah during the time of... Mughal dynasty to an end. In 1877, Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. Her reign lasted more than sixty-three years—longer than... Queen Victoria took the title of Signature of King Edward VIII The R and I after his name indicate king and emperor in Latin (Rex and Imperator, respectively). The title Empress of India was given to Queen Victoria in 1877 when India was formally incorporated into the British Empire. It is said Victorias desire for... Empress of India.


Congress and the Muslim League

Main articles: The Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party) is the largest subscription-based organisation in the world. It is also the largest democratic political organisation in the world; the oldest surviving political organisation in India. In the 14th Lok Sabha (2004-2009), it is the single largest party... Indian National Congress, Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the Great Leader of the Muslim League The All India Muslim League was a political party in British India was the driving force behind the creation of a Muslim state on the Indian subcontinent. After partition, a much smaller party is still active, especially in Kerala, where... Muslim League


The decades following the Sepoy Rebellion were a period of growing political awareness, manifestation of Indian public opinion, and emergence of Indian leadership at national and provincial levels. Inspired by a suggestion made by A.O. Hume, a retired British civil servant, seventy-three Indian delegates met in Bombay in 1885 is a common year starting on Thursday. Events January January 4 - The first successful appendectomy is performed by Dr. William W. Grant on Mary Gartside. January 20 - L.A. Thompson patents the roller coaster. January 26 - Troops loyal to the Mahdi conquer Khartoum February February 5 - King Leopold II... 1885 and founded the The Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party) is the largest subscription-based organisation in the world. It is also the largest democratic political organisation in the world; the oldest surviving political organisation in India. In the 14th Lok Sabha (2004-2009), it is the single largest party... Indian National Congress. They were mostly members of the upwardly mobile and successful western-educated provincial elites, engaged in professions such as Law (a loanword from Danish- Norwegian lov), in politics and jurisprudence, is a set of rules or norms of conduct which mandate, proscribe or permit specified relationships among people and organizations, provide methods for ensuring the impartial treatment of such people, and provide punishments for those who do not follow... law, In education, teachers are those who teach students or pupils, often a course of study or a practical skill. There are many different ways to teach and help students learn. When deciding what teaching method to use, a teacher will need to consider students background knowledge, environment, and their learning... teaching, and Journalism is a discipline of collecting, verifying, reporting and analyzing information gathered regarding current events, including trends, issues and people. Those who practice journalism are known as journalists. Journalism is sometimes called the first draft of history. Even though news articles are often written on deadline, they are usually edited... journalism. They had acquired political experience from regional competition in the professions and by securing nomination to various positions in legislative councils, universities, and special commissions.


At its inception, the Congress had no well-defined ideology and commanded few of the resources essential to a political organization. It functioned more as a debating society that met annually to express its loyalty to the British Raj and passed numerous resolutions on less controversial issues such as civil rights or opportunities in government, especially the civil service. These resolutions were submitted to the Viceroy's government and occasionally to the British Parliament, but the Congress's early gains were meager. Despite its claim to represent all India, the Congress voiced the interests of urban elites; the number of participants from other economic backgrounds remained negligible.


By 1900 is a common year starting on Monday. Events January January 1 - Nigeria becomes a British protectorate January 2 - John Hay announces the Open Door Policy to promote trade with China. January 2 - Chicago Canal opens. January 5 - Irish leader John Edward Redmond calls for a revolt against British rule... 1900, although the Congress had emerged as an all-India political organization, its achievement was undermined by its singular failure to attract A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. The word Muslim means one who submits and implies complete submission to the will of God ( Allah). Muslims believe that nature is itself Islamic, since it follows natural laws placed by God. Thus, a Muslim strives to surrender to God... Muslims, who felt that their representation in government service was inadequate. Attacks by Hindu reformers against religious conversion, cow slaughter, and the preservation of Urdu(اردو) is an Indo-European language which originated in India, most likely in the vicinity of Delhi, from whence it spread to the rest of the subcontinent. Other major metropolitan areas with a strong tradition of the language include Hyderabad, Lucknow, and Lahore. Urdu developed as... Urdu in Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. See also Arabic authors Arabic numerals Arabic names... Arabic script deepened their concerns of minority status and denial of rights if the Congress alone were to represent the people of India. Sir Organizations he started Mohammadan Educational Conference Institutions he started Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental College, later the Aligarh Muslim University See also Aligarh Muslim University Categories: Stub | 1817 births | 1898 deaths ... Syed Ahmed Khan launched a movement for Muslim regeneration that culminated in the founding in 1875 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). Events January - April January 12 - Kwang-su becomes emperor of China. February 27 - Newton Booth, 11th Governor of California resigns, having been elected Senator. Lieutenant Governor of California Romualdo Pacheco becomes acting Governor. He is later replaced by... 1875 of the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Victoria gate, a part of Aligarh University campus Aligarh is a city in the Uttar Pradesh state of India. Aligarh has a population of half a million. It is most famous for being the home of Aligarh University. The city is located about 100 miles from New Delhi. The city... Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh (renamed Victoria gate, a prominent building at the university Aligarh Muslim University is a university located in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh. It was the first university set up in British India for Muslims. Many prominent Muslim leaders, and Urdu writers of the subcontinent have attended the University. The University grew out of... Aligarh Muslim University in 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). Events January 2 - The first religious radio broadcast ( KDKA AM in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) January 2 - Spanish liner Santa Isabel sinks off Villa Garcia - 244 dead January 2 - DeYoung Museum in Golden Gate Park San Francisco opens. January 20... 1921). Its objective was to educate wealthy students by emphasizing the compatibility of Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. Etymology In Arabic, Islām means submission and is described as a Dīn, meaning way of life... Islam with modern western knowledge. The diversity among India's Muslims, however, made it impossible to bring about uniform cultural and intellectual regeneration.


Partition of Bengal

In 1905 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Events January-April January 22 - Massacre of Russian demonstrators at the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg, one of the triggers of the abortive Russian Revolution of 1905. January 26 - The Cullinan Diamond is found near Pretoria, South Africa... 1905, George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston (January 11, 1859 - March 20, 1925), was a conservative British statesman and sometime Viceroy of India. Eldest son of the 4th Baron Scarsdale, rector of Kedleston, Derbyshire, Curzon was educated at Eton College and Balliol College, Oxford. At Oxford he was president... Sir George Curzon, the Governor-General (1899-1905), ordered the partition of the province of Bengal for improvements in administrative efficiency in that huge and populous region, where the Bengali Hindu intelligentsia exerted considerable influence on local and national politics. The partition created two provinces: Eastern Bengal & Assam (অসম) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur. Located just below the eastern Himalayan foothills, it is surrounded by the other northeastern states: Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and Meghalaya. Assam and its commercial capital Guwahati form the gateway to the northeastern... Assam, with its capital at Categories: Capitals in Asia | Asia geography stubs | Cities in Bangladesh ... Dhaka, and West Bengal (পশ্চিম বঙ্গ, Pôščim Bôngô) is a state in the northeast of India. Neighbouring regions are Nepal and Sikkim to the northwest, Bhutan to the north, Assam to the northeast, Bangladesh to the east, the Bay of... West Bengal, with its capital at This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. For the gambling term, see Indian state of West Bengal. Its original name was Kalikata and is, in higher literature, still referred to as such. Speakers of the regions native language of Bengali have always known it as Kolkata (কল... Calcutta (which also served as the capital of British India). An ill-conceived and hastily implemented action, the partition outraged Bengalis. Not only had the government failed to consult Indian public opinion, but the action appeared to reflect the British resolve to "divide and rule." Widespread agitation ensued in the streets and in the press, and the Congress advocated boycotting British products under the banner of swadeshi.


The Congress-led boycott of British goods was so successful that it unleashed anti-British forces to an extent unknown since the Sepoy Rebellion. A cycle of violence and repression ensued in some parts of the country. The British tried to mitigate the situation by announcing a series of constitutional reforms in 1909 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). Events January – March January 16 - Ernest Shackletons expedition finds the magnetic South Pole. January 28 - United States troops leave Cuba after being there since the Spanish-American War. February 12 - The National Association for the Advancement... 1909 and by appointing a few moderates to the imperial and provincial councils. A Muslim deputation met with the Viceroy, Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmond, 4th Earl of Minto (June 9, 1845 - March 1, 1914) was an English politician, Governor General of Canada, and Viceroy of India. Early life and career After completing his education at Eton College and Cambridge University, he joined the Scots Guards in 1867. In 1874... Gilbert John Elliot (1905-10), seeking concessions from the impending constitutional reforms, including special considerations in government service and electorates. The Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the Great Leader of the Muslim League The All India Muslim League was a political party in British India was the driving force behind the creation of a Muslim state on the Indian subcontinent. After partition, a much smaller party is still active, especially in Kerala, where... All-India Muslim League was founded the same year to promote loyalty to the British and to advance Muslim political rights, which the British recognized by increasing the number of elective offices reserved for Muslims in the India Councils Act of 1909. The Muslim League insisted on its separateness from the Hindu-dominated Congress, as the voice of a "nation within a nation."


In what the British saw as an additional goodwill gesture, in 1911 King-Emperor King George V King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Emperor of India His Majesty King George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert) (3 June 1865–20 January 1936) was the last British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, changing the name to the... George V visited India for a durbar (a traditional court held for subjects to express fealty to their ruler), during which he announced the reversal of the partition of Bengal and the transfer of the capital from Calcutta to a newly planned city to be built immediately south of Delhi, which became Culture To be included. Tourist Attractions Delhi offers a multitude of interesting places and attractions to the visitor, so much so that it becomes difficult to decide from where to begin exploring the city. In Old Delhi, attractions like mosques, forts, and other monuments that depict Indias Muslim history... New Delhi.


World War I

Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. Battle aftermath. Remains of the Chateau Wood World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the War of the Nations, and the War to End All Wars, was a world conflict occurring from 1914 to... World War I began with an unprecedented outpouring of loyalty and goodwill towards Britain, contrary to initial British fears of an Indian revolt. India contributed generously to the British war effort, by providing men and resources. About 1.3 million Indian soldiers and laborers served in World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. It is conventionally considered a continent, which, in this case, is more of a cultural distinction than a geographic one. ( National Geographic, however, officially recognises... Europe, World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest continent in both area and population, after Eurasia. At about 30,244,050 km2 (11,677,240 mi2) including its adjacent islands, it covers 20.3 percent of the total land... Africa, and the A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. The Middle East is a... Middle East, while both the Indian government and the princes sent large supplies of food, money, and ammunition. But high casualty rates, soaring inflation compounded by heavy taxation, a widespread Negatively stained flu virions. These were the causative agent of the Hong Kong Flu pandemic. Influenza (or as it is commonly known, the flu or the grippe) is a contagious disease caused by an RNA virus of the orthomyxoviridae family. It rapidly spreads around the world in seasonal epidemics, imposing... influenza epidemic, and the disruption of trade during the war escalated human suffering in India. The prewar nationalist movement revived, as moderate and extremist groups within the Congress submerged their differences in order to stand as a unified front. In 1916 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. Impressionist Monet paints Water Lilies. January 8 - Allied forces withdraw from Gallipoli January 17 - The Professional Golfers Association... 1916, the Congress succeeded in forging the Lucknow Pact, a temporary alliance with the Muslim League over the issues of devolution of political power and the future of Islam in the region.


The British themselves adopted a "carrot and stick" approach in recognition of India's support during the war and in response to renewed nationalist demands. In August 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). Events January-February President Woodrow Wilson of the United States announces to Congress the breaking of diplomatic relations with Germany January 2 - The Royal Bank of Canada takes over Quebec Bank. January 22 - World War I: President Woodrow... 1917, Edwin Samuel Montagu (1879-1924) was a British Liberal polician. First elected as an MP in 1906, he was Secretary of State for India between 1917 and 1922. Categories: Stub | Secretaries of State for India | Chancellors of the Duchy of Lancaster | British Secretaries of State | British MPs | Presidents of the... Edwin Montagu, the secretary of state for India, made the historic announcement in Parliament that the British policy for India was "increasing association of Indians in every branch of the administration and the gradual development of self-governing institutions with a view to the progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British Empire." The means of achieving the proposed measure were later enshrined in the Government of India Act of 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). Events January January 1 - Iolaire sinking disaster January 1 - Edsel Ford succeeds his father as head of the Ford Motor Company January 5 - Spartacist uprising - Socialist demonstrations in Berlin turn into attempted communist revolution January 9 - Spartacus revolutionary... 1919, which introduced the principle of a dual mode of administration, or diarchy, in which both elected Indian legislators and appointed British officials shared power. The act also expanded the central and provincial legislatures and widened the franchise considerably. Diarchy set in motion certain real changes at the provincial level: a number of non-controversial or "transferred" portfolios, such as Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals ( livestock). Agriculture is also known as farming. More people in the world are involved in agriculture as their primary economic... agriculture, local government, Health can be defined negatively, as the absence of illness, functionally as the ability to cope with everyday activities, or positively, as fitness and well-being (Blaxter 1990). In any organism, health is a form of homeostasis. This is a state of balance, with inputs and outputs of energy and... health, Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, good judgement and wisdom. Education has as one of its fundamental goals the imparting of culture from generation to generation (see socialization). Overview The education of an individual human begins at... education, and public works, were handed over to Indians, while more sensitive matters such as Finance addresses the ways in which individuals, business entities and other organizations allocate and use monetary resources over time. The term finance may thus incorporate any of the following: The study of money and other assets The management of those assets As a verb, to finance is to provide funds... finance, A tax is an involuntary fee paid by individuals or businesses to a government. Taxes may be paid in cash or kind (although payments in kind may not always be allowed or classified as taxes in all systems). The means of taxation, and the uses to which the funds raised... taxation, and maintaining law and order were retained by the provincial British administrators.


The Rowlatt Act and its aftermath

Amritsar Massacre 1919 Source: http://www.amritsar.com/Jallian%20Wala%20Bagh.shtml The image was not dated, but it is assumed to be from the period of the massacre, and therefore with expired copyright in the US. Should this not be the case, we would claim fair use. This image...
Amritsar Massacre 1919 Source: http://www.amritsar.com/Jallian%20Wala%20Bagh.shtml The image was not dated, but it is assumed to be from the period of the massacre, and therefore with expired copyright in the US. Should this not be the case, we would claim fair use. This image... Enlarge
The The Amritsar Massacre The Amritsar Massacre, also known as the Jalianwalla Bagh Massacre, was named after the place (Jalianwalla Bagh, in Amritsar), where, on April 13, 1919, British and Gurkha soldiers opened fire on a peaceful political gathering, killing hundreds of Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims. Protesting against the British enactment... Amritsar Massacre

The positive impact of reform was seriously undermined in 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). Events January January 1 - Iolaire sinking disaster January 1 - Edsel Ford succeeds his father as head of the Ford Motor Company January 5 - Spartacist uprising - Socialist demonstrations in Berlin turn into attempted communist revolution January 9 - Spartacus revolutionary... 1919 by the The Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919 and basically authorised the government to imprison people (Indians) without trial. Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948) was extremely critical of this act and argued that not everyone should be imprisoned if only certain people were committing these political crimes. These acts led to severe... Rowlatt Act, named after the recommendations made the previous year to the Imperial Legislative Council by the Rowlatt Commission, which had been appointed to investigate "seditious conspiracy." The Rowlatt Act, also known as the Black Act, vested the Viceroy's government with extraordinary powers to quell sedition by silencing the press, detaining political activists without trial, and arresting any suspected individuals without a warrant. In protest, a nationwide cessation of work (hartal) was called, marking the beginning of widespread, although not nationwide, popular discontent.


The agitation unleashed by the acts culminated on April 13, 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). Events January January 1 - Iolaire sinking disaster January 1 - Edsel Ford succeeds his father as head of the Ford Motor Company January 5 - Spartacist uprising - Socialist demonstrations in Berlin turn into attempted communist revolution January 9 - Spartacus revolutionary... 1919, in the The Amritsar Massacre The Amritsar Massacre, also known as the Jalianwalla Bagh Massacre, was named after the place (Jalianwalla Bagh, in Amritsar), where, on April 13, 1919, British and Gurkha soldiers opened fire on a peaceful political gathering, killing hundreds of Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims. Protesting against the British enactment... Amritsar Massacre in Amritsar is a city in Punjab, India. The city has a population of over two and half million. Amritsar means literally holy pool of nectar. The City is located in North West part of India in the State called Punjab. It is the home to the Harmandir Sahib, also known... Amritsar, Punjab. The British military commander, Brigadier Brigadier-General Reginald Rex Edward Harry Dyer (October 9, 1864 – July 23, 1927) was a British Indian Army officer. Under his command, 150 British troops killed 379 unarmed Indians and injured 1200 (though many Indians claim a death toll in the thousands) in the Amritsar Massacre of April 13... Reginald Dyer, ordered his soldiers to fire at point-blank range into an unarmed and unsuspecting crowd of some 10,000 persons. They had assembled at Jallianwala Bagh, a walled garden, to celebrate Traditional fervour and gaiety mark the celebrations of Baisakhi, which stands for the dawn of a new year in north India. For Sikhs, this seasonal festival also has great importance as the founding of the Akal Khalsa (Soldiers of the Timeless One) at Anandpur Sahib, the famous Golden Temple of... Baisakhi, a The Golden Temple is the most important sacred shrine for Sikhs Sikhism comes from the word Sikh, which means a strong and able disciple. A Sikh is a person who believes in One God and the teachings of the Ten Gurus, enshrined in Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh holy book... Sikh festival, without prior knowledge of the imposition of martial law. A total of 1,650 rounds were fired, killing 379 persons and wounding 1,137 in the episode, which dispelled wartime hopes and goodwill in a frenzy of postwar reaction.


Gandhi's return to India

Mahatma Gandhi File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image uploaded on that date. (del) (cur) 23:39, 4 Mar 2004 . . Anthony DiPierro (6633 bytes) (Reverted to... Mohandas Gandhi
Mohandas Gandhi

Main article: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to... Mahatma Gandhi


India's option for an entirely original path to obtaining swaraj (independence) was due largely to Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to... Mohandas Gandhi, commonly known as "Mahatma" (or Great Soul.) A native of Gujarat (Hindi: गुजरात) is the most industrialized state in India after Maharashtra and is located in western India, bordered by Pakistan to the northwest and Rajasthan to the north. Its capital is Gandhinagar, a planned city close to Ahmedabad, the former state capital and the... Gujarat who had been educated in Britain, he was an obscure and unsuccessful provincial lawyer. Gandhi had accepted an invitation in Events January 1 - Japan accepts the Gregorian calendar January 2 - Introduction by Webb C. Ball of the General Railroad Timepiece Standards in North America: Railroad chronometers January 13 - The UK has its first meeting. January 17 - American sugar planters overthrow the government of Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii February 1 - Thomas... 1893 to represent indentured Indian laborers in South Africa, where he stayed on for more than twenty years, lobbying against Apartheid ( International Phonetic Alphabet in English and in Afrikaans) is the policy and the system of laws implemented and enforced by White minority governments in South Africa from 1948 till 1990; and by extension any legally sanctioned system of racial segregation. The first recorded use of the word, which means... racial discrimination. He returned to India in 1915 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). Events January 12 - The Rocky Mountain National Park is established by an act of the U.S. Congress. January 12 - United States House of Representatives rejects proposal to give women the right to vote. January 13 – An... 1915, virtually a stranger to public life but fired with a religious vision of a new India.


Gandhi's ideas and strategies of nonviolent Civil disobedience encompasses the active refusal to obey certain laws, demands and commands of a government or of an occupying power without resorting to physical violence. Civil disobedience has been used in struggles in India in the fight against British colonialism, South Africa in the fight against apartheid and civil... civil disobedience appeared impractical to many Indians. In Gandhi's own words, "civil disobedience is civil breach of unmoral statutory enactments," but as he viewed it, it had to be carried out nonviolently by withdrawing cooperation with the corrupt state. Observers realized Gandhi's political potential when he used See Satyagraha (opera) for an account of the opera of that title by Philip Glass. Satyagraha (Sanskrit: truth + grasp/hold) is the philosophy of non-violent resistance most famously employed by Mahatma Gandhi in forcing an end to the British Raj. Translators have rendered the word satyagraha as civil disobedience... satyagraha during the anti-Rowlatt Act protests in Punjab. In 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. January 9 - Britain announces it will build 1,000,000 homes for war veterans. January 10 - League of Nations holds its first meeting... 1920, under Gandhi's leadership, the Congress was reorganized and given a new constitution, whose goal was swaraj (independence). Membership in the party was opened to anyone prepared to pay a token fee, and a hierarchy of committees was established and made responsible for discipline and control over a hitherto amorphous and diffuse movement. The party was transformed from an elite organization to one of mass national appeal.


During his first nationwide satyagraha, Gandhi urged the people to boycott British educational institutions, law courts, and products; to resign from government employment; to refuse to pay taxes; and to forsake British titles and honors. Although this came too late to influence the framing of the new Government of India Act of 1919, the magnitude of disorder resulting from the movement was unparalleled and presented a new challenge to foreign rule. Gandhi was forced to call off the campaign in 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Events January 7 - Dáil Éireann, the extra-legal parliament of the Irish Republic, ratifies the Anglo-Irish Treaty by 64-57 votes. January 10 - Arthur Griffith is elected President of Dáil Éireann... 1922 because of atrocities committed against police forces. He was imprisoned in 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Events January 7 - Dáil Éireann, the extra-legal parliament of the Irish Republic, ratifies the Anglo-Irish Treaty by 64-57 votes. January 10 - Arthur Griffith is elected President of Dáil Éireann... 1922 for six years, but served only two. On his release from prison, he set up the Sabarmati Ashram was established by Mahatma Gandhi in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Sabarmati Ashram, also known as Gandhi Ashram is on the Western banks of Sabarmati River in the Northern Ahmedabad. This ashram was earlier established in the Kochrab area of Ahmedabad in 1915. In 1917 it was shifted on the... Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad or Ahmadābād, is the largest city in Gujarat and the sixth largest city in India. It has about 4 million residents. The city is also known unofficially as Karnavati. Ahmedabad is the administrative center of Ahmedabad District, and was the first capital of Gujarat state... Ahmedabad, on the banks of river Sabarmati river is a river in Western India. It is approximately 371 km in length. Sabarmati river originates in Aravalli Range mountains in Udaipur district of Rajasthan. In its initial course it is also called as Wakal. Most of the river flows in Gujarat state. It empties in the... Sabarmati, established the newspaper Young India, and inaugurated a series of reforms aimed at the socially disadvantaged within Hindu society - the rural poor, and the Untouchable may refer to any of the following: Formerly or derogatively, to the large Dalit (outcaste) populations of India and Nepal. For the Treasury agent team led by Eliot Ness, or his memoirs, see The Untouchables. For the Korn album, see Untouchables (album). The Untouchables is also a band, see... untouchables.


Emerging leaders within the Congress -- Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू) (November 14, 1889 - May 27, 1964), also called Pandit (Teacher) Nehru, was the leader of the (moderately) socialist wing of the Indian National Congress during and after Indias struggle for independence from the British... Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (October 31, 1875–December 15, 1950), popularly referred to as Sardar, was an Indian statesman, an important leader of the Indian National Congress and the deputy Prime Minister in the first cabinet of Independent India. Early life Vallabhbhai Patel was born into a... Vallabhbhai Patel, Netaji poster in Thiruvananthapuram Subhas Chandra Bose (January 23, 1897 - August 18, 1945) also known as Netaji, was a Orissa born and Bengal based Indian leader of the movement to win independence from British rule. Bose helped organize and later lead the Indian National Army put together with Indian prisoners... Subhash Chandra Bose, and others-- accepted Gandhi's leadership in articulating nationalist aspirations but disagreed on strategies for wresting more concessions from the British. The Indian political spectrum was further broadened in the mid-1920s by the emergence of both moderate and militant parties, such as the Swaraj Party. Regional political organizations also continued to represent the interests of non- This article is about the concept of transcendent reality in Hinduism. See also Brahmin and Brahman (disambiguation). In the Vedantic (and subsequently Yogic) schools of Hinduism, Brahman is the signifying name given to the concept of the unchanging, infinite, immanent and transcendent reality that is the Divine Ground of all... Brahmans in Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu a former province of British India, with its capital at the Indian city of Madras (now Chennai): see Madras Presidency a type of fabric which first originated there. an... Madras, Mahars in Maharashtra (महाराष्ट्र) is a state in west-central India. It is one of the richest states of India. Its capital is Mumbai, the economic powerhouse of India.It accounts for 12 per cent of gross domestic product, pays 61% of all... Maharashtra, and A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism, a religious faith originating in the Punjab. The word Sikh is derived from the Sanskrit word shishya which means disciple or student. In the Punjabi language the word Sikh also means to learn. So a Sikh is a disciple of the Ten Gurus... Sikhs in Punjab.


Bhagat Singh

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Bhagat Singh

Main article: Bhagat Singh Bhagat Singh was one of Indias greatest freedom fighters and revolutionary socialists. He was also one of the earliest Marxist thinkers in India. Early Life Bhagat Singh was born on September 27, 1907 in a Sikh family to Sardar Kishan Singh and Vidyavati in Banga village in... Bhagat Singh


As voices inside and outside the Congress became more strident, the British appointed a commission in Events January 7 - First transatlantic telephone call - New York City to London January 9 - Military rebellion crushed in Lisbon January 14 - Paul Doumer elected president of France January 19 - Britain sends troops to China February 12 - First British troops lad on Shanghai February 14 - Earthquake in Yugoslavia - 700 dead February... 1927, under John Allsebrook Simon, 1st Viscount Simon (1873-1954) was a British politician and statesman. Educated at Fettes College in Edinburgh and Wadham College, Oxford, he became a fellow at All Souls and was called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1899. Simon became a successful lawyer, and entered... Sir John Simon, to recommend further measures in the constitutional devolution of power. The British failure to appoint an Indian member to the commission outraged the Congress and others, and, as a result, they boycotted it throughout India, carrying placards inscribed "Simon, Go Back."


In Lahore, Lala Lajpatrai and Pandit Madan Mohan Malavia protested to the commission in open about their displeasure. Thousands joined in the silent demonstration. Police troops charged the demonstration, and Lala Lajpatrai was hit with a lathi (bamboo stick) on the head several times by an officer Scott. He succumbed to the injuries.


Bhagat Singh Bhagat Singh was one of Indias greatest freedom fighters and revolutionary socialists. He was also one of the earliest Marxist thinkers in India. Early Life Bhagat Singh was born on September 27, 1907 in a Sikh family to Sardar Kishan Singh and Vidyavati in Banga village in... Bhagat Singh, a young Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. Marx drew on Hegels philosophy, the political economy of Adam Smith, Ricardian economics, and 19th century French socialism to develop a critique... marxist from Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (sometimes spelt Panjab) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. Once a single entity, it is now split between two nations: see Punjab, India and Punjab, Pakistan. Punjab, India covers an area of 50,362 square kilometres (19,445 square... Punjab, vowed to take revenge and with the help of Chandrashekhar Azad, Rajguru and Sukhadev, plotted to kill Scott. Unfortunately, he killed Mr. Sanders, a junior officer, in a case of mistaken identity.


The British, under the Defense of India Act, gave more power to the police to arrest persons to stop processions with suspicious movements and actions. The act brought in the council was defeated by one vote. Even then it was to be passed in the form of an ordinance in the "interest of the public." Bhagat Singh volunteered to throw a bomb in the central assembly where the act was to be passed. It was a carefully laid out plot, not to cause death or injury, but to draw the attention of the government. It was agreed that Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt would court arrest after throwing the bomb.


On April 8th, 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 2 - Canada and the United States agree on a plan to preserve Niagara Falls. January 9 - The Seeing Eye is established with the mission to train dogs to assist the blind ( Nashville, Tennessee... 1929, at Delhi Central Assembly, Singh and Dutt threw handouts, exploded a bomb in the corridor, and courted arrest after shouting the slogan "Inquilab Zindabad!" (Long Live, Revolution!). Bhagat Singh thought the court would be an ideal place to get publicity for the cause of freedom, and did not disown the crime. He was "proved" guilty, and was hanged on March 23, 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. Events January-March January 4 - Female aviator Elly Beinhorn begins her flight to Africa January 6 - Thomas Edison submits his last patent application. January 22 - Sir Isaac Isaacs sworn in as the first Australian-born Governor-General of Australia January 25 - Mohandas... 1931.


Dandi March

Main article: Scenes during Gandhis famous march, on foot to the sea coast at Dandi, on the eve of the Salt Satyagraha, 1930 The Salt Satyagraha, also known as the Salt March To Dandi, was an act of protest against the British salt tax in colonial India. In the march, Mahatma... Salt Satyagraha


Following the rejection of the recommendations of the Simon Commission by the Indians, an all-party conference was held at Bombay in May 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-May January 6- 7 - River Thames floods in London - 14 drowned January 17 - OGPU arrests Lev Trotsky in Moscow; he assumes a status of passive resistance and is exiled to Turkestan February - Kurume University... 1928. The conference appointed a drafting committee under Motilal Nehru (1861 - 1931) was an Indian nationalist political figure. He helped to found Swaraj Party in 1922. He was also father of Jawaharlal Nehru.Motilal Nehru served two terms as president of the Indian National Congress,the second time being succeeded by his son. Categories: Indian freedom fighters | Stub... Motilal Nehru to draw up a constitution for India. The Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress asked the British government to accord dominion status to India by December 1929, or a countrywide civil disobedience movement would be launched. The British government declared in May 1929 that India would get dominion status within the empire very soon. However, the Congress, at its historic Lahore (لاةور) is a major city in Pakistan that is the capital of the province of Punjab. A native of Lahore is called a Lahori It is located near the river Ravi and the Indian border. Lahore has 6.5 million inhabitants and thus is the... Lahore session in December 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 2 - Canada and the United States agree on a plan to preserve Niagara Falls. January 9 - The Seeing Eye is established with the mission to train dogs to assist the blind ( Nashville, Tennessee... 1929, under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, adopted a resolution to gain complete independence from the British. It authorised the Working Committee to launch a civil disobedience movement throughout the country. It was decided that 26 January 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. Events January-February January 6 - The first diesel-engine automobile trip is completed (Indianapolis, Indiana, to New York City). January 27 - Miguel Primo de Rivera resigns January 30 - General Damaso Berenquer becomes the new prime minister of Spain February 18 - While studying... 1930 should be observed all over India as the Purna Swaraj (complete independence) Day.


Gandhi emerged from his long seclusion by undertaking his most famous campaign, a march of about 400 kilometers from his commune in Ahmedabad or Ahmadābād, is the largest city in Gujarat and the sixth largest city in India. It has about 4 million residents. The city is also known unofficially as Karnavati. Ahmedabad is the administrative center of Ahmedabad District, and was the first capital of Gujarat state... Ahmedabad to Dandi is a small village in Gujarat, India. It is located on the coast of Arabian Sea near the city of Surat. It shot into prominence when Mahatma Gandhi selected it to be the place for Salt Satyagraha. He marched from Ahmedabad to Dandi with some of his followers to... Dandi, on the coast of Gujarat (Hindi: गुजरात) is the most industrialized state in India after Maharashtra and is located in western India, bordered by Pakistan to the northwest and Rajasthan to the north. Its capital is Gandhinagar, a planned city close to Ahmedabad, the former state capital and the... Gujarat between March 12 and April 6, 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. Events January-February January 6 - The first diesel-engine automobile trip is completed (Indianapolis, Indiana, to New York City). January 27 - Miguel Primo de Rivera resigns January 30 - General Damaso Berenquer becomes the new prime minister of Spain February 18 - While studying... 1930. The march is usually known as the Dandi March or the Salt Satyagraha. At Dandi, in protest against British taxes on salt, he and thousands of followers broke the law by making their own salt from sea water. The act was largely symbolic, meant to show Indian defiance to British legislation.


Civil disobedience movement

In April 1930 there were violent police-crowd clashes in Calcutta. Approximately 90,000 people were imprisoned in the course of the Civil disobedience movement (1930-31). While Gandhi was in jail, the first Round Table Conference was held in London in November 1930, without representation from the Indian National Congress. The ban upon the Congress was removed because of economic hardships caused due to the satyagraha. Gandhi, along with other members of the Congress Working Committee, were released from prison in January 1931.


In March 1931, the Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed, and the government agreed to set all political prisoners free. In return, Gandhi agreed to discontinue the civil disobedience movement and participate as the sole representative of the Congress in the second Round Table Conference, which was held in London in September 1931. However, the conference ended in failure in December 1931. Gandhi came back to India and decided to resume the civil disobedience movement in January 1932.


For the next few years, the Congress and the government were locked in conflict and negotiations until what became the Government of India Act of 1935 could be hammered out. By then, the rift between the Congress and the Muslim League had become unbridgeable as each pointed the finger at the other acrimoniously. The Muslim League disputed the claim of the Congress to represent all people of India, while the Congress disputed the Muslim League's claim to voice the aspirations of all Muslims.


Elections and the Pakistan resolution

The 1935 act, the voluminous and final constitutional effort at governing British India, articulated three major goals: establishing a loose federal structure, achieving provincial autonomy, and safeguarding minority interests through separate electorates. The federal provisions, intended to unite princely states and British India at the center, were not implemented because of ambiguities in safeguarding the existing privileges of princes. In February 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 1 - Anastasio Somoza becomes President of Nicaragua January 11 - The first issue of Look magazine goes on sale in the United States. January 19 - Howard Hughes sets a new air record by flying... 1937, however, provincial autonomy became a reality when elections were held; the Congress emerged as the dominant party with a clear majority in five provinces and held an upper hand in two, while the Muslim League performed poorly.


In 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-June January 2 - End of term for Frank Finley Merriam, 28th Governor of California. He is succeeded by Culbert Levy Olson. January 24 - Earthquake kills 30.000 in Chile – about 50.000 sq... 1939, the Viceroy Victor Alexander John Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow (24 September 1887 - 5 January 1952) was a British statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1936 to 1943. Succeeding his father in 1908, Linlithgow served on the Western Front in World War I, and then served in various minor roles... Lord Linlithgow declared India's entrance into World War II without consulting provincial governments. In protest, the Congress asked all of its elected representatives to resign from the government. Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah (referred to in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam, or Great Leader, which is a legally defined title) (December 25, 1876 - September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim nationalist, who led the movement demanding a separate homeland for Muslims in... Jinnah, the president of the Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the Great Leader of the Muslim League The All India Muslim League was a political party in British India was the driving force behind the creation of a Muslim state on the Indian subcontinent. After partition, a much smaller party is still active, especially in Kerala, where... Muslim League, persuaded participants at the annual Muslim League session at Lahore in 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-February January 5 - FM radio is demonstrated to the FCC for the first time. January 6 - World War II: Mass execution of Poles, committed by Germans in the Poznan, Warthegau. January 12 - World War... 1940 to adopt what later came to be known as the The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (پاکستان in Urdu), or Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia. Pakistan borders India, Iran, Afghanistan, China and the Arabian Sea. With over 150 million inhabitants it is the sixth most populous country in the world. It also... Pakistan Resolution, demanding the division of India into two separate sovereign states, one Muslim, the other Hindu. Although the idea of Pakistan had been introduced as early as 1930, very few had responded to it. However, the volatile political climate and personal hostilities between the leaders transformed the idea of Pakistan into a stronger demand.


World War II

Subhash Chandra Bose

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Subhash Chandra Bose

Main articles: Netaji poster in Thiruvananthapuram Subhas Chandra Bose (January 23, 1897 - August 18, 1945) also known as Netaji, was a Orissa born and Bengal based Indian leader of the movement to win independence from British rule. Bose helped organize and later lead the Indian National Army put together with Indian prisoners... Subhash Chandra Bose, The Indian National Army was an auxiliary force to the Japanese Army in its southern mainland campaign during the Second World War. It was created primarily by the recruitment of Indian prisoners of war who, in the course of service in the armed forces of the British Indian Empire, had... Indian National Army


Though the Congress was initially reluctant to participate in Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air. August 9, 1945 World War II was a global conflict that started in 7 July 1937 in Asia and 1 September 1939 in Europe and lasted until 1945, involving the majority of the... World War II, it later decided to do so, with the Indian armed forces becoming the largest all-volunteer forces fighting alongside the allied powers. This was strongly opposed by Netaji poster in Thiruvananthapuram Subhas Chandra Bose (January 23, 1897 - August 18, 1945) also known as Netaji, was a Orissa born and Bengal based Indian leader of the movement to win independence from British rule. Bose helped organize and later lead the Indian National Army put together with Indian prisoners... Subhash Chandra Bose, who had been elected president of the Congress twice, in 1937 and 1939. After lobbying against participation in the war, he resigned from Congress in 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-June January 2 - End of term for Frank Finley Merriam, 28th Governor of California. He is succeeded by Culbert Levy Olson. January 24 - Earthquake kills 30.000 in Chile – about 50.000 sq... 1939 and started a new party, the The All India Forward Bloc is a leftwing nationalist political party in India. Background Netaji poster in Thiruvananthapuram Foward Bloc was formed on 3 May 1939 by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose who resigned from the Congress Party. During Second World War Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose led the Indian National Army... All India Forward Bloc. He was placed under house arrest, but escaped in 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 6 - Franklin Delano Roosevelt delivers his Four Freedoms Speech in the State of the Union Address. January 10 - Lend-Lease is introduced into the U.S. Congress. January 19 - British troops attack Italian... 1941. He surfaced in The Federal Republic of Germany ( German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. Due to its central location, Germany has more neighbours than any other European country: these are Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the... Germany, and enlisted German and Official language Japanese Capital Tokyo Largest City Tokyo Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 60th 377,835 km² 0.8% Population  - Total ( 2004)  - Density Ranked 10th 127,333,002 337/km² GDP  - Total (PPP, 2005)  - Total (nominal)  ... Japanese help to fight the British in India.


In 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. Events January January 4 - End of term for Culbert Olson, 29th Governor of California. He is succeeded by Earl Warren. January 11 - The United States and United Kingdom give up territorial rights in China. January 11 - General Juanto dies in Argentina - Ramon... 1943, he travelled to Japan from Germany on board German and Japanese submarines. In Japan, he helped organize the The Indian National Army was an auxiliary force to the Japanese Army in its southern mainland campaign during the Second World War. It was created primarily by the recruitment of Indian prisoners of war who, in the course of service in the armed forces of the British Indian Empire, had... Indian National Army (INA) and set up a Arzi Hukumate Azad Hind (literally translated from Urdu) meant the Provisional Government of Free India. It was established by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose on October 21, 1943 in Singapore, having all the requisites of a Government. It had the backing of the Japan following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and... government-in-exile. During the war, the Map of Andaman and Nicobar Islands with an extra detailed area around Port Blair The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a union territory of India. They are located in the Indian Ocean, in the southern reaches of the Bay of Bengal. The Andaman Islands and the Nicobar Islands are separated... Andaman and Nicobar islands came under INA control, and Bose renamed them Shahid (Martyr) and Swaraj (Independence). The INA engaged British troops in northeastern India, hoping to liberate Indian territories under colonial rule. Its attempts ended with the surrender of Japan in 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 5 - The Soviet Union recognizes the new pro-Soviet government of Poland. January 7 - British General Bernard Montgomery holds a press conference in which he claims credit for victory in the Battle of... 1945, and Subhash Chandra Bose was himself killed in an air crash in August 1945.


Quit India

In an effort to bring the British to the negotiating table, Gandhi launched the The Quit India Movement (Bharat chhodo) was a call for immediate independence of India from British rule. On August 8, 1942 a resolution was passed at the Bombay session of the All India Congress Committee (AICC) that marked the start of a civil disobedience movement. Mohandas Gandhi urged Indians to... Quit India movement in August 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 1 - World War II: The word United Nations is first officially used to describe the Allied pact. January 2 - World War II: Manila is captured by Japanese forces. The Japanese Admiral stays in... 1942. He issued the call "to do or die" from a large meeting ground in Bombay (since re-named August Kranti.) However, almost the entire Congress leadership was arrested within a span of 24 hours after Gandhi's speech. Large scale violence resulted in the aftermath of the Quit India movement.


Independence

Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air. August 9, 1945 World War II was a global conflict that started in 7 July 1937 in Asia and 1 September 1939 in Europe and lasted until 1945, involving the majority of the... World War II not only changed the map of the world and reduced Britain to a second rate power, it also helped mature British public opinion on India. The Labour Party's victory in 1945 helped reassess the merits of the traditional policies. While the British prepared to transfer power to India, the Muslim League renewed its demand for the formation of Pakistan. When it appeared that the Congress had no desire to share power with the Muslim League at the center, Jinnah declared August 16, 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. (see link for calendar) Events January January 4 - Theodore Schurch becomes the last person to be executed for offences committed under the Treachery Act of 1940 January 7 - Allied recognize Austrian republic with 1937 borders - the country is divided into four occupation... 1946 as Direct Action Day, which brought communal rioting in many places in the north. The Partition of India was the process by which British dependencies and treaty states in the Indian subcontinent were granted independence in the 1940s. The divisions resulted in the creation of four new independent states—India, Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and Pakistan (including modern-day Bangladesh... Partition seemed preferable to civil war. On June 3, 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 1 - British mines nationalized January 1 - Nigeria gains limited autonomy January 1 - The Canadian Citizenship Act went into effect January 3 - Proceedings of the U.S. Congress are televised for the first time... 1947, Viscount Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (June 25, 1900 – August 27, 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. He was the last Viceroy and first Governor-General of independent India, and First Sea Lord, as... Louis Mountbatten, the Viceroy (1947) and Governor-General (1947-48), announced plans for partition of the British Indian Empire into secular but Hindu-majority India and Islamic Pakistan, which itself was divided into east and west wings on either side of India.


At midnight, on August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. Events 700-1899 778 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, in which Roland is killed 927 - The Saracens conquered and destroyed Taranto 1309 - The city of Rhodes surrenders to the... August 15, 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 1 - British mines nationalized January 1 - Nigeria gains limited autonomy January 1 - The Canadian Citizenship Act went into effect January 3 - Proceedings of the U.S. Congress are televised for the first time... 1947, amidst ecstatic shouting of "Jai Hind" (Long Live India), India became an independent nation, with its first The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the government of India. The Prime Minister is technically outranked by the President of India, but because the Presidents duties are largely ceremonial, the Prime Minister has effective responsibility for government. India follows a parliamentary system... prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू) (November 14, 1889 - May 27, 1964), also called Pandit (Teacher) Nehru, was the leader of the (moderately) socialist wing of the Indian National Congress during and after Indias struggle for independence from the British... Jawaharlal Nehru delivering his famous speech on India's " Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps,India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes... tryst with destiny." Concurrently, the Muslim northwest and northeast of British India were separated into the nation of Pakistan. Violent clashes between This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). Aum, the most sacred syllable and quintessential symbol of Hinduism, represents the first manifestation of the unmanifest Brahman. Hinduism (सनातन धर्म; commonly called Sanātana Dharma... Hindus, A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. The word Muslim means one who submits and implies complete submission to the will of God ( Allah). Muslims believe that nature is itself Islamic, since it follows natural laws placed by God. Thus, a Muslim strives to surrender to God... Muslims, and A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism, a religious faith originating in the Punjab. The word Sikh is derived from the Sanskrit word shishya which means disciple or student. In the Punjabi language the word Sikh also means to learn. So a Sikh is a disciple of the Ten Gurus... Sikhs followed this partition. The area of Kashmir in the far north of the subcontinent quickly became a source of controversy that erupted into the The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 sometimes known as the First Kashmir War was a war fought between India and Pakistan over the region of Kashmir from 1947 to 1949. India and Pakistan achieved their long sought after independence from the United Kingdom on August 15, 1947. The subcontinent was... First Indo-Pakistani War which lasted from 1947 to 1949.


References

  • Library of Congress: India - A country study (http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/intoc.html#in0022)
  • The Indian Mutiny 1857-1858 by G W Forest. ISBN 8175361964
  • Discovery of India by Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू) (November 14, 1889 - May 27, 1964), also called Pandit (Teacher) Nehru, was the leader of the (moderately) socialist wing of the Indian National Congress during and after Indias struggle for independence from the British... Jawaharlal Nehru. ISBN 0195623592
  • An Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments With Truth by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to... Mohandas Gandhi. ISBN 0807059099
  • Freedom at Midnight by Larry Collins, Dominique Lapierre. ISBN 0006388515
  • Sofri, Gianni. 1995. Gandhi and India: A Century in Focus. English edition translated from the Italian by Janet Sethre Paxia. The Windrush Press, Gloucestershire. 1999. ISBN 1-900624-12-5

External Links

  • Independence movement (http://www.freeindia.org/dynamic/)
  • Mahatma Gandhi (http://web.mahatma.org.in/flash.html)
  • Subhash Chandra Bose (http://netaji.netfirms.com/)

Incorporates text from the Library of Congress Country Studies (Public Domain).


  Results from FactBites:
 
Indian Independence Movement - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6937 words)
The movement culminated in the independence of the subcontinent from the British Empire and the formation of India and Pakistan in August 1947.
Although, the First War Of Indian Independence is considered to be the first united rebellion against colonial rule in India, a much smaller ethnic revolt against the Portuguese took place in Goa during 1787, and is known as the Conspiracy Of The Pintos.
The Indian political spectrum was further broadened in the mid-1920s by the emergence of both moderate and militant parties, such as the Swaraj Party, Hindu Mahasabha, Communist Party of India and the Rashtriya Swayemsevak Sangh.
India - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3935 words)
On the Indian Ocean, it is adjacent to the island nations of the Maldives on the southwest, Sri Lanka on the south, and Indonesia on the southeast.
In the early part of the 20th century, a prolonged and largely non-violent struggle for independence, the Indian independence movement, followed, to be eventually led by Mahatma Gandhi, regarded officially as the father of modern India.
Traditional Indian family values are highly respected and considered sacred, although urban families have grown into a nuclear family system, owing to the socio-economic constraints imposed by the traditional joint family system.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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