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Encyclopedia > Indian Creek massacre
Indian Creek massacre
Part of the Black Hawk War

Monument located near Shabbona, Illinois on the Indian Creek site.
Date May 21, 1832
Location Near present day Earlville, Illinois.
Result Potawatomi/Sauk victory
Combatants
United States non-combatants Potawatomi
Sauk
Commanders
none Keewasee
Strength
22 civilians 20-40
Casualties
15 non-combatants possibly 1 KIA

The Indian Creek massacre occurred on May 21, 1832 when a group of settlers living 6 miles north of Ottawa, Illinois, United States, along Indian Creek, were attacked by a party of Native Americans. The massacre likely resulted from a local settler's stubborn refusal to remove a dam which jeopardized a key food source for a nearby Potawatomi village. A band of between 20 and 40 Potawatomi and three Sauk warriors attacked the cabin site. Fifteen settlers, including women and children, were massacred at the site near the present-day border of LaSalle and DeKalb Counties. Several people escaped the massacre and two young women were kidnapped by the raiders to be released about two weeks later unharmed. Combatants United States Sauk Nation Commanders Henry Atkinson Henry Dodge Adam Snyder Isaiah Stillman Samuel Whiteside Black Hawk Strength 2,000 Miltia 1,500 Regulars volunteers? Indian allies ? 1000 The majority were women and children Casualties 33 killed in action 39 non-combatants killed 450-600 The Black Hawk War... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Shabbona is a village located in DeKalb County, Illinois. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Earlville is a city located in La Salle County, Illinois. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Image File history File links US_flag_24_stars. ... Non-combatant is a military and legal term describing civilians not engaged in combat. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Rain dance, Kansas, c. ... Image File history File links Bandera_Sac_i_Fox_Oklahoma. ... For the abbreviation or acronym SAC, please see SAC. The Sauks or Sacs (Asakiwaki in their own language) are a group of Native Americans whose original territory may have been along the St. ... A civilian is a person who is not a member of a military. ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... Combatants United States Sauk Nation Commanders Henry Atkinson Henry Dodge Adam Snyder Isaiah Stillman Samuel Whiteside Black Hawk Strength 2,000 Miltia 1,500 Regulars volunteers? Indian allies ? 1000 The majority were women and children Casualties 33 killed in action 39 non-combatants killed 450-600 The Black Hawk War... Combatants United States Sauk and Fox of Black Hawks British Band Commanders Isaiah Stillman David Bailey John Giles Adams Black Hawk Strength 275 40-50 Casualties 12 3-5 The Battle of Stillmans Run, also known as the Battle of Sycamore Creek or the Battle of Old Man... Combatants United States Kickapoo warriors Commanders Henry Atkinson James M. Strode Strength 6 Not known Casualties 1 Not known The Buffalo Grove ambush was an ambush that occurred on May 19, 1832 as part of the Black Hawk War. ... Combatants United States Sauk or Fox Commanders James M. Strode unknown Strength 6; 3 present unknown; small band Casualties 0 0 The Plum River raid was a bloodless skirmish that occurred at present-day Savanna, Illinois, on May 21, 1832, as part of the Black Hawk War. ... Combatants United States Ho-Chunk or Sauk/Fox Commanders Henry Atkinson Felix St. ... Combatants United States possibly Ho-Chunk Strength 50-100 Casualties 3 KIA The Attacks at Fort Blue Mounds were two separate incidents which occurred on June 6 and 20, 1832, as part of the Black Hawk War. ... Combatants United States Black Hawk aligned Kickapoo Strength 6 unknown Casualties 4 1 The Spafford Farm massacre, also referred to as the Wayne massacre, was an attack upon U.S. militia and civilians that occurred as part of the Black Hawk War near present day South Wayne, Wisconsin. ... Combatants United States Kickapoo; loosely affiliated with Chief Black Hawks British Band Commanders Henry Dodge Strength 30 11 Casualties 3 KIA 1 WIA 11 KIA This article is about Battle of Horseshoe Bend (1832). ... Combatants United States Sauk Commanders James W. Stephenson Strength 12+ unknown Casualties 3 KIA 2-6 KIA The Battle of Waddams Grove, also known as the Battle of Yellow Creek, took place in present-day Stephenson County, Illinois during the 1832 Black Hawk War. ... Combatants United States Sauk Fox Kickapoo Commanders Adam W. Snyder Samuel Whiteside Black Hawk Strength approximately 300 80 Casualties 8 KIA at least 15 KIA The Battle of Kelloggs Grove is either of two minor battles, or skirmishes, fought during the Black Hawk War in U.S. state of... Combatants United States Sauk/Fox Commanders Clack Stone Black Hawk Strength 25 150-200 Casualties 1 KIA 2 WIA Unknown The Battle of Apple River Fort occurred on June 24, 1832 at the hastily constructed Apple River Fort, near present-day Elizabeth, Illinois, when Black Hawk and his British Band... Combatants United States Sauk and Fox of Black Hawks British Band Commanders James W. Stephenson Strength 3 unknown Casualties 2 killed 0 The Sinsinawa Mound raid occurred on June 29, 1832, near the Sinsinawa mining settlement in Michigan Territory (present-day Grant County, Wisconsin). ... Combatants United States U.S. aligned Menominee Sauk/Fox Commanders Henry Dodge James D. Henry Black Hawk Strength 600-750 miltia 300 Menominee warriors approximately 50-80 warriors Casualties 1 KIA 8 WIA 40-70 KIA The Battle of Wisconsin Heights was a major engagement between the United States involving... The Battle of Bad Axe, one of the last major battles during the Black Hawk War, was fought between the combined forces of the Sauk (Sac) and Fox tribes and United States troops under Gen. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ottawa is a city in north-central Illinois. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Rain dance, Kansas, c. ... For the abbreviation or acronym SAC, please see SAC. The Sauks or Sacs (Asakiwaki in their own language) are a group of Native Americans whose original territory may have been along the St. ... LaSalle County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. ... Location in the state of Illinois Formed 1836 Seat Sycamore Area  - Total  - Water 1,645 km² (634 mi²) 2 km² (1 mi²) 0. ...


In the aftermath of the massacre white settlers fled their homes for the safety of frontier forts and the protection of the militia. The Indian Creek massacre was later used as justification when U.S. soldiers and militia massacred many in Black Hawk's band at the Battle of Bad Axe. The events at Indian Creek were peripherally related to the Black Hawk War and are seen as an act of personal revenge that was not sanctioned by Black Hawk. Though there are a number of historical discrepancies in the details surrounding the events at Indian Creek, historians have generally agreed on the contentious points. Today, the site of the massacre is marked by a memorial in northern LaSalle County. The Battle of Bad Axe, one of the last major battles during the Black Hawk War, was fought between the combined forces of the Sauk (Sac) and Fox tribes and United States troops under Gen. ... Combatants United States Sauk Nation Commanders Henry Atkinson Henry Dodge Adam Snyder Isaiah Stillman Samuel Whiteside Black Hawk Strength 2,000 Miltia 1,500 Regulars volunteers? Indian allies ? 1000 The majority were women and children Casualties 33 killed in action 39 non-combatants killed 450-600 The Black Hawk War... LaSalle County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. ...

Contents

Prelude

Potawatomi chief Shabbona tried to warn the settlers at Indian Creek of the impending danger on May 16, 1832.
Potawatomi chief Shabbona tried to warn the settlers at Indian Creek of the impending danger on May 16, 1832.

The attack was most likely spurred by the provocations of a settler named William Davis.[1] Davis was a blacksmith and a mill operator and had dammed Indian Creek, a vital source of food to a nearby Potawatomi village. Specifically, Davis had raised the ire of Keewasee, a young Potawatomi who lived in the village. Keewasee requested Davis remove the dam but his pleas went unheeded and were contemptuously denied.[2] Before Black Hawk crossed the Mississippi River on April 5, 1832, Keewasee had tried to tear down the Davis dam but was caught while doing so and beaten by Davis with a hickory stick.[1] At the same time, the Black Hawk War had erupted in Illinois and the first battle at Stillman's Run proved to be a victory for Black Hawk's band. This event may have also encouraged the assault at Indian Creek.[2] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Rain dance, Kansas, c. ... Shabbona (or Sha-bon-na), also known as Shabonee,[1] (b. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Rain dance, Kansas, c. ... Black Hawk or Blackhawk or Blackhawks refer to several people, places and things. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United States Sauk Nation Commanders Henry Atkinson Henry Dodge Adam Snyder Isaiah Stillman Samuel Whiteside Black Hawk Strength 2,000 Miltia 1,500 Regulars volunteers? Indian allies ? 1000 The majority were women and children Casualties 33 killed in action 39 non-combatants killed 450-600 The Black Hawk War... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Combatants United States Sauk and Fox of Black Hawks British Band Commanders Isaiah Stillman David Bailey John Giles Adams Black Hawk Strength 275 40-50 Casualties 12 3-5 The Battle of Stillmans Run, also known as the Battle of Sycamore Creek or the Battle of Old Man... For other uses of Blackhawk/Black Hawk, see Black Hawk. ...


In the days preceding the massacre, Black Hawk met with Potawatomi chiefs Shabbona, Waubonsee and others in an attempt to persuade them to join his "British Band" of Sauk and Fox warriors. "Join me," Black Hawk said, "and our warriors will number like the trees in the forests." To which Shabbona replied, "that is true, but the white men number like the leaves on those trees."[1] On May 16, 1832 Shabbona, knowing he could not control all of his people (the tribe he was closely intermingled and married into), rode across northern Illinois to warn the settlers of impending danger. It is recorded that during this ride Shabbona warned Davis and the others at his settlement of the danger.[1] After the battle at Stillman's Run, rumors of an attack on white settlers became widespread. The settlement at the creek had ample cause to evacuate, but at the urging of Davis the inhabitants ignored the warning and opted to stay.[2] Shabbona (or Sha-bon-na), also known as Shabonee,[1] (b. ... Potawatomi Chief Wabaunsee (Little Dawn) Chief Wabaunsee (also as Wah-bahn-se, Waubonsie, Waabaansii in contemporary Ojibwe language and Wabansi in the contemporary Potawatomi language) was a Native American leader for the Potawatomi. ... For the abbreviation or acronym SAC, please see SAC. The Sauks or Sacs (Asakiwaki in their own language) are a group of Native Americans whose original territory may have been along the St. ... The Fox tribe of Native Americans are an Algonquian language-speaking group that are now merged with the allied Sac tribe as the Sac and Fox Nation. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Present from the Davis family at the Indian Creek site the day of the massacre were William Davis, his wife and six children, including James Davis and William Davis, Jr.[1] Also present were William Pettigrew, his wife and two children, John Hall, his wife, three daughters (including Rachel and Sylvia) and three sons, and Henry George, J.H. Henderson, and William Robert Norris.[1][2] The band of Potawatomi that attacked the Davis settlement at Indian Creek was led by Keewasee, who recruited members from Shabbona's tribe who were angry with the chief for failing to join Black Hawk. Among these were a number of young braves including Comee and Taquawee; another member of Keewasee's group, Mahokee, was Black Hawk's brother-in-law, who had joined the group inadvertently.[1]


Massacre

Rachel Hall, shown in this pre-1904 photo, was kidnapped by Potawatomi raiders during the massacre.

Between 20 and 40 Potawatomi and three Sauk attacked the Davis Indian Creek settlement on the afternoon of May 21, 1832.[1][3][4] It was late afternoon when the inhabitants at the settlement saw the group of Native American warriors, who may not have been connected with Black Hawk's band at all, approach the cabin, vault the fence and sprint forward to attack.[2][5] Most of the settlers were in or near the cabin, but J.H. Henderson and some of the older boys were working in the fields, and Norris was working in Davis' blacksmith shop.[2] The cabins were stormed and the inhabitants, including Mrs. Davis, Hall and Pettigrew along with several children, were killed. Davis and the other men could not reach the cabin in time to help the occupants but it is thought that Davis survived long enough to kill one of the raiders.[1] The entire massacre, which claimed 15 lives, took about 10 minutes to complete. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Rain dance, Kansas, c. ... For the abbreviation or acronym SAC, please see SAC. The Sauks or Sacs (Asakiwaki in their own language) are a group of Native Americans whose original territory may have been along the St. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Little was said or known about the actual events of the massacre; most of what was written focused on what happened to the women and children.[6] Thomas Ford later recounted, while failing to describe the events of the massacre, that some of those involved in the massacre related to each other "with infernal glee how the women had squeaked like geese when they were run through the body with spears, or felt the sharp tomahawk enter their heads."[6] More was written on the mutilation of the dead bodies than other topics surrounding the events at Indian Creek. Twenty-three year old John Hall, a massacre survivor, later described the scene he witnessed when he returned there the next morning. He detailed bodies with their hearts cut out and others with lacerations too shocking to behold without "shuddering."[6] Hunting spear and knife, from Mesa Verde National Park. ... Native American Afraid of Hawk, holding a tomahawk A tomahawk is a type of axe native to North America, traditionally resembling a hatchet with a straight shaft. ... Mutilation or maiming is an act or physical injury that degrades the appearance or function of the (human) body, usually causing death. ...


Two young women, Rachel and Sylvia Hall, were taken prisoner and later released.[1][7] Several of those present, J.H. Henderson, William Davis, Jr. and the three Hall boys, were able to escape.[1] Henderson fled immediately and Davis fell into the creek, feigning a wound, and let the current carry him downstream to Ottawa, Illinois.[1] Another escapee, seven year old James Davis, was presumed dead and recorded as such in some accounts but he too survived the massacre.[3] Ottawa is a city in north-central Illinois. ...


It is believed that the Potawatomi Native Americans who attacked, along with the three Sauk Indians, were the only ones responsible for the massacre.[2] There is no evidence that Black Hawk sanctioned the massacre and the violence at Indian Creek is seen as an act of personal revenge which was peripheral to the Black Hawk War.[7] Combatants United States Sauk Nation Commanders Henry Atkinson Henry Dodge Adam Snyder Isaiah Stillman Samuel Whiteside Black Hawk Strength 2,000 Miltia 1,500 Regulars volunteers? Indian allies ? 1000 The majority were women and children Casualties 33 killed in action 39 non-combatants killed 450-600 The Black Hawk War...


Kidnapping

Sylvia Hall, shown in this undated photo, was one of seven survivors of the Indian Creek massacre.

The prisoners ended up in the care of Black Hawk until they were ransomed. After the war, Black Hawk related that it was the three Sauk warriors with the Potawatomi who saved the Hall sisters' lives. Black Hawk recounted: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

"They were brought to our encampment, and a messenger sent to the Winnebagoes, as they were friendly on both sides, to come and get them, and carry them to the whites. If these young men, belonging to my band, had not gone with the Pottowittomies (sic), the two young squaws would have shared the same fate as their friends."

Rachel and Sylvia Hall were held for 11 days. Most of the time was spent at Black Hawk's camp where they were treated well.[5] With the help of the Ho-Chunk, U.S. Indian Agent Henry Gratiot eventually paid a ransom for the girls of ten horses, wampum, and corn. The Hall sisters were released unharmed on June 1, 1832.[7][5] The Ho-Chunk or Winnebago (as they are commonly called) are a tribe of Native Americans, native to what are now Wisconsin and Illinois. ... The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the Department of the Interior charged with the administration and management of 55. ... The term ransom refers to the practice of holding a prisoner to extort money or property extorted to secure their release, or to the sum of money involved. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Discrepancies

There are number of discrepancies found in accounts of the Indian Creek massacre, especially concerning the date, details surrounding the Hall kidnapping, and the number of victims. The date of the massacre, which historians generally agree occurred on May 21, 1832, was recorded by the Hall sisters as May 20 when they wrote down their account of the event in 1867. General Henry Atkinson, on the other hand, gave the date of the massacre as May 22 in a May 27 order he issued from Dixon's Ferry.[3] A historian is an individual who studies history and who writes on history. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Henry Atkinson (1782 - 1842) was a U.S. army officer. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dixons Ferry was the former name for Dixon, Illinois, United States. ...


Another historical discrepancy concerns the number of victims of the massacre. Some accounts, even modern-day accounts, give the number of dead as 16 while others state 15.[1][3] The discrepancy arose from the fact that James Davis, after the massacre, was missing and presumed dead. James escaped the attackers and thus survived the attack. The number of dead has been agreed upon at 15 by most accounts.[3] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Death in absentia. ...


Details surrounding the kidnapping of the Hall sisters are also convoluted. The girls' age is one point of contention; some sources assert that Rachel was 15 and Sylvia 17 at the time of the attack.[5][3] However, Sylvia Hall was born in February 1813 and her tombstone records indicated that she died on January 11, 1899 aged 85 years 10 months and 16 days. Thus, Rachel was 17 and Sylvia just over 19 years of age at the time of the massacre and kidnapping.[3] is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Aftermath

The killings triggered mass hysteria in the white population nearby. People abandoned settlements and sought refuge inside frontier forts, such as Fort Dearborn in Chicago.[8] News of the massacre spread quickly around the nation and helped to spread fear of Black Hawk and his band of warriors.[1] The Indian Creek massacre was one of the most famous and well publicized incidents during the Black Hawk War.[7] Mass hysteria, also called collective hysteria or collective obsessional behavior, is the sociopsychological phenomenon of the manifestation of the same or similar hysterical symptoms by more than one person. ... Fort Dearborn, named in honor of Henry Dearborn, was a United States fort built on the Chicago River in 1803 by troops under Captain John Whistler. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ...


On May 21 or 22 the people in Chicago, including those who had fled there, dispatched a company of scouts to ascertain the situation in the area between Chicago and Ottawa, along the Chicago to Ottawa Trail. The detachment, under the command of former Illinois militia Brigadier General Jesse B. Brown, came upon the mangled remains of the 15 victims at Indian Creek on May 22. They buried the dead and continued to Ottawa where they reported their grisly discovery.[8] May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


As a result, the Illinois Militia used the event to draw more recruits from Illinois and Kentucky.[7] The war would end at the Battle of Bad Axe with the massacre of much of Black Hawk's "British Band;" the events at Indian Creek were used to justify the slaughter.[1] At Bad Axe, as Black Hawk and his delegates approached the steam ship Warrior, cries of "Remember Indian Creek!" were heard from the ship just before the ship's cannons opened fire on the Native Americans.[1] Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... The Battle of Bad Axe, one of the last major battles during the Black Hawk War, was fought between the combined forces of the Sauk (Sac) and Fox tribes and United States troops under Gen. ... Paddle steamers - Lucerne-Switzerland Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ...


After the war, three Potawatomi were charged with murder for the Indian Creek massacre and warrants were issued at the LaSalle County Courthouse for Keewasee, Taquawee and Comee. The charges were dropped when the Hall sisters could not identify the attackers; the war paint they wore during the attack disguised them enough to prevent positive identification.[2] In 1833 the Illinois General Assembly passed a law granting each of the Hall sisters 80 acres of land along the Illinois and Michigan Canal as compensation and recognition for the hardships they had endured.[4] An arrest warrant is a warrant issued by a public officer which authorizes the arrest and detention of an individual. ... LaSalle County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. ... The Illinois General Assembly convenes at the Illinois State Capitol in Springfield. ... The location and course of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. ...


Today, a memorial marker with the names of those killed in the massacre is located in Shabbona Park in northern LaSalle County, east of Illinois Route 23. The marker was erected in 1905.[1] See also Interstate 24 US 24 Illinois Route 23 is a 115 mile (185 km) long north-south state highway in northern Illinois. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q McIntyre, Mac. "The Indian Creek Massacre," 2000, DeKalb County History, DeKalb County Online. Retrieved 5 August 2007.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Matile, Roger. "The Black Hawk War: Massacre at Indian Creek," Ledger-Sentinel (Oswego, Illinois), 31 May 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2007.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Barton, Albert O. "Echoes of the Black Hawk War" Wisconsin Magazine Of History, Vol. 16 Issue 4 (1932-1933). Retrieved 5 August 2007.
  4. ^ a b "Document 8 – Donation of Land to Rachel Munson, A Former Indian Captive," Document: 11 May 1834, Illinois State Archives, Illinois Secretary of State. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
  5. ^ a b c d Lewis, James. "The Black Hawk War of 1832," Abraham Lincoln Digitization Project, Northern Illinois University, p. 2B. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
  6. ^ a b c Trask, Kerry A. The Black Hawk War: Battle for the Heart of America, (Google Books), Henry Holt: 2006, pp. 213-215, (ISBN 0805077588). Retrieved 6 August 2007.
  7. ^ a b c d e "May 21, Indian Creek, Ill.: Abduction of the Hall Sisters," Historic Diaries: The Black Hawk War, Wisconsin State Historical Society. Retrieved 5 August 2007.
  8. ^ a b Matile, Roger. "U.S Army, cholera mark end of Black Hawk War," Ledger-Sentinel (Oswego, Illinois), 14 June 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2007.

is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... For other uses, see Oswego (disambiguation). ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... // Google offers a variety of services and tools besides its basic web search. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

References

  • Eby, Cecil. That Disgraceful Affair, The Black Hawk War, W.W. Norton and Company: New York, 1973, (ISBN 0393054845).
  • Dowd, James Patrick. Massacre at Indian Creek, La Fox: Illinois, 2002.

See also

In the history of the European colonization of North America, the term Indian massacre was often used to describe either mass killings of Europeans by indigenous people of the North American continent (Indians) or mass killings of indigenous peoples by Europeans. ... Combatants Indian Nationss Colonial America/United States of America Indian Wars is the name generally used in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the Americans and the Indian Nations. ... The Sixty Years War (1754–1814) was a military struggle for control of the Great Lakes region in North America, encompassing a number of wars over several generations. ...

Further reading

Black Hawk War (1832)

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