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Encyclopedia > India
भारत गणराज्य*
Republic of India
Flag of India Emblem of India
Flag Emblem
Motto
"Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)
सत्यमेव जयते  (Devanagari)
"Truth Alone Triumphs"[1]
Anthem
Jana Gana Mana
Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people
[2]
National Song[3]
Vande Mataram
I bow to thee, Mother
[4]
Capital New Delhi
Largest city Mumbai
Official Languages:
Scheduled Languages:
Demonym Indian
Government Federal republic
Parliamentary democracy[8]
 -  President Pratibha Patil
 -  Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Independence from British colonial rule 
 -  Declared 15 August 1947 
 -  Republic 26 January 1950 
Area
 -  Total 3,287,590 km² (7th)
1,269,346 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 9.56
Population
 -  2007 estimate 1.12 billion[8] (2nd)
 -  2001 census 1,027,015,248 
 -  Density 329/km² (31st)
852/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $ 4.156 trillion[8] (4th)
 -  Per capita $ 3,737 (118th)
GDP (nominal) 2007 estimate
 -  Total 1.0 trillion (12th)
 -  Per capita 820 (132th)
Gini? (1999-2000) 32.5[9] (medium
HDI (2006) 0.611 (medium) (126th)
Currency Indian Rupee (₨) (INR)
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+5:30)
Internet TLD .in[8]
Calling code +91

India (Hindi: भारत Bhārat; see also other names), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: भारत गणराज्य Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a sovereign country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world.[11] Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Bay of Bengal on the east, India has a coastline of 7,517 kilometers (4,671 mi).[12] It borders Pakistan to the west;[13] China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka, Maldives, and Indonesia. Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Emblem_of_India. ... Indian National Flag Flag ratio: 2:3 The National Flag of India was adopted in its present form during an ad hoc meeting of the Constituent Assembly held on the 22 July 1947, a few days before Indias independence from the British on 15 August, 1947. ... The Emblem of India The Emblem of India is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Satyameva Jayate (सत्यमेव जयते) is Indias national motto which is Sanskrit for truth alone triumphs. It is inscribed at the base of the national emblem, which is an adaptation of the Buddhist Lion Capital of Asoka at Sarnath, near Banaras in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Jana Gana Mana (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People) is the national anthem of India. ... National Song National Song is a term connected to India to refer the second(?) National Anthem of the Nation - Vandé Mãtaram. ... Typical depiction of Bharat Mata by Abanindranath Tagore Vande Mataram (Sanskrit: वन्दे मातरम् Vande Mātaram, Bengali: বন্দে মাতরম Bônde Matorom) is the national song of India, distinct from the national anthem of India Jana Gana Mana. The song was composed by Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay in a mixture of Bengali and Sanskrit. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... As a large and linguistically diverse country, India does not have a single official language. ... As a large and linguistically diverse country, India does not have a single official language. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is also used for central government administrative purposes , along with English. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... As a large and linguistically diverse country, India does not have a single official language. ... Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ... Bodo is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by the Bodo people of north-eastern India and Nepal. ... Areas in India and Pakistan where Dogri and related dialects are spoken Dogri (डोगरी or ڈوگرى) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about two million people in India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir, but also in northern Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, other parts of Kashmir, and... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujÇŽrātÄ«; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is also used for central government administrative purposes , along with English. ... “Kannada” redirects here. ... Kashmiri (कॉशुर, کٲشُر Koshur) is a northwestern Indo-Aryan language spoken primarily in the valley of Kashmir, a region situated mostly in the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. ... Konkani language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Konkani (DevanāgarÄ«: कोंकणी, Roman: Konknni, Kannada: ಕೊಂಕಣಿ, Malayalam: കൊംകണീ, IAST: ) is a language of India, and belongs to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Maithili (मैथिली MaithilÄ«) is a language of the family of Indo-Aryan languages, which are part of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Malayalam ( ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... Meitei-lon , also Meitei-lol, and Manipuri (and sometimes, the 19th century British term, Meithei, which is the name of the people, not of the language), is the predominant language and lingua-franca in the Southeastern Himalayan state of Manipur, in northeastern India. ... Marathi (मराठी ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western India. ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... “Punjabi” redirects here. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Santali is a language in the Munda subfamily of Austro-Asiatic, related to Ho and Mundari. ... SindhÄ« (سنڌي, सिन्धी) is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... “Telugu” redirects here. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... The President of India (Hindi: Rashtrapati) is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ... Pratibha Patil (Marathi: प्रतिभा पाटील) (born December 19, 1934) is the 13th and current President of India. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... This article is about the Prime Minister of India. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... One million million (1,000,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,000,001. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... One million million (1,000,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,000,001. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita for the year 2006. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... “INR” redirects here. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Location of Mirzapur and the 82. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .in is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for India. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Country Code: 91 International Call Prefix: 00 Fixed line telephones are operated by the government-owned incumbent operator BSNL, although some new fixed-wireless operators are in the picture since 2001. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is also used for central government administrative purposes , along with English. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... The following is a list of the twenty-three[1] names of the Republic of India in each of the Schedule VIII languages of India. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... India (from Greek Ἰνδία, region of the Indus river) may refer to: In politics: Contemporary India (post-1947), officially known as the Republic of India In geography: the region east of the Indus river and south of the Himalaya (OED), see Hindustan the entire Indian subcontinent, including Peninsular India (see also... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is also used for central government administrative purposes , along with English. ... The following is a list of the twenty-three[1] names of the Republic of India in each of the Schedule VIII languages of India. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is also used for central government administrative purposes , along with English. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Countries by area. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Home to the Indus Valley civilization and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history.[14] Four major world religions, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism originated here, while Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism arrived in the first millennium CE and shaped the region's variegated culture. Gradually annexed by the British East India Company from the early eighteenth century and colonised by the United Kingdom from the mid-nineteenth century, India became a modern nation-state in 1947 after a struggle for independence that was marked by widespread use of nonviolent resistance as a means of social protest. Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ... The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BCE. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Economic history of India, in the sense of the meaning of the term economic in its current sense, is at least 5000 years old. ... The culture of India has been shaped by the long history of India, all the while absorbing customs, traditions and ideas from both immigrants and invaders, yet resiliently preserving the ancient Vedic culture derived from the Indus Valley Civilization. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... Islam in India is the second-most practiced religion after Hinduism. ... Distribution of Christian population in different Indian states [1] Christianity is Indias third-largest religion, following Hinduism and Islam. ... // Indian Jews are a religious minority, living among Indias predominantly Hindu populace. ... This article is about the Parsi community. ... BCE redirects here. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... The Indian Independence Movement was a series of revolutions empowered by the people of India put forth to battle the British Empire for complete political independence, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ... Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of applying power to achieve socio-political goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence. ...


Although India is the world's fourth largest economy in purchasing power and the twelfth largest economy at market exchange rates, it suffers from high levels of poverty and illiteracy, persistent malnutrition, and environmental degradation. A pluralistic, multi-lingual, and multi-ethnic society, India is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... PPP The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Map of world poverty by country, showing percentage of population below national poverty line. ... In New Delhi, a woman wields a pickaxe on a footpath maintenance project while her husband rests and her baby sleeps Although the middle class has gained from recent positive economic developments, India still suffers from substantial poverty. ... World illiteracy rates by country Literacy is the ability to read and write. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... Environmental issues in India include various natural hazards, particularly cyclones and annual monsoon floods, and various combinations of poverty, population growth, increasing individual consumption, industrialization, infrastructural development, poor agricultural practices, and resource maldistribution have led to substantial human transformation of India’s natural environment. ... This article is about religious pluralism. ... Indian constitution recognizes 22 languages as National languages 1. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Glimpses of biodiversity India is one of the high biodiversity regions of the world with three biodiversity hotspots - the Western Ghats, the Eastern Himalayas and the Indo-Burma regions. ... India has the following kinds of Protected areas, in the sense of the word designated by IUCN. As of May 2004, India has 156,700 km² of surface area designated as protected areas, roughly 4. ...

Contents

Etymology

The name India (IPA: /'ɪndiə/) is derived from Indus, which is derived from the Old Persian word Hindu, from Sanskrit Sindhu, the historic local appellation for the Indus River.[15] The ancient Greeks referred to the ancient Indians as Indoi, the people of the Indus.[16] The Constitution of India and common usage in various Indian languages also recognise Bharat (pronunciation , /bʰɑːrət̪/) as an official name of equal status.[17] Hindustan (/hin̪d̪ust̪ɑːn/ ), which is the Persian word for “Land of the Hindus” and historically referred to northern India, is also occasionally used as a synonym for all of India.[18] The name India may refer to either the region of Greater India (the Indian subcontinent), or to the contemporary Republic of India contained therein. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindhu; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδός Indos) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindhu; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδός Indos) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ... Image File history File links Hi-Bharat. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Hindustan. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The suffix -stan (spelled ـستان in the Perso-Arabic script) is Persian for place of, and -sthan (स्थान in the DevanāgarÄ« script) is a cognate Sanskrit suffix with the same meaning. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ...


History

Main articles: History of India and History of Republic of India

Stone Age rock shelters with paintings at the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh are the earliest known traces of human life in India. The first known permanent settlements appeared over 9,000 years ago and gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilization,[19] dating back to 3300 BCE in western India. It was followed by the Vedic Civilization, which laid the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects of early Indian society. From around 550 BCE, many independent kingdoms and republics known as the Mahajanapadas were established across the country.[20] The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BCE. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ... The History of the Republic of India began on August 15, 1947 when India became an independent Dominion within the British Commonwealth. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... Bhimbetka rock painting Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka is an archaeological site in Madhya Pradesh where the earliest traces of human life in India were found. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...

Paintings at the Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad, Maharashtra. 2nd century BCE[21]

The empire built by the Maurya dynasty under Emperor Ashoka united most of South Asia in the third century BCE.[22] From 180 BCE, a series of invasions from Central Asia followed, including those led by the Indo-Greeks, Indo-Scythians, Indo-Parthians and Kushans in the north-western Indian subcontinent. From the third century CE, the Gupta dynasty oversaw the period referred to as ancient "India's Golden Age."[23][24] Among the notable South Indian empires were the Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas, Pallavas, Pandyas, and Cholas. Science, engineering, art, literature, astronomy, and philosophy flourished under the patronage of these kings. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1651, 1636 KB) Description: Title: de: Liebespaar Technique: de: Wandmalerei Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Indien Current location (city): de: Ajantâ (Nord-Dekhan, Indien) Current location (gallery): de: Höhlentempel Other notes: Source: The Yorck Project: DVD-ROM, 2002. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1651, 1636 KB) Description: Title: de: Liebespaar Technique: de: Wandmalerei Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Indien Current location (city): de: Ajantâ (Nord-Dekhan, Indien) Current location (gallery): de: Höhlentempel Other notes: Source: The Yorck Project: DVD-ROM, 2002. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... The Mauryan dynasty ruled the Mauryan empire, the first unified empire of India, from 322 BCE to 183 BCE. The rulers of the Mauryan dynasty were: Chandragupta Maurya (322 - 298 BCE) - founder of the Mauryan empire. ... Ashoka redirects here. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... The Indo-Scythian King of Kings Azes II (c. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first king of the Indo-Parthians kingdom. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ... The period between the 3rd century and 6th century CE is known as the Golden Age of India because of the large achievements Indians made in the fields of mathematics, astronomy, science, religion and philosophy during the Gupta Empire. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... The Chalukya Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled parts of southern India between 550 and 750, and again between 973 and 1190. ... The Rashtrakutas were a dynasty which ruled the Deccan during the 8th-10th centuries. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... The Pallavas were hereditary Hindu rulers who dominated southeastern India between the 4th and 9th centuries. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A miniature, Kishengarh, Jaipur, Rajasthan Indian cave art at Bhimbetka The vast scope of the art of India intertwines with the cultural history, religions and philosophies which place art production and patronage in social and cultural contexts. ... Indian literature is generally acknowledged, but not wholly established, as the oldest in the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya...


Following invasions from Central Asia between the tenth and twelfth centuries, much of north India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. Mughal emperors gradually expanded their kingdoms to cover large parts of the subcontinent. Nevertheless, several indigenous kingdoms, such as the Vijayanagara Empire, flourished, especially in the south. In the seventeenth and eighteenth century, the Mughal supremacy declined and the Maratha Empire became the dominant power. From the sixteenth century, several European countries, including Portugal, Netherlands, France, and the United Kingdom, started arriving as traders and later took advantage of the fractious nature of relations between the kingdoms to establish colonies in the country. By 1856, most of India was under the control of the British East India Company.[25] A year later, a nationwide insurrection of rebelling military units and kingdoms, variously referred to as the First War of Indian Independence or Sepoy Mutiny, seriously challenged British rule but eventually failed. As a consequence, India came under the direct control of the British Crown as a colony of the British Empire. The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... Flag of the Maratha Empire Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Combatants Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of Oudh and Jhansi. ... An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from the British perspective. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen_in_Parliament) legislative power. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...

Mahatma Gandhi (right) with Jawaharlal Nehru, 1937. Nehru would go on to become India's first prime minister in 1947.

During the first half of the twentieth century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress and other political organizations. Led by Mahatma Gandhi, and displaying commitment to ahimsa, or non-violence, millions of protesters engaged in mass campaigns of civil disobedience.[26] Finally, on 15 August 1947, India gained independence from British rule, but was partitioned, in accordance to wishes of the Muslim League, along the lines of religion to create the Islamic nation-state of Pakistan.[27] Three years later, on 26 January 1950, India became a republic and a new constitution came into effect.[8] Image File history File linksMetadata Nehru_Gandhi_1937_touchup. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Nehru_Gandhi_1937_touchup. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ... The Indian Independence Movement was a series of revolutions empowered by the people of India put forth to battle the British Empire for complete political independence, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ... Indian National Congress, (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ... For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is under construction. ... The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developed into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... Indian Muslim nationalism refers to the political and cultural expression of nationalism, founded upon the religious tenets and identity of Islam, of the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Since independence, India has experienced sectarian violence and insurgencies in various parts of the country, but has maintained its unity and democracy. It has unresolved territorial disputes with China, which in 1962 escalated into the brief Sino-Indian War; and with Pakistan, which resulted in wars in 1947, 1965, 1971, and 1999. India is a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement and the United Nations (as part of British India). In 1974, India conducted an underground nuclear test.[28] This was followed by five more tests in 1998, making India a nuclear state.[28] Beginning in 1991, significant economic reforms[29] have transformed India into one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, adding to its global and regional clout.[30] “Insurrection” redirects here. ... Combatants China India Commanders Zhang Guohua[4] Brij Mohan Kaul Strength 80,000[5][6] Casualties Killed 1,460 (Chinese sources)[7] None captured[8][9][10][11] Wounded 1,697[7] Killed 3,128 (Indian sources)[12] Captured 3,968[2] Wounded 548[13] The Sino-Indian War (Simplified... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders General K M Cariappa, Lt Gen S M Shrinagesh, Maj Gen K S Thimayya, Maj Gen Kalwant Singh Maj Gen Akbar Khan Casualties 1,104 killed[1](Indian army) 684 KIA(State Forces)[2] [3] 3,152 wounded [1] 1,500 killed[4] (Pakistan army) The... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri Harbakhsh Singh Ayub Khan Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800 killed[2] (September 6 - 22) 4,000 - 8,000 killed/ captured[3][4][5] (July to September 6) The Indo-Pakistani War... Combatants India Mukti Bahini Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 500,000+ troops 400,000+ troops Casualties 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] c. ... Combatants India Pakistan, Kashmiri secessionists, Islamic militants (Foreign Fighters) Strength 30,000 5,000 Casualties Indian Official Figures: 527 killed,[1][2][3] 1,363 wounded[4] 1 POW Pakistani Estimates: 357–4,000+ killed[5][6] (Pakistan troops) 665+ soldiers wounded[5] 8 POWs. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The Smiling Buddha was the first nuclear test explosion by India on May 18, 1974 at Pokhran. ... Operation Shakti refers to the second round of nuclear tests conducted by India on May 11 and May 13, 1998. ... This is a list of countries with nuclear weapons. ... This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (real) growth rate, the increase in value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year -- not taking into account Purchasing power parity and taking into account the inflation. ...


Government

Main article: Government of India
National symbols of India[113]
Flag Tricolour
Emblem Sarnath Lion Capital
Anthem Jana Gana Mana
Song Vandē Mātaram
Animal Royal Bengal Tiger
Bird Indian Peacock
Flower Lotus
Tree Banyan
Fruit Mango
Sport Field hockey
Calendar Saka

The constitution of India, the longest and most exhaustive constitution of any independent nation in the world, came into force on January 26, 1950.[31] The preamble of the constitution defines India as a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic.[32] India has a quasi-federal form of government[33] and a bicameral parliament operating under a Westminster-style parliamentary system. It has three branches of governance: the Legislature, Executive, and Judiciary. The President of India is the official head of state[34] elected indirectly by an electoral college[35] for a five-year term.[36][37] The Prime Minister is, however, the de facto head of government and exercises most executive powers.[34] The Prime Minister is appointed by the President[38] and, by convention, is the candidate supported by the party or political alliance holding the majority of seats in the lower house of Parliament.[34] The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of... Indian National Flag Flag ratio: 2:3 The National Flag of India was adopted in its present form during an ad hoc meeting of the Constituent Assembly held on the 22 July 1947, a few days before Indias independence from the British on 15 August, 1947. ... The Emblem of India The Emblem of India is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. ... Jana Gana Mana (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People) is the national anthem of India. ... Typical depiction of Bharat Mata by Abanindranath Tagore Vande Mataram (Sanskrit: वन्दे मातरम् Vande Mātaram, Bengali: বন্দে মাতরম Bônde Matorom) is the national song of India, distinct from the national anthem of India Jana Gana Mana. The song was composed by Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay in a mixture of Bengali and Sanskrit. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bengal Tiger or Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a subspecies of tiger primarily found in India, Bangladesh and also in Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and in southern Tibet. ... Binomial name Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 Indian Peahen with chicks The Indian Peafowl, Pavo cristatus, is a species of bird in the peafowl genus Pavo of the pheasant family, Phasianidae. ... Binomial name Gaertn. ... Species Many; see text for examples Banyan (genus Ficus, subgenus Urostigma) is a subgenus of many species of tropical figs with an unusual growth habit. ... Species About 35 species, including: Mangifera altissima Mangifera applanata Mangifera caesia Mangifera camptosperma Mangifera casturi Mangifera decandra Mangifera foetida Mangifera gedebe Mangifera griffithii Mangifera indica Mangifera kemanga Mangifera laurina Mangifera longipes Mangifera macrocarpa Mangifera mekongensis Mangifera odorata Mangifera pajang Mangifera pentandra Mangifera persiciformis Mangifera quadrifida Mangifera siamensis Mangifera similis Mangifera... A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a sport for men, women and children in many countries around the world. ... The Indian national calendar (sometimes called Saka calendar) is the official civil calendar in use in India. ... The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ... The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... This article is about secularism. ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image:WashingtonDC Capitol USA2. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The President of India (Hindi: Rashtrapati) is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... This article is about Electoral Colleges in general. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... Political Parties redirects here. ... A political alliance or political coalition is an agreement for cooperation between different political parties, often for purposes of contesting an election to mutually benefit by collectively clearing election thresholds or otherwise benefiting from characteristics of the voting system. ...


The legislature of India is the bicameral Parliament, which consists of the upper house called the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the lower house called the Lok Sabha (House of People).[39] The Rajya Sabha, a permanent body, has up to 250 members serving staggered six year terms.[40] Most are elected indirectly by the state and territorial legislatures in proportion to the state's population.[40] The Lok Sabha's 545 members are directly elected by popular vote to represent individual constituencies for five year terms.[40] The Parliament of India is bicameral. ... Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Dy. ... The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ...


The executive branch consists of the President, Vice-President, and the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet being its executive committee) headed by the Prime Minister. Any minister holding a portfolio must be a member of either house of parliament. In the Indian parliamentary system, the executive is subordinate to the legislature, with the Prime Minister and his Council being directly responsible to the lower house of the parliament.[41] The Council of the European Union forms, along with the European Parliament, the legislative arm of the European Union (EU). ... This article is about the governmental body. ...


India has a unitary three-tier judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of India, twenty-one High Courts, and a large number of trial courts.[42] The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction over cases involving fundamental rights and over disputes between states and the Centre, and appellate jurisdiction over the High Courts.[43] It is judicially independent,[42] and has the power to declare the law and to strike down union or state laws which contravene the Constitution.[44] The role as the ultimate interpreter of the Constitution is one of the most important functions of the Supreme Court.[45] The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. ... The Chief Justice of India is the highest position obtainable by a judge in India. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Fundamental Rights in India enshrined in the Part III of the Constitution of India guarantee civil liberties such that all Indians can lead their lives in peace and harmony as citizens of India. ... Judicial independence is the doctrine that decisions of the judiciary should be impartial and not subject to influence from the other branches of government or from private or political interests. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of India
The North Block, in New Delhi, houses key government offices

India is the largest democracy in the world.[11] For most of its democratic history, the federal Government of India has been led by the Indian National Congress (INC).[46] State politics have been dominated by several national parties including the INC, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the Communist Party of India (CPI), and various regional parties. From 1950 to 1990, barring two brief periods, the INC enjoyed a parliamentary majority. The INC was out of power between 1977 and 1980, when the Janata Party won the election owing to public discontent with the "Emergency" declared by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. In 1989, a Janata Dal-led National Front coalition in alliance with the Left Front coalition won the elections but managed to stay in power for only two years.[47] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Situated on Raisina Hill, New Delhi, India Secretariat Building is a set of two buildings on the opposite side of Rajpath that are home to many important Ministries of the Government of India. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of... Indian National Congress, (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... The Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP] (Hindi: , translation: Indian Peoples Party), created in 1980, is a major right wing Indian political party. ... The Communist Party of India (CPI) is a political party in India. ... The Janata Party (Peoples Party in Hindi) was an Indian political party that contested the Indian Emergency (1975-77) and became the first political party to defeat the Indian National Congress in the 1977 elections, forming the national government from 1977 to 1980. ... The Indian Emergency [of 25th June 1975–21st March 1977] was a 21-month period, when President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed, upon advice by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, declared a state of emergency under Article 352 of the Constitution of India, effectively bestowing on her the power to rule by decree... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... Janata Dal is an Indian political party which was formed through the merger one of the major Janata Party factions, the Lok Dal and a group of Congressmen led by V.P. Singh. ... The National Front was a coalition of communist political parties, led by the Janata Dal, which formed Indias government between 1989 and 1991. ... Left Front election propaganda in Kolkata 2004 DSP-meeting in Kolkata West Bengal Left Front Committee meeting for solidarity with Tripura Left Front is an alliance of Indian leftist parties. ...


The years 1996–1998 were a period of turmoil in the federal government with several short-lived alliances holding sway. The BJP formed a government briefly in 1996, followed by the United Front coalition. In 1998, the BJP formed the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) with several regional parties and became the first non-Congress government to complete a full five-year term.[48] In the 2004 Indian elections, the INC won the largest number of Lok Sabha seats and formed a government with a coalition called the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), supported by various left-leaning parties and members opposed to the BJP.[49] The United Front was a coalition of political parties which formed Indias government between 1996 and 1998. ... The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is a coalition in India. ... Legislative elections were held in India, the worlds largest democracy, in four phases between April 20 and May 10, 2004. ... United Progressive Alliance (UPA) is the present ruling coalition of political parties in India. ...


Foreign relations and Military

The Nuclear capable Agni-II ballistic missile during a Republic Day parade.

Since its independence in 1947, India has maintained cordial relationships with most nations. It took a leading role in the 1950s by advocating the independence of European colonies in Africa and Asia. India is one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement.[50] After the Sino-Indian War and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, India's relationship with the Soviet Union warmed at the expense of ties with the United States and continued to remain so until the end of the Cold War. India has fought and won two wars with Pakistan, primarily over Kashmir. India also fought and won an additional war with Pakistan for the the liberation of Bangladesh in 1971. The Republic of India, the second most populous country and one of the fastest growing economies in the world, is considered as a major power and a potential superpower. ... The Indian Armed Forces is the primary military organization responsible for the territorial security and defence of India. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 166 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (194 × 700 pixel, file size: 13 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Agni III. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 166 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (194 × 700 pixel, file size: 13 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Agni III. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The Agni missile (Sanskrit: अग्नी, Agnī Fire) is a series of Short to Intermediate range ballistic missiles developed by India under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program. ... Republic Day Parade refers to a military and cultural parade held in the Indian Capital of New Delhi on the Republic Day of India, on 26 January every year. ... This is a list of former European colonies. ... India played an important role in the multilateral movements of colonies and newly independent countries that developed into the Nonaligned Movement. ... Combatants China India Commanders Zhang Guohua[4] Brij Mohan Kaul Strength 80,000[5][6] Casualties Killed 1,460 (Chinese sources)[7] None captured[8][9][10][11] Wounded 1,697[7] Killed 3,128 (Indian sources)[12] Captured 3,968[2] Wounded 548[13] The Sino-Indian War (Simplified... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri Harbakhsh Singh Ayub Khan Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800 killed[2] (September 6 - 22) 4,000 - 8,000 killed/ captured[3][4][5] (July to September 6) The Indo-Pakistani War... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Since both nations achieved independence in August 1947, there have been three major wars and one minor war between India and Pakistan. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Combatants Mukti Bahini India Pakistan Commanders Col. ...


In recent years, India has played an influential role in the ASEAN, SAARC, and the WTO. India has been a long time supporter of the United Nations, with over 55,000 Indian military and police personnel having served in thirty-five UN peace keeping operations deployed across four continents.[51] Despite criticism and military sanctions, India has consistently refused to sign the CTBT and the NPT, preferring instead to maintain sovereignty over its nuclear program. Recent overtures by the Indian government have strengthened relations with the United States, China, and Pakistan. In the economic sphere, India has close relationships with other developing nations in South America, Asia, and Africa. ASEAN[1], pronounced // (AH-SEE-AHN) in English, or the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is a geo-political and economic organization of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on August 8, 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand[2] as a display of solidarity... The South Asian Association for Regional Co-Operation, or SAARC, (established December 8, 1985) is an association of 7 countries of South Asia namely Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. ... For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The Indian Armed Forces is the primary military organization responsible for the territorial security and defence of India. ... The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) bans all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes and was opened for signature in New York on 24 September 1996, when it was signed by 71 States, including the five nuclear weapon states at the time (which did not... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


India maintains the third largest military force in the world, which consists of the Indian Army, Navy, and Air Force.[8] Auxiliary forces such as the Paramilitary Forces, the Coast Guard, and the Strategic Forces Command also come under the military's purview. The President of India is the supreme commander of the Indian armed forces. India also became a nuclear state in 1974 after conducting an initial nuclear test. Further underground testing in 1998 led to international military sanctions against India, which were gradually withdrawn after September 2001. India maintains a "no-first-use" nuclear policy[52] and has a clean record of non-proliferation.[53] This list of countries by size of armed forces displays national troop levels by active troop strength, number of Naval combatants and aircraft. ... This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ... The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. ... The Indian Air Force (भारतीय वायु सेना : Bharatiya Vayu Sena) is the air-arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the prime responsibility of conducting aerial warfare and securing the Indian airspace. ... Components Indian Army Indian Air Force Indian Navy Indian Coast Guard Indian Paramilitary Forces Strategic Nuclear Command History Military history of India British Indian Army Indian National Army Ranks Air Force ranks and insignia of India Army ranks and insignia of India Naval ranks and insignia of India Related Info... Indian Coast Guards coat of Arms. ... On January 6, 2003, the Government of India announced the creation of a new Nuclear Command Authority (NCA) responsible for the management of India’s tactical and strategic nuclear weapons. ... The President of India (Hindi: Rashtrapati) is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ... Nations that are known or believed to possess nuclear weapons are sometimes referred to as the nuclear club. ... The Smiling Buddha was the first nuclear test explosion by India on May 18, 1974 at Pokhran. ... The Hydrogen Bomb detonated by India during Operation Shakti Pokharan-II refers to test explosions of five nuclear devices, three on 11 May and two on 13 May 1998, conducted by India at the Pokhran test range. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Subdivisions

Main article: Subdivisions of India

India is a federal republic of twenty-eight states and seven union territories.[46] All states, the union territory of Puducherry, and the National Capital Territory of Delhi have elected governments. The other five union territories have centrally appointed administrators and hence are under direct rule of the President. In 1956, under the States Reorganization Act, states were formed on linguistic basis.[54] Since then this structure has remained largely unchanged. Each state or union territory is divided into basic units of government and administration called districts. There are nearly 600 districts in India. The districts in turn are further divided into tehsils and eventually into villages. The subdivisions of India are Indian subnational administrative units; they compose a nested hierarchy of country subdivisions. ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... Most countries with a federal constitution are made up of a number of subnational entities called states or provinces. ... A union territory is an administrative division of India. ... The Government of India (Hindi: Bharat Sarkar), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called Republic of India. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The divisions of a district. ... A Tehsil is an administrative subdivision or tier of local government in some South Asian countries. ... A village is a human settlement commonly found in rural areas. ...

Administrative divisions of India, including 28 states and 7 union territories.
Administrative divisions of India, including 28 states and 7 union territories.

States: Image File history File links India-states-numbered. ... Image File history File links India-states-numbered. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ...

  1. Andhra Pradesh
  2. Arunachal Pradesh
  3. Assam
  4. Bihar
  5. Chhattisgarh
  6. Goa
  7. Gujarat
  8. Haryana
  9. Himachal Pradesh
  10. Jammu and Kashmir
  11. Jharkhand
  12. Karnataka
  13. Kerala
  14. Madhya Pradesh
  1. Maharashtra
  2. Manipur
  3. Meghalaya
  4. Mizoram
  5. Nagaland
  6. Orissa
  7. Punjab
  8. Rajasthan
  9. Sikkim
  10. Tamil Nadu
  11. Tripura
  12. Uttar Pradesh
  13. Uttarakhand
  14. West Bengal

Union Territories: “Andhra” redirects here. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi: Aruṇācal PradeÅ›) is the eastern most state on Indias north-east frontier. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... , Chhattisgarh (Chhattisgarhi/Hindi: छत्तीसगढ़, IPA: )  , a state in central India, formed when the sixteen Chhattisgarhi-speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh gained statehood on November 1, 2000. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... This article is for the Indian state. ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... , Himachal Pradesh   (Panjabi: ਹਿਮਾਚਲ ਪਰਦੇਸ਼,(Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA: ) is a state in the north-west of India. ... This article is about the area administered by India. ... , Jharkhand   (Hindi: झारखंड, Bengali: ঝাড়খণ্ড,IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... , Karnataka (Kannada: , IPA:  ) is a state in the southern part of India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... , Manipur   (Bengali: মণিপুর, Meitei Mayek: mnipur) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... , Meghalaya   is a small state in north-eastern India. ... , Mizoram   is one of the Seven Sister States in northeastern India on the border with Myanmar. ... , Nagaland   is a hill state located in the far north-eastern part of India. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... , Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखंड), known as Uttaranchal from 2000 to 2006, became the 27th state of the Republic of India on November 9, 2000. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ...

  1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  2. Chandigarh
  3. Dadra and Nagar Haveli
  4. Daman and Diu
  5. Lakshadweep
  6. National Capital Territory of Delhi
  7. Puducherry

Major Cities: BangaloreChennaiDelhiHyderabadKolkataMumbai It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... , Chandigarh   (Punjabi: , Hindi: , pronunciation: ) also called The City Beautiful , is a city in India that serves as the capital of two states: Punjab and Haryana. ... Dadra and Nagar Haveli (Gujarati: દાદરા અને નગર હવેલી, Hindi: दादरा और नगर हवेली, Urdu: دادرہ اور نگر حویلی, Portuguese: Dadrá e Nagar-Aveli) is a Union Territory in western India. ... Daman and Diu (Portuguese: Gujarati is the main language; use of Portuguese is declining because it is not official or taught at school (but still spoken by 10% in Daman). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Union Territory. ... For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... , “Madras” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... , For other uses, see Hyderabad. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... , Bombay redirects here. ...


Geography

Topographic map of India
Topographic map of India

India, the major portion of the Indian subcontinent, sits atop the Indian tectonic plate, the northwestern portion of the Indo-Australian Plate.[55] Its defining geological processes commenced seventy-five million years ago, when the Indian subcontinent, then part of the southern supercontinent Gondwana, began a northeastwards drift, lasting fifty million years, across the then unformed Indian Ocean.[56] The subcontinent's subsequent collision with the Eurasian Plate and subduction under it, gave rise to the Himalayas, the planet's highest mountains, which now abut India in the north and the north-east.[56] Plate movement also created a vast trough in the former seabed immediately south of the Himalayas, which was subsequently filled with river-borne sediment,[57] and now forms the Indo-Gangetic Plain.[58] To the west of this plain, and cut off from it by the Aravalli Hills, lies the Thar Desert.[59] The original Indian plate now survives as pensinsular India, the oldest and geologically most stable part of India, and extending as far north as the Satpura and Vindhya ranges in central India; these parallel ranges run, west to east, from the Arabian Sea coast in Gujarat to the coal-rich Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand.[60] To their south, the remaining peninsular landmass, the Deccan plateau, flanked on the left and right by the coastal ranges, Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats respectively,[61] contains the oldest rock formations in India, some over one billion years old. Constituted in such fashion, India lies to the north of the equator between 6°44' and 35°30' north latitude[62] and 68°7' and 97°25' east longitude.[63] The geography of India is diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, rainforests, hills, and plateaus. ... A semi-arid wasteland near Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3042x2933, 2736 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3042x2933, 2736 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...  The Indian plate, shown in red Due to continental drift, the India Plate split from Madagascar and collided with the Eurasian Plate resulting in the formation of the Himalayas. ...  The Indo-Australian plate, shown in dull orange The Indo-Australian Plate is an overarching name for two tectonic plates that include the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean extending northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters. ... For other uses of Gondwana and Gondwanaland, see Gondwana (disambiguation). ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...  The Eurasian plate, shown in green The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate covering Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia) except that it does not cover the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Verkhoyansk Range in East Siberia. ... The Juan de Fuca plate sinks below the North America plate at the Cascadia subduction zone. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... The Himalayas in Sikkim North-East India is the easternmost region of India consisting of the contiguous Seven Sister States and the state of Sikkim. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Aravalli Range is a range of mountains in western India running approximately 300 miles northeast-southwest across Rajasthan state. ... A NASA satellite image of the Thar Desert, with the India-Pakistan border superimposed is found in canada, united states. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: India Wikinews has news related to this article: India Look up India in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikibooks has more about this subject: India Wikisource has original text related to this article: India Official GOI Directory — Directory of governmental websites Indiaimage... The Satpura Range is a range of hills in central India. ... The Vindhya Range is a range of hills in central India, which geographically separates The Indian subcontinent into northern India and Southern India. ... The geography of India is extremely diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, hills and plateaus. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... The Chota Nagpur Plateau (also Chhota Nagpur) is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Orissa, Bihar, and Chhattisgarh. ... , Jharkhand   (Hindi: झारखंड, Bengali: ঝাড়খণ্ড,IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... The Agasthiyamalai range of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a mountain range in India. ... The Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains, eroded and cut through by the four major rivers of southern India, the Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri. ...


India's coast is 7,517 kilometers (4,671 mi) long; of this distance, 5,423 kilometers (3,370 mi) belong to peninsular India, and 2,094 kilometers (1,301 mi) to the Andaman, Nicobar, and Lakshadweep Islands.[12] According to the Indian naval hydrographic charts, the mainland coast consists of: 43% sandy beaches, 11% rocky coast including cliffs, and 46% mud flats or marshy coast.[12] Mudflats are relatively flat, muddy regions found in intertidal areas. ...

The Ganges River, a major river in India, is sacred to Hinduism
The Ganges River, a major river in India, is sacred to Hinduism

Major Himalayan-origin rivers that substantially flow through India include the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, both of which drain into the Bay of Bengal.[64] Important tributaries of the Ganges include the Yamuna and the Kosi, nicknamed "Bihar's Sorrow", whose extremely low gradient causes disastrous floods every year. Major peninsular rivers–whose steeper gradients prevent their waters from flooding–include the Godavari, the Mahanadi, the Kaveri, and the Krishna, which also drain into the Bay of Bengal,[65] and the Narmada and the Tapti, which drain into the Arabian Sea.[66] Among notable coastal features of India are the marshy Rann of Kutch in western India, and the south-western region of the alluvial Sundarbans delta, which India shares with Bangladesh.[67] India has two archipelagos: the Lakshadweep, coral atolls off India's south-western coast, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a volcanic chain in the Andaman Sea.[68] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,067 × 720 pixels, file size: 63 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken by Flick user: babasteve on May 31, 2005 Uploaded to Wiki by User:Nikkul http://flickr. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,067 × 720 pixels, file size: 63 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken by Flick user: babasteve on May 31, 2005 Uploaded to Wiki by User:Nikkul http://flickr. ... This article is about the river. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... This article is about the river. ... Brahmaputra A dugout with pilot in Chitwan. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Not to be confused with the nearby Jamuna River a tributary of the Meghna River, which is sometimes confused both in older historical literature, and by translations of the local dialects. ... Dudh Kosi (Milk River) is a river in eastern Nepal. ... Godavari river map The Godavari River, adjacent to the town of Kovvur This article is about Godavari River in India. ... The Mahanadi rises in the highlands of Chhattisgarh. ... This article is about a river. ... Krishna in Vijayawada in 2007 The River Krishna (meaning dark (feminine) in Sanskrit, also called the Krishnaveni, is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). ... The Narmada River in central India The Narmada (Gujarati: નર્મદા Devanagri: नर्मदा or Nerbudda (Narbada) is a river in central India in Indian subcontinent. ... The Tapti River (also Tapi River) is a river of central India. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... Rann of Kutch on the Top Left. ... Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Sundarbans delta is the largest mangrove forest in the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... The Andaman Sea (Burmese: ; IPA: ) is a body of water to the southeast of the Bay of Bengal, south of Myanmar, west of Thailand and east of the Andaman Islands; it is part of the Indian Ocean. ...


India's climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert, both of which drive the dynamics of the monsoons.[69] The Himalayas prevent cold Central Asian katabatic winds from blowing in, keeping the bulk of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations at similar latitudes.[70] Concurrently, the Thar Desert plays a role in attracting moisture-laden southwest summer monsoon winds that, between June and October, provide the majority of India's rainfall.[69] Four major climatic groupings predominate in India: Tropical wet, tropical dry, subtropical humid, and montane.[71] A monsoon is a periodic wind, especially in the Indian Ocean and southern Asia. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... A semi-arid wasteland near Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu. ... A semi-arid wasteland near Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu. ... A semi-arid wasteland near Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu. ... A semi-arid wasteland near Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu. ...


Flora and fauna

Main articles: Flora of India and Fauna of India
Now among the world's rarest monkeys, the golden langur typifies the precarious survival of much of India's megafauna.
Now among the world's rarest monkeys, the golden langur typifies the precarious survival of much of India's megafauna.

India, lying within the Indomalaya ecozone, hosts significant biodiversity; it is home to 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of all avian, 6.2% of all reptilian, 4.4% of all amphibian, 11.7% of all fish, and 6.0% of flowering plant species.[72] Many ecoregions, such as the shola forests, exhibit extremely high rates of endemism; for example, 33% of Indian plant species are endemic.[73][74] India's forest cover ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman Islands, Western Ghats, and North-East India to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya. Between these extremes lie the sal-dominated moist deciduous forest of eastern India; the teak-dominated dry deciduous forest of central and southern India; and the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan and western Gangetic plain.[75] Important Indian trees include the medicinal neem, widely used in rural Indian herbal remedies. The pipal fig tree, shown on the seals of Mohenjo-daro, shaded Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment. . ... Glimpses of biodiversity India is one of the high biodiversity regions of the world with three biodiversity hotspots - the Western Ghats, the Eastern Himalayas and the Indo-Burma regions. ... Image File history File links Trachypithecus-geei-cropped. ... Image File history File links Trachypithecus-geei-cropped. ... Binomial name Trachypithecus geei (Khajuria, 1956) Gees Golden Langur (Trachypithecus geei) or simply the Golden Langur is an Old World monkey found primarily in the foothills of the Himalayas along the Assam Bhutan border. ... The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Reptilia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Shola forest amid high altitude grassland on the Brahmagiri range in Kodagu Shola is a type of high-altitude stunted evergreen forest found in southern India. ... The South Western Ghats montane rain forests are an ecoregion of southern India, covering the southern portion of the Western Ghats range in Kerala and Tamil Nadu, at elevations over 1000 meters. ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... Tropic wet forests in the World Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical wet forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. ... Andaman Islands The Andaman Islands are a group of islands in the Bay of Bengal, and are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India. ... The Agasthiyamalai range of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a mountain range in India. ... The Himalayas in Sikkim North-East India is the easternmost region of India consisting of the contiguous Seven Sister States and the state of Sikkim. ... Pine forests are an example of a temperate coniferous forests Temperate coniferous forests are a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest. ... Binomial name Roth Sal (Shorea robusta) is a species of tree native to southern Asia, ranging south of the Himalaya, from Myanmar in the east to India, Bangladesh, and Nepal. ... Tropic wet forests in the World Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical wet forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. ... Species Tectona grandis Tectona hamiltoniana Tectona philippinensis Teak (Tectona), is a genus of tropical hardwood trees in the family Verbenaceae, native to the south and southeast of Asia, and is commonly found as a component of monsoon forest vegetation. ... Trinidad and Tobago dry forest on Chacachacare showing the dry-season deciduous nature of the vegetation The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome, also known as tropical dry forest, is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ... Binomial name Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ... In isolation, Hawaiis Silverswords have adapted to xeric microclimates within volcanic craters, trapping and channeling dew and protecting leaves with reflective hairs. ... Neem (Azadirachta indica, syn. ... Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. ... Binomial name Ficus religiosa L. The Sacred Fig Ficus religiosa, also known as Bo, Pipal (Peepul) or Ashwattha tree, is a species of banyan fig native to India, southwest China and Indochina east to Vietnam. ... Fig redirects here. ... Mohenjo-daro (literally, mound of the dead), like Harappa, was a city of the Indus Valley civilization. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ...


Many Indian species are descendants of taxa originating in Gondwana, to which India originally belonged. Peninsular India's subsequent movement towards, and collision with, the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic changes 20 million years ago caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms.[76] Soon thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya.[75] As a result, among Indian species, only 12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of amphibians.[72] Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome's toad of the Western Ghats. India contains 172, or 2.9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species.[77] These include the Asiatic lion, the Bengal tiger, and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which suffered a near-extinction from ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle. A taxon (plural taxa) is an element of a taxonomy, e. ... For other uses of Gondwana and Gondwanaland, see Gondwana (disambiguation). ...  The Indian plate, shown in red Due to continental drift, the India Plate split from Madagascar and collided with the Eurasian Plate resulting in the formation of the Himalayas. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Laurasia was a supercontinent that most recently existed as a part of the split of the Pangaean supercontinent in the late Mesozoic era. ... The Deccan Traps is a large igneous province located in west-central India and is one of the largest volcanic features on Earth. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... Zoogeography is the branch of the science of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution of animal species. ... Binomial name Trachypithecus johnii (J. Fischer, 1829) Nilgiri Langur (Trachypithecus johni) is a lutung (a type of Old World monkey) found in the Nilgiri hills of the Western Ghats in South India. ... Binomial name Bufo beddomii Günther, 1876 Beddomes Toad Bufo beddomii is a species of toad found in the Western Ghats of India. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo persica Meyer, 1826 Current distribution of the Asiatic Lion in the wild Synonyms Leo leo goojratensis (India) Leo leo persicus (Persia) The Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica; also known as Indian Lion) is a subspecies of the lion found only in India. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bengal Tiger or Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a subspecies of tiger primarily found in India, Bangladesh and also in Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and in southern Tibet. ... Binomial name Gyps bengalensis (Gmelin, 1788) The Indian White-rumped Vulture (Gyps bengalensis) is an Old World vulture in the family Accipitridae, which also includes eagles, kites, buzzards and hawks. ... my sister died form overdose!!! Diclofenac (marketed as Voltaren, Voltarol, Diclon, Dicloflex Difen, Difene, Cataflam, Pennsaid, Rhumalgan, Modifenac, Abitren and Zolterol) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) taken to reduce inflammation and an analgesic reducing pain in conditions such as in arthritis or acute injury. ...


In recent decades, human encroachment has posed a threat to India's wildlife; in response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act[78] and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial habitat; further federal protections were promulgated in the 1980s. Along with more than five hundred wildlife sanctuaries, India hosts thirteen biosphere reserves,[79] four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; twenty-five wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.[80] This is a list of all national parks of India. ... The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 refers to a sweeping package of legislation enacted in 1972 by the Government of India. ... Project Tiger is a wildlife conservation project initiated in India in 1972 to protect the Bengal Tigers. ... India has over 500 animal sanctuaries, referred to as Wildlife Sanctuaries (IUCN Category IV Protected Area). ... The Indian government has established 4 Biosphere Reserves (UNESCO categories roughly corresponding to IUCN Category V Protected areas), which protect larger areas of natural habitat (than a National Park or Animal Sanctuary), and often include one or more National Parks and/or preserves, along buffer zones that are open to... The World Network of Biosphere Reserves was established at the International Conference on Biosphere Reserves in Seville in 1995. ... The list of Ramsar Sites in India comprises Indian wetlands deemed to be of international importance under the Ramsar Convention. ... The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, i. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of India
The Bombay Stock Exchange is Asia's oldest and India's biggest stock exchange

For most of its post-independence history, India adhered to a quasi-socialist approach with strict government control over private sector participation, foreign trade, and foreign direct investment. However, since 1991, India has gradually opened up its markets through economic reforms and reduced government controls on foreign trade and investment. Foreign exchange reserves have risen from US$5.8 billion in March 1991 to well over US$250 billion in the fourth quarter of 2007,[81] while federal and state budget deficits have decreased.[82] Privatization of publicly-owned companies and the opening of certain sectors to private and foreign participation has continued amid political debate.[83] With a GDP growth rate of 9.4% in 2006-07, the Indian economy is among the fastest growing in the world.[84] India's GDP in terms of USD exchange-rate is US$1.125 trillion, which makes it the twelfth largest economy in the world.[85] When measured in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), India has the world's fourth largest GDP at US$4.156 trillion.[8] India's per capita income (nominal) is $820, ranked 128th in the world, while its per capita (PPP) of US$3,700 is ranked 118th. The economy of India is the third largest in the world as measured by purchasing power parity (PPP). ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Bombay Stock Exchange The Bombay Stock Exchange Limited (Marathi:मुंबई शेयर बाजार) (formerly, The Stock Exchange, Mumbai; popularly called The Bombay Stock Exchange, or BSE) is the oldest stock exchange in Asia. ... Market capitalization, or market cap, is a measurement of corporate or economic size equal to the stock price times the number of shares outstanding of a public company. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... The private sector of a nations economy consists of all that is outside the state. ... International trade is defined as trade between two or more partners from different countries (an exporter and an importer). ... This article is about economics. ... In general, liberalization refers to a relaxation of previous government restrictions, usually in areas of social or economic policy. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... USD redirects here. ... In finance, the exchange rate (also known as the foreign-exchange rate, forex rate or FX rate) between two currencies specifies how much one currency is worth in terms of the other. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... PPP The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita for the year 2006. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ...


Although the Indian economy has grown steadily over the last two decades; its growth has been uneven when comparing different social groups, economic groups, geographic regions, and rural and urban areas.[86] Although income inequality in India is relatively small (Gini coefficient: 32.5 in year 1999- 2000)[9] it has been increasing of late. Wealth distribution in India is fairly uneven, with the top 10% of income groups earning 33% of the income.[87] Despite significant economic progress, a quarter of the nation's population earns less than the government-specified poverty threshold of $0.40/day. 27.5% of the population was living below the poverty line in 2004–2005[88]. In addition, India has a higher rate of malnutrition among children under the age of three (46% in year 2007) than any other country in the world.[86][89] World map of the Gini coefficient This is a list of countries or dependencies by Income inequality metrics, sorted in ascending order according to their Gini coefficient. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... In economics, Distribution of wealth refers to the proportion of capital controlled by a given percentage of a population. ... The poverty threshold, or poverty line, is the minimum level of income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate standard of living. ... Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty line The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ...


India has a labour force of 509.3 million, 60% of which is employed in agriculture and related industries; 28% in services and related industries; and 12% in industry.[8] Major agricultural crops include rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, and potatoes. The agricultural sector accounts for 28% of GDP; the service and industrial sectors make up 54% and 18% respectively. Major industries include automobiles, cement, chemicals, consumer electronics, food processing, machinery, mining, petroleum, pharmaceuticals, steel, transportation equipment, and textiles.[8] Indias labour force exhibits extremes ranging from large numbers of illiterate workers unaccustomed to machinery or routine, to a sizable pool of highly educated scientists, technicians, and engineers, capable of working anywhere in the world. ... This article is about a term used in economics. ...


In 2006, estimated exports stood at US$112 billion and imports were around US$187.9 billion. Textiles, jewellery, engineering goods and software are major export commodities. Crude oil, machineries, fertilizers, and chemicals are major imports. India's most important trading partners are the United States, the European Union, China, and the United Arab Emirates.[8] More recently, India has capitalised on its large pool of educated, English-speaking people, and trained professionals to become an important outsourcing destination for multinational corporations and a popular destination for medical tourism.[90] India has also become a major exporter of software as well as financial, research, and technological services. Its natural resources include arable land, bauxite, chromite, coal, diamonds, iron ore, limestone, manganese, mica, natural gas, petroleum, and titanium ore.[46] The business process outsourcing industry in India refers to the Services Outsourcing Industry in India, catering mainly to Western operations of MNCs (Multinational Corporations). ... Medical tourism (also called medical travel or health tourism) is a term initially coined by travel agencies and the mass media to describe the rapidly-growing practice of traveling to another country to obtain health care. ...


Demographics

Main article: Demographics of India
See also: Religion in India, Languages of India, and Official languages of India
Population density map of India
Population density map of India

With an estimated population of 1.12 billion,[8] India is the world's second most populous country and the world's largest democracy. Almost 70% of Indians reside in rural areas,[91] although in recent decades migration to larger cities has led to a dramatic increase in the country's urban population. India's largest cities are Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Delhi, Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), Chennai (formerly Madras), Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad.[46] Population growth, from 443 million in 1960 to 1,004 million in 2000 Map showing the population density of each district in India Map showing the population growth over the past ten years of each district in India Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India Chart showing... An Indian Muslim couple weds on the bank of Karnatakas Tungabhadra River. ... Indian languages redirects here. ... As a large and linguistically diverse country, India does not have a single official language. ... Image File history File links India_population_density_map_en. ... Image File history File links India_population_density_map_en. ... The following is a list of Indian city statuses used by the Government of India to allocate compensatory allowances to the cities in the country. ... This article lists the top fifty metropolitan areas in India by population as of 2007. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... , “Madras” redirects here. ... , For other uses, see Hyderabad. ... , Ahmedabad (Gujarati: , Hindi: अहमदाबाद ) is the largest city in the state of Gujarat and the seventh-largest urban agglomeration in India, with a population of almost 51 lakhs (5. ...


India is the second most culturally, linguistically and genetically diverse geographical entity after the African continent.[92] India is home to two major linguistic families: Indo-Aryan (spoken by about 74% of the population) and Dravidian (spoken by about 24%). Other languages spoken in India come from the Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman linguistic families. Hindi, with the largest number of speakers,[93] is the official language of India.[94] English, which is extensively used in business and administration, has the status of a 'subsidiary official language'.[6] The constitution also recognises in particular 21 other languages that are either abundantly spoken or have classical status. The number of dialects in India is as high as 1,652.[95] Indian languages redirects here. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... The Austroasiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia and India. ... The Tibeto-Burman linguistic subfamily of the proposed Sino-Tibetan language family is spoken in various central and south Asian countries: Myanmar (Burmese language), Tibet (Tibetan language), northern Thailand (Mong language), Nepal, Bhutan, India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and the Ladakh region of... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is also used for central government administrative purposes , along with English. ... As a large and linguistically diverse country, India does not have a single official language. ...


Over 800 million Indians (80.5%) are Hindu. Other religious groups include Muslims (13.4%), Christians (2.3%), Sikhs (1.9%), Buddhists (0.8%), Jains (0.4%), Jews, Zoroastrians, Bahá'ís and others.[96] Tribals constitute 8.1% of the population.[97] Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... This article is about the generally-recognized global religious community. ... Ä€divāsÄ«s (आदिवासी), literally original inhabitants, comprise a substantial indigenous minority of the population of India. ...


India's literacy rate is 64.8% (53.7% for females and 75.3% for males). The state of Kerala has the highest literacy rate (91%); Bihar has the lowest (47%).[91] The national gender ratio is 944 females per 1,000 males.[91] India's median age is 24.9, and the population growth rate of 1.38% per annum; there are 22.01 births per 1,000 people per year.[8] , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... Sex ratio by country for total population. ... Ageing is a part of the human life cycle. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of India
The Taj Mahal in Agra was built by Shah Jahan as memorial to wife Mumtaz Mahal. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered to be of "outstanding universal value".
The Taj Mahal in Agra was built by Shah Jahan as memorial to wife Mumtaz Mahal. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered to be of "outstanding universal value".[98]

India's culture is marked by a high degree of syncretism[99] and cultural pluralism.[100] It has managed to preserve established traditions while absorbing new customs, traditions, and ideas from invaders and immigrants. Multicultural concerns have long informed India’s history and traditions, constitution and political arrangements.[101] The culture of India has been shaped by the long history of India, all the while absorbing customs, traditions and ideas from both immigrants and invaders, yet resiliently preserving the ancient Vedic culture derived from the Indus Valley Civilization. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2040x1681, 2396 KB) Description: Taj Mahal Source: Dhirad, picture edited by J. A. Knudsen Uploaded to en: on March 1, 2005, 14:30, by Deep750 who added the following comment On April 9, 2005, 19:22 Nichalp added that heemailed Deep750... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2040x1681, 2396 KB) Description: Taj Mahal Source: Dhirad, picture edited by J. A. Knudsen Uploaded to en: on March 1, 2005, 14:30, by Deep750 who added the following comment On April 9, 2005, 19:22 Nichalp added that heemailed Deep750... Taj Mahal Location of the Taj Mahal within India The Taj Mahal (Devanagari: ताज महल, Nastaliq: تاج محل) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. ... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ... Shahabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... Artistic depiction of Mumtaz Mahal Mumtāz Mahal (Persian: ممتاز محل, meaning beloved ornament of the palace; pronunciation //) is the common nickname of Arjumand Banu Begum, who was born in April of 1593 in Agra, India. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Main articles: Pluralism and Multiculturalism Cultural pluralism exists when all groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities. ... Multiculturalism or cultural pluralism is a policy, ideal, or reality that emphasizes the unique characteristics of different cultures in the world, especially as they relate to one another in immigrant receiving nations. ...


Indian Architecture, including notable monuments, such as the Taj Mahal and other examples of Mughal architecture and South Indian architecture, is the result of traditions that combined elements from several parts of the country and abroad. Vernacular architecture also displays notable regional variation. Indian architecture encompasses a wide variety of geographically and historically spread structures, and was transformed by the long history of the entire South Asian subcontinent. ... Taj Mahal Location of the Taj Mahal within India The Taj Mahal (Devanagari: ताज महल, Nastaliq: تاج محل) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. ... Mughal architecture is the distinctive style of Islamic, Persian and Indian architecture, developed by the Mughal Empire in India in the 16th century. ... Dravidian architecture, was a style of architecture that emerged thousands of years ago in the Indian subcontinent. ... Ettayapuram Bharathi House A Toda tribal hut Indian vernacular architecture is the informal, functional architecture of structures built of local materials in a style to meet the needs of the local people. ...


Indian music covers a wide range of traditions and regional styles. Classical music is split mainly between the North Indian Hindustani and South Indian Carnatic traditions. Highly regionalised forms of popular music include filmi and folk music; the syncretic tradition of the bauls is a well-known form of the latter. Timeline and Samples Genres Classical (Carnatic and Hindustani) - Rock - Pop - Hip hop Awards Bollywood Music Awards - Punjabi Music Awards Charts Festivals Sangeet Natak Akademi – Thyagaraja Aradhana – Cleveland Thyagaraja Aradhana Media Sruti, The Music Magazine National anthem Jana Gana Mana, also national song Vande Mataram Music of the states Andaman and... The origins of Indian classical music can be found from the oldest of scriptures, part of the Hindu tradition, the Vedas. ... Hindustani Classical Music is an Indian classical music tradition that took shape in northern India in the 13th and 14th centuries AD from existing religious, folk, and theatrical performance practices. ... Carnatic music, also known as is one of the two styles of Indian classical music, the other being Hindustani music. ... Filmi is Indian popular music as written and performed for Indian cinema. ... Indian folk music is diverse because of Indias vast cultural diversity. ... Baul on a train in West Bengal Bauls (Bengali: বাউল) are a group of mystic minstrels from Bengal, which comprises Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. ...


Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms. Among the well-known folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab, the bihu of Assam, the chhau of Bihar and Orissa and the ghoomar of Rajasthan. Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama. These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu, kathak of Uttar Pradesh, kathakali and mohiniattam of Kerala, kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh, manipuri of Manipur, odissi of the state of Orissa and the sattriya of Assam.[102] Classical Indian dance Dance in India has its origins in antiquity and continues in both classical and modern styles into the present. ... Indian folk and tribal dances are simple dances, and are performed to express joy. ... Bhangra (Punjabi: , , ) is a lively form of music and dance that originated in the Punjab region of India and Pakistan. ... Look up Punjab in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bihu is the most important (non-religious) festival of the Assamese culture and of the state of Assam which is situated in the northeastern region of India. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... CHAU is a television station. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... Ghoomar is a traditional womens folk dance of Rajasthan, India which was developed by the Bhil tribe and was adopted by the Rajputs. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ... Indian classical dance is performed in different styles. ... Koodiyattam maestro Guru Padma Shri Māni Mādhava Chākyār receiving Sangeet Natak Academy Award from Dr.S Radhakrishnan - the President of India(1964). ... Bharatanatyam[1] is a classical dance form originating from Tamil Nadu[2][3][4][5][6], a state in Southern India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Stamp issued in honour of Kathak Kathak is one of the classical dance forms of India (originally from North India), and the national dance of Pakistan. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... Kathakali (IPA: [kat̪ʰakaÉ­i], Malayalam:�·ഥ�·ളി , Sanskrit:�·थ�·ळि) is a form of Indian dance-drama. ... Mohiniaattam (മൊഹിനിയാട്ടം) (also spelled as mohiniattam or mohiniyattam) is a traditional South Indian dance form from Kerala, India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Kuchipudi (కుచిపుడి) is a Classical Indian dance form from Andhra Pradesh, a state of South India. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ... Stamp issued in honour of the Manipuri dance Full Manipuri dance costume for Radha Manipuri dance is one of the major Indian classical dance forms. ... , Manipur   (Bengali: মণিপুর, Meitei Mayek: mnipur) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... Odissi (or Orissi) is the traditional style of dance that originated in the state of Orissa in Eastern India, where it was performed by the maharis (temple dancers). ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... image of Sattriya dance Sattriya dance or Sattriya Nritya is one among the eight principal classical dance traditions of India. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ...


Theatre in India often incorporates music, dance, and improvised or written dialogue.[103] Often based on Hindu mythology, but also borrowing from medieval romances, and news of social and political events, Indian theatre includes the bhavai of state of Gujarat, the jatra of West Bengal, the nautanki and ramlila of North India, the tamasha of Maharashtra, the terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu, and the yakshagana of Karnataka.[104] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ... Bhavai Rajasthani Bhavai Bhavai(Strolling Players) is a popular folk theatre form of Gujarat. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Jatra (literally going or journey) a form of folk drama combining acting, songs, music, dance, characterised by stylised delivery and exaggerated gestures and orations. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... Nautanki is a kind of street play popular in northern India especially in the states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. ... Ramlila (Hindi: रामलीला) is a dramatic folk re-enactment of the ten day battle between Lord Ram and Ravan, as described in the Hindu religious epic, the Ramayan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... A Yakshagana artist wearing pagaDe, one type of head-wear. ... , Karnataka (Kannada: , IPA:  ) is a state in the southern part of India. ...

An oval-roofed sacred dairy of the Toda people of the Nilgiris. The walls are made of dressed stone and decorated with mural painting.
An oval-roofed sacred dairy of the Toda people of the Nilgiris. The walls are made of dressed stone and decorated with mural painting.

The Indian film industry is the largest in the world. The Mumbai-based Bollywood's commercial Hindi film is its most prolific film industry in the world.[105] Established traditions also exist in Bengali, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Tamil, and Telugu.[106] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 648 KB) The hut of a Toda Tribe of Nilgiris, India. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 648 KB) The hut of a Toda Tribe of Nilgiris, India. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... The Indian film industry is the largest in the world in terms of the ticket sales and the number of films produced annually (877 feature films and 1177 short films were released in the year 2003 alone). ... , Bombay redirects here. ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Bengali cinema, or the Bengali film industry, is one of the earliest film industries in India. ... The Cinema of Karnataka encompasses movies made in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Malayalam cinema refers to films made in the Indian state of Kerala in the Malayalam language. ... Marathi cinema (मराठी चित्रपट) is one of the oldest in regional Indian films industry. ... Kollywood is a name often applied to Tamil Cinema, based in Chennai (formerly Madras) in the state of Tamil Nadu in south India. ... Telugu Cinema refers to the Telugu film industry. ...


The earliest works of Indian literature were transmitted orally and only later written down.[107] These included works of Sanskrit literature – such as the early Vedas, the epics Mahabharata and Ramayana, the drama Abhijñānaśākuntalam (The Recognition of Śakuntalā), and poetry such as the Mahākāvya[108] – and the Tamil language Sangam literature.[109] Among Indian writers of the modern era active in Indian languages or English, Rabindranath Tagore won Nobel Prize in 1913. Indian literature is generally acknowledged, but not wholly established, as the oldest in the world. ... Literature in Sanskrit, one of Indias two oldest languages, and the basis of several modern languages in India. ... Veda redirects here. ... The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a software environment used to develop and implement distributed control systems to operate devices such as particle accelerators, telescopes and other large experiments. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Shakuntala. ... Literature in Sanskrit, one of Indias two oldest languages, and the basis of several modern languages in India. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years 200 BCE and 300 CE.[1][2] This collection contains 2381 poems written by 473 poets, some 102 of whom are anonymous authors[3]. The period during which these poems were written is commonly referred to... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Indian English Literature. ... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ...


Indian cuisine is characterized by a wide variety of regional styles and sophisticated use of herbs and spices. The staple foods in the region are rice (especially in the south and the east) and wheat (predominantly in the north).[110] Spices originally native to the Indian subcontinent that are now consumed world wide include black pepper; in contrast, hot chilli peppers, popular across India, were introduced by the Portuguese.[111] The Cuisine of India is very diverse and is a result of Indias diverse population. ... Binomial name L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... The chile pepper (also chili or chilli; from Spanish chile) is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family (Solanaceae). ...


Traditional Indian dress greatly varies across the regions in its colours and styles and depends on various factors, including climate. Popular styles of dress include draped garments such as sari for women and dhoti or lungi for men;in addition, stitched clothes such as shalwar kameez for women and kurta-pyjama and European-style trousers and shirts for men, are also popular. Indian dress varies widely throughout India. ... For the city, see Sari, Iran. ... Similar to sarongs, dhotis are commonly worn with western-style oxford shirts by the men of South India. ... A boy in a village of Narail, Bangladesh wearing a lungi with single knot. ... Salwar kameez is the traditional dress worn by various peoples of south-central Asia. ... A kurta (or sometimes kurti, for women) is a traditional piece of clothing worn in Afghanistan, northern India, and Pakistan. ... Categories: Stub | Clothing ... Germanic trousers of the 4th century found in the Thorsberg moor, Germany Early use of trousers in France: a sans-culotte by Louis-Léopold Boilly. ... A shirt is a sort of top, i. ...


Many of the Indian festivals are religious in origin, although several are celebrated irrespective of caste and creed. Some of the more popular festivals are Diwali, Holi, Onam, Vijayadashami, Bihu, Durga puja, the two Eids, Christmas, Ugadi, Buddha Jayanti and Vaisakhi.[citation needed] India has three national holidays. Other sets of holidays, varying between nine and twelve, are officially observed in the individual states. Religious practices are an integral part of everyday life and are a very public affair. Traditional Indian family values are highly respected, although urban families now prefer a nuclear family system due to the socio-economic constraints imposed by the traditional joint family system. India, being a multicultural and multireligious society, celebrates holidays and festivals of various faiths and special interest groups. ... Diwali,or Deepawali, (also called Tihar and Swanti in Nepal) (Markiscarali) is a major Indian and Nepalese festive holiday. ... For the Indian film of the same name, see Holi (film). ... Onam (IPA: [oːɳam], Malayalam: ഓണം) is an annual harvest festival, celebrated mainly in the south Indian state of Kerala. ... Vijayadashami (Hindi and Marathi: विजयादशमी, Kannada:ವಿಜಯದಶಮಿ), also known as Dussehra (Hindi: दशहरा, Kannada: ದಸರ, Marathi: दसरा) or Mohani Nakha (Nepal Bhasa:मोहनी नख:) is a festival celebrated across India. ... Bihu is the most important (non-religious) festival of the Assamese culture and of the state of Assam which is situated in the northeastern region of India. ... Durga Puja (Bengali: দুর্গাপূজা Durga Puja) is the biggest festival of Hindus in Bihar, West Bengal, East Bengal, Jharkhand, and Bengali Hindus all over the world. ... The word Eid can mean several things: There are two Islamic festivals of Eid: One is called Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر) that marks the end of the holy month of Ramadan, The other is Eid ul-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى) or Eid-e Qurban (Persian: عید قربان) which is celebrated to commemorate Prophet Ibrahim... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... Ugadi (Telugu: ఉగాది, Kannada: ಉಗಾದಿ) (literally - the start of an era) is the new years day for the people of the Deccan region of India. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Khanda Vaisakhi (Punjabi: , , also known as Baisakhi) is a long established harvest festival in Punjab that also has religious significance for both Sikhs[1] and Hindus. ...


India's national sport is field hockey though cricket is the most popular Indian sport. In some states, particularly those in the northeast and the states of West Bengal, Goa, and Kerala, football (soccer) is also a popular sport.[112] In recent times, tennis has also gained popularity. Chess, commonly held to have originated in India, is also gaining popularity with the rise of the number Indian grandmasters. Traditional sports include kabaddi, kho-kho, and gilli-danda, which are played nationwide. India is home to the age-old discipline of yoga and to the ancient martial arts, Kalarippayattu and Varma Kalai. A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a sport for men, women and children in many countries around the world. ... This article is about the sport. ... Common Sports in India include cricket (by far the most popular), soccer, field hockey, lawn tennis, chess, etc. ... The Himalayas in Sikkim North-East India is the easternmost region of India consisting of the contiguous Seven Sister States and the state of Sikkim. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Western board game. ... Krishna and Radha are shown playing chaturanga on an 8x8 Ashtāpada. ... The title Grandmaster is awarded to world-class chess masters by the world chess organization FIDE. Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Kho Kho is an Indian sport played by teams of twelve players who try to avoid being touched by members of the opposing team. ... Gilli िगल्ली -danda डन्डा is a game popular across the length and breadth of India and Pakistan. ... For other uses, see Yoga (disambiguation). ... The Indian subcontinent is home to a variety of martial arts, including Pehlwani, Kalarippayattu, Vajra Mushti and Gatka. ... Kalarippayattu (IPA: [kaɭaɾipːajatɨ̆], Malayalam: കളരിപയറ്റ്) is a Dravidian martial art practised in Kerala and contiguous parts of neighboring Tamil Nadu of Southern India. ... Varma Kalai Varma Kalai (also spelled Varmakalai or Varmakkalai) is an ancient martial art which has its origins in the southern part of India, more specifically, around Tamil Nadu state. ...


See also

Notes

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  2. ^ National Anthem- Know India portal. National Informatics Centre (NIC) (2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-31.
  3. ^ CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY OF INDIA - VOLUME XII. Constituent Assembly of India: Debates. parliamentofindia.nic.in, National Informatics Centre (24 January 1950). Retrieved on 2007-06-29. “The composition consisting of the words and music known as Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations in the words as the Government may authorise as occasion arises; and the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honoured equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it.”
  4. ^ National Song- Know India portal. National Informatics Centre (NIC) (2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-30.
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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... S Chand Group is one of the leading Indian textbook publishers and exporters in India. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Manorama Logo in Malayalam Malayala Manorama (Malayalam: മലയാള മനോരമ) is a popular Malayalam newspaper in Kerala, India. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... S Chand Group is one of the leading Indian textbook publishers and exporters in India. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mascot Beaver Affiliations University of London Russell Group EUA ACU CEMS APSIA Universities UK U8 Golden Triangle G5 Group Nobel laureates 14 Website http://www. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Whitehouse may refer to: People Mary Whitehouse, (1910 – 2001), British morality advocate and campaigner Frederick William Whitehouse, (1900 – 1973), a noted geologist Paul Whitehouse (disambiguation) Sheldon Whitehouse, (b 1955), an American politician from the state of Rhode Island Places Whitehouse, Belfast, an electoral ward in Belfast, Northern Ireland Other Whitehouse... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Current political map of India showing states and territories. ... The Siachen Glacier is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya Mountains along the disputed India-Pakistan border at approximately . ... This article is about the area administered by India. ... This article is about the area administered by India. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The RBI headquarters in Mumbai The RBI Regional Office in Mumbai The RBI heaquarters in Delhi. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Business Standard is a financial daily from Business Standard Ltd (BSL), a venture of the Anandabazar Patrika (ABP) group of publishers. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) are the premier management schools of India, located in the cities of Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Indore, Kolkata, Kozhikode and Lucknow. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Economic Times, launched in 1961, is Indias largest financial daily and the worlds second largest financial daily after The Wall Street Journal, with a daily readership of over 650,000 copies. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Manorama Logo in Malayalam Malayala Manorama (Malayalam: മലയാള മനോരമ) is a popular Malayalam newspaper in Kerala, India. ... The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Koodiyattam maestro Guru Padma Shri Māni Mādhava Chākyār receiving Sangeet Natak Academy Award from Dr.S Radhakrishnan - the President of India(1964). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...

References

History
  • Brown, Judith M. (1994), Modern India: The Origins of an Asian Democracy, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. xiii, 474, ISBN 0198731132, <http://www.oup.com/uk/catalogue/?ci=9780198731139>.
  • Kulke, Hermann & Dietmar Rothermund (2004), A History of India, 4th edition. Routledge, Pp. xii, 448, ISBN 0415329205, <http://www.amazon.com/History-India-Hermann-Kulke/dp/0415329205/>.
  • Metcalf, Barbara & Thomas R. Metcalf (2006), A Concise History of Modern India (Cambridge Concise Histories), Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Pp. xxxiii, 372, ISBN 0521682258, <http://www.amazon.com/Concise-History-Modern-Cambridge-Histories/dp/0521682258/>.
  • Spear, Percival (1990), A History of India, Volume 2, New Delhi and London: Penguin Books. Pp. 298, ISBN 0140138366, <http://www.amazon.com/History-India-Vol-2/dp/0140138366/ref=pd_ybh_a_6/104-7029728-9591925>.
  • Stein, Burton (2001), A History of India, New Delhi and Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pp. xiv, 432, ISBN 0195654463, <http://www.amazon.com/History-India-World/dp/0631205462/ref=pd_ybh_a_7/104-7029728-9591925>.
  • Thapar, Romila (1990), A History of India, Volume 1, New Delhi and London: Penguin Books. Pp. 384, ISBN 0140138358, <http://www.amazon.com/History-India-Penguin/dp/0140138358/>.
  • Wolpert, Stanley (2003), A New History of India, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 544, ISBN 0195166787, <http://www.amazon.com/New-History-India-Stanley-Wolpert/dp/0195166787/>.
Geography
  • Ali, Jason R. & Jonathan C. Aitchison (2005), "Greater India", Earth-Science Reviews 72 (3-4): 169-188, <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2005.07.005>.
  • Chang, Jen-Hu (1967), "The Indian Summer Monsoon", Geographical Review 57 (3): 373-396, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0016-7428%28196707%2957%3A3%3C373%3ATISM%3E2.0.CO%3B2-%23>
  • Dikshit, K. R. & Joseph E. Schwartzberg (2007), "India: The Land", Encyclopædia Britannica Online.: 1-29, <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-46395>
  • Government of India (2007), India Yearbook 2007, Publications Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, ISBN 81-230-1423-6.
  • Kumar, V. Sanil; K. C. Pathak & P. Pednekar et al. (2006), "Coastal processes along the Indian coastline", Current Science 91 (4): 530-536, <http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/350/1/Curr_Sci_91_530.pdf>
  • Posey, CA (1994), The Living Earth Book of Wind and Weather, Reader's Digest Association, ISBN 0-8957-7625-1.
  • Prakash, B.; Sudhir Kumar & M. Someshwar Rao et al. (2000), "Holocene tectonic movements and stress field in the western Gangetic plains", Current Science 79 (4): 438-449, <http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/aug252000/prakash.pdf>
Flora and fauna
  • Ali, Salim & S. Dillon Ripley (1995), A Pictorial Guide to the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent, Mumbai: Bombay Natural History Society and Oxford University Press. Pp. 183, 106 colour plates by John Henry Dick, ISBN 0195637321
  • Blatter, E. & Walter S. Millard (1997), Some Beautiful Indian Trees, Mumbai: Bombay Natural History Society and Oxford University Press. Pp. xvii, 165, 30 colour plates, ISBN 019562162X
  • Israel, Samuel & Toby Sinclair (editors) (2001), Indian Wildlife, Discovery Channel and APA Publications., ISBN 9812345558
  • Prater, S. H. (1971), The book of Indian Animals, Mumbai: Bombay Natural History Society and Oxford University Press. Pp. xxiii, 324, 28 colour plates by Paul Barruel., ISBN 0195621697.
  • Rangarajan, Mahesh (editor) (1999), Oxford Anthology of Indian Wildlife: Volume 1, Hunting and Shooting, New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Pp. xi, 439, ISBN 0195645928
  • Rangarajan, Mahesh (editor) (1999), Oxford Anthology of Indian Wildlife: Volume 2, Watching and Conserving, New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Pp. xi, 303, ISBN 0195645936
  • Tritsch, Mark F. (2001), Wildlife of India, London: Harper Collins Publishers. Pp. 192, ISBN 0007110626
Culture
  • Dissanayake, Wimal K. & Moti Gokulsing (2004), Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change, Trentham Books, Pp. 161, ISBN 1858563291 ., <http://books.google.com/books?id=_plssuFIar8C&dq>
  • Johnson, W. J. (translator and editor) (1998), The Sauptikaparvan of the Mahabharata: The Massacre at Night, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press (Oxford World's Classics). Pp. 192, ISBN 0192823618., <http://www.oup.com/uk/catalogue/?ci=9780192823618>
  • Kalidasa & W. J. Johnson (editor) (2001), The Recognition of Śakuntalā: A Play in Seven Acts, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press (Oxford World's Classics). Pp. 192, ISBN 0192839114., <http://www.oup.com/uk/catalogue/?ci=9780192839114>
  • Karanth, K. Shivarama (1997), Yakṣagāna, (Forward by H. Y. Sharada Prasad). Abhinav Publications. Pp. 252, ISBN 8170173574.
  • Kiple, Kenneth F. & Ornelas, Kriemhild Coneè, eds. (2000), The Cambridge World History of Food, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521402166
  • Lal, Ananda (1998), Oxford Companion to Indian Theatre, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 600, ISBN 0195644468, <http://www.amazon.com/Oxford-Companion-Indian-Theatre/dp/0195644468/>
  • MacDonell, Arthur Anthony (2004), A History Of Sanskrit Literature, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 1417906197.
  • Majumdar, Boria & Bandyopadhyay, Kausik (2006), A Social History Of Indian Football: Striving To Score, Routledge, ISBN 0415348358
  • Massey, Reginald (2006), India's Dances, Abhinav Publications, ISBN 8170174341
  • Rajadhyaksha, Ashish & Paul Willemen (editors) (1999), Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema, 2nd revised editon, University of California Press and British Film Institute, Pp. 652, ISBN 0851706696 ., <http://www.ucpress.edu/books/bfi/pages/PROD0008.html>
  • Vilanilam, John V. (2005), Mass Communication in India: A Sociological Perspective, Sage Publications, ISBN 0761933727
  • Zvelebil, Kamil V. (1992), Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature, Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 9004093656

Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Romila Thapar speaking at the U.S. Library of Congress Romila Thapar (born 1931) is an Indian historian whose principal area of study is ancient India. ... Prof. ... Dr. Sálim Ali (full name Dr. Sálim Moizuddin Abdul Ali), November 12, 1896 - July 27, 1987 was the pre-eminent ornithologist of India. ... Sidney Dillon Ripley (20 September 1913 - 12 March, 2001 ) was an ornithologist. ... Ethelbert Blatter, SJ pioneering taxonomist of the flora of the Indian subcontinent. ... Walter Samuel Millard (1864-1952), driving force behind Bombay Natural History Societys Mammal Survey of the Indian subcontinent. ... Stanley Henry Prater (1890-1960), naturalist who studied the mammals of the Indian subcontinent. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Karanth (disambiguation). ... Arthur Anthony Macdonell (1854 - 1930), 7th of Lochgarry, was a noted Sanskrit scholar. ...

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