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Encyclopedia > Independent film

An independent film, or indie film, is a film that is produced outside of the studio system. The studio system was a means of film production and distribution dominant in Hollywood from the early 1920s through the early 1950s. ...

Contents

History

Resistance to the Edison Trust

The roots of independent film can be traced back to filmmakers in the 1900s who resisted the control of a trust called the Motion Picture Patents Company or "Edison Trust." This article is about the decade starting in 1900 and ending in 1909. ... A trust or business trust was a form of business entity used in the late 19th century with intent to create a monopoly. ... The Motion Picture Patents Company (also known as the Edison Trust), founded in December 1908, was a trust of all the major film companies (Edison, Biograph, Vitagraph, Essanay, Selig, Lubin, Kalem, American Star, American Pathé), the leading distributor (George Kleine) and the biggest supplier of raw film, Eastman Kodak. ...


The Motion Picture Patents Company, founded in December 1908, was a trust of all the major film companies (Edison, Biograph, Vitagraph, Essanay, Selig, Lubin, Kalem, American Star, American Pathé), the leading distributor (George Kleine) and the biggest supplier of raw film, Eastman Kodak. The Black Maria (pronounced b. ... The American Mutoscope and Biograph Company (also known as the Biograph Company) was founded in 1895 and is the oldest movie production company in the United States. ... American Vitagraph was a United States movie studio, founded by J. Stuart Blackton and Albert E. Smith in 1897 and bought by Warner Brothers in 1925. ... Essanay Studios was a motion picture company founded in Chicago, Illinois by George K. Spoor and Bronco Billy Anderson under the name Essanay (S and A). It produced silent films with such stars as Ben Turpin, Wallace Beery, Francis X. Bushman, Gloria Swanson and Charlie Chaplin. ... The Selig Polyscope Company was an American motion picture company founded in 1896 in Chicago, Illinois by William Selig. ... Lubin Studios, Philadelphia (c. ... Kalem Studios and Hollywood staff, 1915 The Kalem Company was an American film studio founded in New York City in 1907 by Frank J. Marion, Samuel Long, and George Kleine. ... Georges Méliès (December 8, 1861 – January 21, 1938), full name Marie-Georges-Jean Méliès, was a French filmmaker famous for leading many technical and narrative developments in the earliest cinema. ... Pathé or Pathé Frères is the name of various businesses founded and originally run by the Pathé Brothers of France. ... Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is an American multinational public company which produces photographic materials and equipment. ...


At the time of the formation of the MPPC, Thomas Edison owned most of the major patents relating to motion pictures, including that for raw film. The MPPC vigorously enforced its patents, constantly bringing suits and receiving injunctions against independent filmmakers. Because of this, a number of filmmakers responded by building their own cameras and moving their operations to Hollywood, California, whose distance from Edison's home base of New Jersey made it more difficult for the MPPC to enforce its patents.[1] Edison redirects here. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Film stock is the term for photographic film on which films are recorded. ... Civil action redirects here. ... Greetings from Hollywood Hollywood is a district of the city of Los Angeles, California, U.S.A., that extends from Vermont Avenue on the east to just beyond Laurel Canyon Boulevard above Sunset and Crescent Heights Boulevards on the west; the north to south boundary east of La Brea Avenue... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


The Edison Trust was soon ended by two decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States: one in 1912, which canceled the patent on raw film, and a second in 1915, which cancelled all MPPC patents. Though these decisions succeeded at legalizing independent film, they would do little to remedy the de facto ban on small productions; the independant filmmakers who had fled to Southern California during the enforcement of the trust had already laid the groundwork for a the studio system of classical Hollywood cinema. The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... This article is about the region of Southern California. ... The studio system was a means of film production and distribution dominant in Hollywood from the early 1920s through the early 1950s. ... Classical Hollywood cinema designates both a visual and sound style for making motion pictures and a mode of production that arose in the Los Angeles film industry of the 1910s and 1920s. ...


United Artists and the resistance to the studio system

The studio system quickly became so powerful that some filmmakers once again sought independence as a result. On February 5, 1919 four of the leading figures in American silent cinema (Mary Pickford, Charles Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks, and D. W. Griffith) formed United Artists, the first independent studio in America. Each held a 20% stake, with the remaining 20% held by lawyer William Gibbs McAdoo.[2] The idea for the venture originated with Fairbanks, Chaplin, Pickford, and cowboy star William S. Hart a year earlier as they were traveling around the U.S. selling Liberty bonds to help the World War I effort. Already veterans of Hollywood, the four film stars began to talk of forming their own company to better control their own work as well as their futures. They were spurred on by the actions of established Hollywood producers and distributors, who were making moves to tighten their control on star salaries and creative control. With the addition of Griffith, planning began, but Hart bowed out even before things had formalized. When he heard about their scheme, Richard A. Rowland, head of Metro Pictures, is said to have observed, "The inmates are taking over the asylum." is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... A silent film is a film with no accompanying, synchronized recorded spoken dialogue. ... For the Katie Melua song, see Mary Pickford (Used to Eat Roses). ... For the Jamaican musician named Charlie Chaplin, see Charlie Chaplin (singer). ... Douglas Fairbanks (May 23, 1883 – December 12, 1939) was an American actor, screenwriter, director and producer, who became noted for his swashbuckling roles in silent movies such as The Mark of Zorro (1920), The Three Musketeers (1921), Robin Hood (1922), The Thief of Bagdad (1924) and The Black Pirate (1926). ... David Llewelyn Wark D.W. Griffith (January 22, 1875 – July 23, 1948) was an American film director. ... William Gibbs McAdoo (October 31, 1863–February 1, 1941) was a U.S. Senator and United States Secretary of the Treasury. ... Wiliam Surrey Hart Movie poster for Harts 1916 western The Aryan in which he played a white (Anglo-Saxon) member of a Mexican gang, having turned against his own people. ... Liberty Bond poster by Winsor McCay A Liberty Bond was a special type of war bond that was sold in the United States to support the allied cause in World War I. It could be redeemed for the original value of the bond plus interest. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Metro Studios, Culver City, CA. in 1918 Metro Pictures Corporation was an American motion picture production company founded in 1916 by Richard A. Rowland (1880-1947) and Louis B. Mayer (1885-1957). ...


The four partners, with advice from McAdoo (son-in-law and former Treasury Secretary of then-President Woodrow Wilson), formed their distribution company, with Hiram Abrams as its first managing director. The original terms called for Pickford, Fairbanks, Griffith and Chaplin to independently produce five pictures each year. But by the time the company got under way in 1920-1921, feature films were becoming more expensive and more polished, and running times had settled at around ninety minutes (or eight reels). It was believed that no one, no matter how popular, could produce and star in five quality feature films a year. By 1924, by which time Griffith had dropped out, the company was facing a crisis: either bring in others to help support a costly distribution system or concede defeat. The veteran producer Joseph Schenck was hired as president. Not only had he been producing pictures for a decade, but he brought along commitments for films starring his wife, Norma Talmadge, his sister-in-law, Constance Talmadge, and his brother-in-law, Buster Keaton. Contracts were signed with a letter of independent producers, especially Samuel Goldwyn, Alexander Korda and Howard Hughes. Schenck also formed a separate partnership with Pickford and Chaplin to buy and build theaters under the United Artists name. The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Hiram Abrams was an early American movie mogul and one of the first presidents of Paramount Pictures and the first managing director of United Artists. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as part of... Joseph M. Schenck, born December 25, 1878 - died October 22, 1961, was a pioneer executive who played a key role in the development of the United States film industry. ... Norma Talmadge Norma Talmadge (May 26, 1893 – December 24, 1957) was an American actress. ... Constance Talmadge in the 1910s Constance Talmadge (April 19, 1897-November 23, 1973) was a silent movie star born in Brooklyn, New York, USA, and was the sister of fellow actresses Norma Talmadge and Natalie Talmadge. ... Joseph Francis Kieran Keaton (October 4, 1895 – February 1, 1966) was an Academy Award-winning American silent film comic actor and filmmaker. ... Samuel Goldwyn (July 1882 (some sources say 17 August 1882, others 1879 [1]) – 31 January 1974) was an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award-winning producer, also a well-known Hollywood motion picture producer and founding contributor of several motion picture studios. ... Sir Alexander Korda (September 16, 1893 - January 23, 1956) was a film director and producer, a leading figure in the British film industry and the founder of London Films. ... For the Welsh murderer, see Howard Hughes (murderer). ...


Still, even with a broadening of the company, UA struggled. The coming of sound ended the careers of Pickford and Fairbanks. Chaplin, rich enough to do what he pleased, worked only occasionally. Schenck resigned in 1933 to organize a new company with Darryl F. Zanuck, Twentieth Century Pictures, which soon provided four pictures a year to UA's schedule. He was replaced as president by sales manager Al Lichtman who himself resigned after only a few months. Pickford produced a few films, and at various times Goldwyn, Korda, Walt Disney, Walter Wanger, and David O. Selznick were made "producing partners" (i.e., sharing in the profits), but ownership still rested with the founders. As the years passed and the dynamics of the business changed, these "producing partners" drifted away, Goldwyn and Disney to RKO, Wanger to Universal Pictures, Selznick to retirement. By the late 1940s, United Artists had virtually ceased to exist as either a producer or distributor. 1902 poster advertising Gaumonts sound films, depicting an optimistically vast auditorium A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film. ... Darryl Francis Zanuck (September 5, 1902–December 22, 1979) was a producer, writer, actor and director who played a major part in the Hollywood studio system as one of its longest survivors (the length of his career being rivalled only by that of Adolph Zukor). ... Twentieth (20th) Century Fox Film Corporation (known from 1935 to 1985 as Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation) is one of the six major American film studios. ... Alexander Al Lichtman (April 9, 1885 - February 20, 1958) was a businessman working in the motion picture industry. ... For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... Walter Wanger (July 11, 1894 - November 18, 1968) was an important American film producer. ... David O. Selznick David Oliver Selznick (May 10, 1902–June 22, 1965), was one of the icon Hollywood producers of the Golden Age. ... RKO could stand for: RKO Pictures The R.K.O. - finishing manoever (and initials) of WWE professional wrestler Randy Orton. ... Universal Pictures is the main motion picture production/distribution arm of Universal Studios, a subsidiary of NBC Universal. ...


The Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers

In 1941, Mary Pickford, Charlie Chaplin, Walt Disney, Orson Welles, Samuel Goldwyn, David O. Selznick, Alexander Korda, and Walter Wanger - many of the same people who were members of United Artists - founded the Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers. Later members included William Cagney, Sol Lesser, and Hal Roach. The Society aimed to preserve the rights of independent producers in an industry overwhelmingly controlled by the studio system. SIMPP fought to end monopolistic practices by the five major film studios - MGM, Paramount Pictures, RKO, Warner Bros. and Twentieth Century Fox - that controlled the production, distribution, and exhibition of films. George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, actor and producer for film, stage, radio and television. ... Sir Alexander Korda (September 16, 1893 - January 23, 1956) was a film director and producer, a leading figure in the British film industry and the founder of London Films. ... The early title for what would become United Artists. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Harold Eugene Roach, Sr. ... MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ... Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and distribution company, based in Hollywood, California. ... RKO could stand for: RKO Pictures The R.K.O. - finishing manoever (and initials) of WWE professional wrestler Randy Orton. ... “WB” redirects here. ... Related articles FOX Television Network Fox Searchlight Pictures Fox Entertainment Group List of Hollywood movie studios List of movies Variant of current 20th Century Fox logo External links 20th Century Fox Movies official site Twentieth Century Fox is also the punning title of a song by The Doors on their...


In 1942, the SIMPP filed an antitrust suit against Paramount's United Detroit Theatres. The complaint accused Paramount of conspiracy to control first-run and subsequent-run theaters in Detroit. It was the first antitrust suit brought by producers against exhibitors alleging monopoly and restraint of trade.


In 1948, the United States Supreme Court Paramount Decision ordered the Hollywood movie studios to sell their theater chains and to eliminate certain anti-competitive practices. This effectively brought an end to the studio system of Hollywood's Golden Age. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... United States v. ... A movie studio is a location, room, building, or group of buildings and/or sound stages, offices and storage facilities, which may include a backlot, where movies are made. ... The Golden Age of American animation is a period in American animation history that began with the advent of sound cartoons in 1928 and lasted into the 1960s when theatrical animated shorts slowly began losing to the new medium of television animation. ...


By 1958, many of the reasons for creating the SIMPP had been corrected and SIMPP closed its offices.


Low budget films

The efforts of the SIMPP and the advent of inexpensive portable cameras during World War II effectively made it possible for any person in America with an interest in making films to write, produce, and direct one without the aide of any major film studio. These circumstances soon resulted in a number of critically acclimed and highly influential works, including Maya Deren's Meshes of the Afternoon in 1943, Kenneth Anger's Fireworks in 1947, and Raymond Abrashkin's Little Fugitive in 1953. Little Fugitive became the first independant film to be nominated for Best Picture at the American Acadamy Awards. Both films won acclaim overseas from the burgeoning French New Wave, with Fireworks inspiring praise and an invitation to study in Europe from Jean Cocteau, and François Truffaut citing Little Fugitive as an essential inspiration to his seminal work, The 400 Blows. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A major film studio is a movie production and distribution company that releases a substantial number of films annually and consistently commands a significant share of box-office revenues in a given market. ... Maya Deren Maya Deren (April 29, 1917 – October 13, 1961), born Eleanora Derenkowsky, was an American avant-garde filmmaker and film theorist of the 1940s and 1950s. ... Meshes of the Afternoon (1943) is a short experimental film directed by husband and wife team, Maya Deren and Alexander Hammid. ... Fireworks is a homoerotic experimental film by Kenneth Anger. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Little Fugitive is a 1953 film which tells the story of a young boy who runs away to Coney Island after he is tricked into believing he has killed his older brother. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Academy Award for Best Picture is one of the awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; the awards are voted on by other people within the industry. ... Academy Awards The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent film awards in the United States. ... The New Wave (French: La Nouvelle Vague) was a blanket term coined by critics for a group of French filmmakers of the late 1950s and 1960s, influenced (in part) by Italian Neorealism. ... Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (5 July 1889 – 11 October 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager and filmmaker. ... François Roland Truffaut (French IPA: ) (February 6, 1932 – October 21, 1984) was one of the founders of the French New Wave in filmmaking, and remains an icon of the French film industry. ... This article is about the French film. ...


Unlike the films of the collapsing studio system, these new low budget films could afford to take risks and explore new artistic territory outside of the classical Hollywood narrative. Maya Deren was soon joined in New York by a crowd of like minded avant-garde filmmakers who were interested in creating films as works of art rather than entertainment. Based upon a common belief that the "official cinema" was "running out of breath" and had become "morally corrupt, aesthetically obsolete, thematically superficial, [and] temperamentally boring," [3], this new crop of independents formed The Film-Makers' Cooperative, an artist-run, non-profit organization which they would use to distribute their films through a centralized archive. Founded in 1962 by Jonas Mekas, Stan Brakhage, Shirley Clarke, Gregory Markopoulos, and others, the Cooperative provided an important outlet for many of cinemas creative luminaries in the 1960s, including Jack Smith, Andy Warhol, and the rest of the Factory crowd. When he returned to America, Ken Anger would debut many of his most important works there. Mekas and Brakhage would go on to found the Anthology Film Archives in 1970, which would likewise prove essential to the development and preservation of independent films, even to this day. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Film-Makers Cooperative aka. ... Jonas Mekas (1922 - ) is a Lithuanian filmmaker, writer, and curator who has often been called the godfather of American avant-garde cinema. ... Stan Brakhage (1933-2003) Stan Brakhage (January 14, 1933 – March 9, 2003) was an American non-narrative filmmaker. ... Shirley Clarke (* 2 October 1919, New York City - 23 September 1997, Boston) was a major american filmmaker. ... Gregory Markopoulos (March 12, 1928 - November 12, 1992) was an American experimental filmmaker. ... The Factory was Andy Warhols original New York City studio from 1963 to 1968, although his later studios were known as The Factory as well. ... The Anthology Film Archives Building, New York City. ...


The exploitation boom and the MPAA rating system

Not all low budget films existed as non-commerical art ventures. The success of films like Little Fugitive, which had been made with low (or sometimes non-existent) budgets encouraged a huge boom in popularity for non-studio films. Low budget film making promised exponentially greater returns if the film could have a successful run in the theaters. During this time, independent producer/director Roger Corman began a sweeping body of work that would become legendary for its frugality and grueling shooting schedule. Until his so-called "retirement" as a director in 1971 (he continued to produce films even after this date) he would produce up to seven movies a year. Little Fugitive is a 1953 film which tells the story of a young boy who runs away to Coney Island after he is tricked into believing he has killed his older brother. ... A low budget film is a very cheaply produced film. ... Template:Unrefenced A no budget film is an extremeley cheaply produced film using very little or no money to the cost of the picture. ... Roger William Corman (born April 5, 1926), sometimes nicknamed King of the Bs for his output of B-movies (though he himself rejects this appellation as inaccurate), is a prolific American producer and director of low-budget exploitation movies, many of which are some of the most influential movies made. ...


Like those of the avante-garde, the films of Roger Corman took advantage of the fact that unlike the studio system, independent films had never been bound by its self-imposed production code. Corman's example (and that of others like him) would help start a boom in independent B-movies in the 1960s, the principle aim of which was to bring in the youth market which the major studios had lost touch with. By promising sex, wanton violence, drug use, and nudity, these films hoped to draw audiences to independent theaters by offering to show them what the major studios could not. Horror and science fiction films experienced a period of tremendous growth during this time. The Production Code (also known as the Hays Code) was a set of industry guidelines governing the production of American motion pictures. ... This is a history of B movies in the 1960s and 1970s. ... DVD cover showing horror characters as depicted by Universal Studios. ... Poster for The Day the Earth Stood Still, an archetypal science fiction film. ...


In 1968, a young filmmaker named George Romero shocked audiences with Night of the Living Dead, a new kind of intense and unforgiving independent horror film. This film was released just after the abandonment of the production code, but before the adoption of the MPAA rating system. As such, it was the first and last film of its kind to enjoy a completely unrestricted screening, in which young children were able to witness Romero's new brand of highly realistic gore. This film would help to set the climate of independent horror for decades to come, as films like The Texas Chain Saw Massacre in 1974 and Cannibal Holocaust in 1980 continued to push the envelope. George A. Romero (born 4 February 1940) is an American director, writer, editor, actor and composer. ... This article is about the 1968 film directed by George A. Romero. ... The MPAA film rating system is a system used in the United States and instituted by the Motion Picture Association of America to rate a movie based on its content. ... This article is about the 1974 film. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... For the Brutal Juice song, see Cannibal Holocaust (song). ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


With the production code abandoned and violent and disturbing films like Romero's gaining popularity, Hollywood opted to placate the uneasy filmgoing public with the MPAA ratings system, which would place restrictions on ticket sales to young people. Unlike the production code, this rating system posed a threat to independent films in that it would affect the number of tickets they could sell and cut into the the grindhouse cinema's share of the youth market. This change would further widen the divide between commercial and non-commercial films. Exploitation films is a loosely defined term to describe a film genre that typically sacrifice the traditional notions of artistic merit for a more sensationalistic display, often featuring excessive sex, violence, and gore. ...


New Hollywood and independent filmmaking

It can often seem that the members of the New Hollywood generation of the 1970s were independent filmmakers. Indeed, some of their members have tacitly signaled that they were the precursors of the independent film movement of the 1990s. New Hollywood or post-classical Hollywood refers to the brief time between roughly 1967 (Bonnie and Clyde, The Graduate) and 1982 (One from the Heart) when a new generation of young filmmakers came to prominence in America, drastically changing not only the way Hollywood films were produced and marketed, but...


However, this is not the case. The New Hollywood generation was firmly entrenched in the studio system, which financed the development, production and distribution of their films. None of them ever independently financed or independently released a film of their own, or ever worked on an independently financed production during the height of the generation's influence. Seemingly "independent" films such as Taxi Driver, Midnight Cowboy, The Last Picture Show and others were all studio films: the scripts were based on studio pitches and subsequently paid for by the studios, the production financing was from the studio, and the marketing and distribution of the films were designed and controlled by the studio. This article is about the 1976 American film. ... This article is about the 1969 film. ... The Last Picture Show is a 1971 film directed by Peter Bogdanovich, adapted from a 1966 novel by Larry McMurtry. ...


There were only two truly-independent movies of the New Hollywood generation: Easy Rider in 1969, at the beginning of the period, and Bogdanovich's They All Laughed, at the end. Peter Bogdanovich bought back the rights from the studio to his 1980 film and paid for its distribution out of his own pocket, convinced that the picture was better than what the studio believed — he eventually went bankrupt because of this. Wyatt, Mary (Toni Basil), Billy and Karen (Karen Black) wandering the streets of a parade filled New Orleans. ... They All Laughed is a 1981 movie directed by Peter Bogdanovich. ... Peter Bogdanovich Serbian Cyrillic Петар Богдановић (born July 30, 1939) is a Serbian-American film director, writer and actor. ...


The Sundance Institute

In 1978, Sterling Van Wagenen and Charles Gary Allison, with Chairperson Robert Redford, founded the Utah/US Film Festival in an effort to attract more filmmakers to Utah and showcase what the potential of independent film could be. At the time, the main focus of the event was to present a series of retrospective films and filmmaker panel discussions; however it also included a small program of new independent films. The jury of the 1978 festival was headed by Gary Allison, and included Verna Fields, Linwood Gale Dunn, Katherine Ross, Charles E. Sellier Jr., Mark Rydell, and Anthea Sylbert. Charles Gary Allison is an American screenwriter and film producer. ... Robert Redford (born Charles Robert Redford, Jr. ... The Utah/US Film Festival was started in 1978 and eventually developed into the Sundance Film Festival. ... Charles Gary Allison is an American screenwriter and film producer. ... Verna Fields (21 March 1918 - 30 November 1982) was an American film editor and executive. ... Mark Rydell (born March 23, 1934 in New York City) is an American actor, film director and producer. ...


In 1981, Sterling Van Wagenen left the film festival to help found the Sundance Institute with Robert Redford. In 1985, the now well-established Sundance Institute, headed by Sterling Van Wagenen, took over management of the US Film Festival, which was experiencing financial difficulties. Gary Beer and Sterling Van Wagenen spearheaded production of the inaugural Sundance Film Festival which included Program Director Tony Safford and Administrative Director Jenny Walz Selby. The Sundance Institute is a center started by actor Robert Redford in 1981. ...


In 1991, the festival was officially renamed the Sundance Film Festival, after Redford's character The Sundance Kid from the movie Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid.[4]. Through this festival, such notable figures as Kevin Smith, Robert Rodriguez, Quentin Tarantino, Paul Thomas Anderson, Steven Soderbergh, James Wan and Jim Jarmusch garnered resounding critical acclaim and unprecedented box office sales. In 2005, about 15% of the U.S. domestic box office revenue was from independent studios.[5] Categories: People stubs | 1870 births | 1957 deaths | Criminals ... Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid is a 1969 Western film that tells the story of bank robber Butch Cassidy (played by Paul Newman) and his partner The Sundance Kid (played by Robert Redford). ... This article is about the American screenwriter, film director, actor and comic book writer. ... For the American composer born 1946, see Robert Xavier Rodriguez. ... Quentin Jerome Tarantino (born March 27, 1963) is an Academy Award- and Palme dOr-winning American film director, screenwriter and actor. ... Paul Thomas Anderson (born June 26, 1970[1] in Studio City, California) is a two-time Oscar nominated American filmmaker. ... Steven Andrew Soderbergh (born January 14, 1963 in Atlanta, Georgia) is an American film producer, screenwriter, cinematographer, editor, and Oscar-winning director. ... James Wan (born 1977) is an Australian film director from Perth. ... Jim Jarmusch Jim Jarmusch (born January 22, 1953 in Akron, Ohio) is a noted American independent film director. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... The term box office can refer to either: A place where tickets are sold to the public for admission to a venue The amount of business a particular production, such as a movie or theatre show, does. ...


Present day

Today, independant filmmakers no longer have to depend on the major studios to provide them with filming equipment as this have become inexpensive and accessible; neither have they to rely on the studios to edit and distribute films. Editing can be done on the home computer because a large array of professional scale editing software is available in the market. Previews and teasers of new films can be viewed on the Internet for free. Pulp Fiction, The Blair Witch Project, Clerks, Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind are a few of the influential films of the 20th and the 21st century. While most of the current U.S. film industry is located in Los Angeles, one-third of all independent films in the U.S. are produced in New York City.[citation needed] Small Text Pulp Fiction is a 1994 film by director Quentin Tarantino, who cowrote the film with Roger Avary. ... The Blair Witch Project is a low-budget American horror film released in 1999. ... This article is about the film. ... Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind is an Academy Award-winning 2004 American romance film by director Michel Gondry. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Technology

The independent film scene's development in the 1990s and 2000s has been stimulated by a range of factors, including the development of affordable high-definition digital video cameras that can rival 35 mm film quality and easy-to-use computer editing software and the increasing visibility of independent film festivals such as the Sundance Film Festival. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... This article is about the decade of 2000-2009. ... This article is about high-definition video technology. ... Digital film refers to cinema production and performance systems which work by using a digital representation of the brightness and colour of each pixel of the image. ... 35 mm film frames. ... The Sundance Film Festival is a film festival in the state of Utah in the United States. ...


Until the advent of digital alternatives, the cost of professional film equipment and stock was a major obstacle to independent filmmakers who wanted to make their own films. The cost of 35 mm film is steadily rising: in 2002 alone, film negative costs were up 23%, according to Variety.[6] Studio-quality filming typically required expensive lighting and post-production facilities. 35 mm film frames. ... Color, positive picture (A) and negative (B), monochrome positive picture (C) and negative (D) In photography, a negative may refer to 3 different things, although they are all related. ... Variety is a daily newspaper for the entertainment industry. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Post production is the general term for the last stage of film production in which photographed scenes (also called footage) are put together into a complete film. ...


But the advent of consumer camcorders in 1985, and more importantly, the arrival of high-definition digital video in the early 1990s, have since lowered the technology barrier to movie production considerably. Both production and post-production costs have been significantly lowered; today, the hardware and software for post-production can be installed in a commodity-based personal computer. Technologies such as DVD, FireWire connections and professional-level non-linear editing system software make movie-making relatively inexpensive. Sony DV Handycam A camcorder is a portable electronic device for recording video images and audio onto an internal storage device. ... Digital video is a type of video recording system that works by using a digital, rather than analog, of the video signal. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Computer hardware is the physical part of a computer, including the digital circuitry, as distinguished from the computer software that executes within the hardware. ... Software redirects here. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... The 6-pin and 4-pin FireWire 400 Connectors The alternative ethernet-style cabling used by 1394c FireWire is Apple Inc. ... A non-linear editing system (NLE) is a video editing (NLVE) or audio editing (NLAE) system which can perform random access on the source material. ...


The first independent film released on HD DVD was One Six Right on November 1, 2006.[7][8][9] HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... One Six Right is an independent film about the general aviation industry as seen through a local airport. ...


Software

Popular software (including commercial, consumer level and open source) includes: Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ...


Mac OS X

Windows iMovie is a video editing software application which allows users to edit their own home movies. ... Final Cut Express is a non linear video editing application created by Apple, Inc. ... Final Cut Pro is a professional non-linear editing system developed by Apple Inc. ... Avid Xpress Pro is non-linear editing software aimed at professionals in the TV and movie industry. ... Adobe Premiere Pro, formerly known as Adobe Premiere, is a real-time, timeline based video editing software application. ... Image:Fcstudio2 box. ...

Linux “Movie maker” redirects here. ... Avid Xpress Pro is non-linear editing software aimed at professionals in the TV and movie industry. ... Sony Vegas is a non-Linear editing system produced by Sony Media Software. ... Adobe Premiere Pro, formerly known as Adobe Premiere, is a real-time, timeline based video editing software application. ... Edius is a video editing software package developed and sold by the Canopus Corporation which is now owned by Thomson Grass Valley. ...

Cinelerra is a free non-linear video editing system for the GNU/Linux operating system. ... For other meanings of kino, see Kino. ...

Equipment

Popular digital camcorders, mostly semi-professional equipment with 3-CCD technology, include: A specially developed CCD used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire bonded package. ...

Most of these camcorders cost between US$2,000–$5,000 in 2003, with costs continuing to decline as features are subtracted, and as models depreciate. Additionally, open source software holds the potential for increasing high-level editing capabilities being available for also increasingly lower prices, both for free and paid software. Canon Inc. ... The Canon XL H1 is Canons first high definition camcorder. ... Canon XL2 The Canon XL2 is Canons high-end 3CCD Standard Definition camcorder. ... The XM2 has fewer features than the XL1, but is much more portable. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Canon GL-2. ... Victor Company of Japan, Limited ) (TYO: 6792 ), usually referred to as JVC, is an international consumer and professional electronics corporation based in Yokohama, Japan which was founded in 1927. ... JVC GY-HD100 is a progressive 3CCD High Definition shoulder mount camera. ... Panasonic is an international brand name for Japanese electric products manufacturer Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... The Panasonic AG HVX200 is a low-cost professional fixed lens HD camera released in December 2005 (NTSC) and April 2006 (PAL). ... The Panasonic AG-DVX100B is a popular mid-range digital video camera. ... RED Digital Cinema is a developer of a digital video camera called Red One which the company says will be capable of recording resolutions up to 4520 x 2540 via a sensor large enough to adapt to standard 35mm lenses normally used by film cameras. ... RED Digital Camera Company is a developer of a digital video camera called Red One which the company says will be capable of recording resolutions up to 4520 x 2540 via a sensor large enough to adapt to standard 35mm lenses normally used by film cameras. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... USD redirects here. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ...


Independent versus major: Indiewood

On the business side, the cost of big-budget studio films also leads to conservative choices in cast and crew. The problem is exacerbated by the trend towards co-financing (over two-thirds of the films put out by Warner Bros. in 2000 were joint ventures, up from 10% in 1987).[6] An unproven film director is almost never given the opportunity to get his or her big break with the studios unless he or she otherwise has significant industry experience in film or television. Films with "unknowns" in the cast, particularly in lead roles, are also rarely produced by the Big Six. “WB” redirects here. ... Director Herbert Brenon with actress Alla Nazimova on the set of War Brides, 1916 A director is a person who directs the making of a film. ... A major film studio is a movie production and distribution company that releases a substantial number of films annually and consistently commands a significant share of box-office revenues in a given market. ...


Furthermore, another key expense for independent movie makers is the music for the film. The licensing fees for popular songs can range between US$10,000–$20,000. For the music genre, see Pop music. ...


The increasing popularity and feasibility of low-budget (but not necessarily low-quality) films over the last 15 years has led to a vast increase in the number of aspiring filmmakers -- people who have written spec scripts and who hope to find several million dollars to turn that script into an independent film sensation like Reservoir Dogs, Little Miss Sunshine, or Juno. These aspiring filmmakers often work day-jobs while they pitch their scripts to independent film production companies, talent agents, and wealthy investors. Their dream seems much more attainable than before the independent film revolution because these novice filmmakers no longer need to gain the backing of a major studio and access to perhaps a hundred million dollars to make their film. (See the filmmaking documentary Dreams on Spec) A screenplay or script is a blueprint for producing a motion picture. ... For the video game based on the film, see Reservoir Dogs (video game). ... For the childrens book character, see Little Miss Sunshine (character). ... Juno is a 2007 comedy-drama film directed by Jason Reitman and written by Diablo Cody. ... Dreams on Spec is an American documentary film that profiles the struggles and triumphs of emerging Hollywood screenwriters. ...


Independent movie-making has also resulted in the proliferation and repopularization of short films and short film festivals. Full-length films are often showcased at film festivals such as the Sundance Film Festival, the Slamdance Film Festival, the South By Southwest film festival, the Raindance Film Festival, ACE Film Festival, or the Cannes Film Festival. Award winners from these exhibitions are more likely to get picked up for distribution by major film studios. Early American actor William Garwood starred in numerous short films, many of which were only 20 minutes in length Short subject is a format description originally coined in the North American film industry in the early period of cinema. ... A film festival is the presentation or showcasing of films in one or more movie theaters or screening venues. ... The Sundance Film Festival is a film festival in the state of Utah in the United States. ... The Slamdance Film Festival takes place each year in Utah at the same time as the Sundance Film Festival, competing with Sundance to provide what its supporters consider a truer representation of independent film-making. ... Downtown Austin, Texas, where SXSW is held each spring Bloc Party performing at Stubbs BBQ in 2007 Carrie Rodriguez, a SXSW 2007 performer Morrissey at SXSW 2006 South by Southwest (SXSW) is a set of interactive, film, and music festivals and conferences that have taken place every spring in... The Raindance Film Festival is the largest independent film festival in the United Kingdom. ... The ACE Film Festival logo The ACE Film Festival (The American Cinematic Experience Film Festival) is a film festival held annually in New York City, New York. ... The Cannes Film Festival (French: le Festival de Cannes), founded in 1939, is one of the worlds oldest, most influential and prestigious film festivals. ...


North American "independent" studios

The major commercial film industry in the United States is in Hollywood, while much of the independent film industry is in New York City. The following studios are considered to be the most prevalent of the independent studios (they are used to produce/release independent films and foreign-language films): Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Hollywood redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...

Note that many of the above studios are actually subsidiaries of larger studios — for example, Sony Pictures Classics is owned by Sony Pictures and is designed to develop less commercial, more character driven films, and Fox Searchlight belongs to the same company that owns 20th Century Fox. Subsidiaries of major studios, as part of their larger, major studio parent companies, are not "true" independent film studios. Furthermore, companies such as Lucasfilm often co-finance their productions and partner with Big Six studios for distribution. Lions Gate redirects here, for other meanings see Lions Gate (disambiguation)‎. Lions Gate Entertainment Corporation, (usually renderred as Lionsgate), (NYSE: LGF) is an American entertainment company which originated in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Fox Searchlight Pictures logo. ... Focus Features (formerly USA Films) is the art house films division of NBC Universals Universal Studios, and acts as both a producer and distributor for its own films and a distributor for foreign films. ... Rogue Pictures is a division of Focus Features, the specialty film division of Universal Studios, which is a division of NBC Universal. ... Sony Pictures Classics is the specialty films division of Sony Pictures. ... IFC Films is an American film distribution company based in New York, owned by the Independent Film Channel. ... The Samuel Goldwyn Company was an independent film company founded by Samuel Goldwyn, Jr. ... WIPs logo, which closely resembles half of the WB shield. ... The Weinstein Company is an independent American film studio founded by Harvey and Bob Weinstein in 2005 after the pair left the Disney-owned Miramax Films, which they had co-founded in 1979. ... Dimension Films is a motion picture unit currently a part of The Weinstein Company. ... Magnolia Pictures is an American film distributor, and is a holding of 2929 Entertainment, owned by Todd Wagner and Mark Cuban. ... Paramount Classics logo Paramount Vantage (originally Paramount Classics) is the specialty film division of Paramount Pictures (which in turn is owned by Viacom), charged with producing, purchasing, distributing and marketing films, generally those with a more art house feel than films made and distributed by its parent company. ... Palm Pictures is a US based entertainment company owned and run by Chris Blackwell. ... Tartan Films, established in 1982, is a United Kingdom-based film distributor. ... Newmarket Films is an American film production and film distribution company which is a subsidiary of Newmarket Capital Group. ... Picturehouse is a specialty film production company formed in 2005 as a joint-venture of New Line Cinema and HBO Films, both divisions of Time Warner. ... Fine Line Features was the speciality films division of New Line Cinema. ... For other uses, see HBO (disambiguation). ... New Line redirects here. ... ThinkFilm is a distibutor of independent films which was founded in 2001. ... Miramax Films is a film production and distribution brand that was a Big Ten film motion picture distribution and production company headquartered in New York City before being bought out by The Walt Disney Company. ... Troma is a film production and distribution company founded by Lloyd Kaufman and Michael Herz in 1974. ... First Look Studios is an independent American film studio. ... Image Entertainment is a major independent home entertainment distribution company. ... Sony Pictures Entertainment (SPE) is the television and film production unit of Japan-based corporate giant Sony. ... Twentieth (20th) Century Fox Film Corporation (known from 1935 to 1985 as Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation) is one of the six major American film studios. ... Lucasfilm Ltd. ...


In addition to these higher profile "independent" studios there are thousands of smaller production companies that produce truly independent films every year. These smaller companies look to regionally release their films theatrically or for additional financing and resources to distribute, advertise and exhibit their project on a national scale. The direct-to-video market is not often noted as artistically fertile ground but among its many entries are ambitious independent films that either failed to achieve theatrical distribution or did not seek it. Moving forward, particularly as theatrical filming goes digital and distribution eventually follows, the line between "film," direct-to-disc productions, and feature-length videos whose main distribution channel is wholly electronic, should continue to blur. A film that is released direct-to-video (also straight-to-video) is one which has been released to the public on home video formats first rather than first being released in movie theaters. ...


Further reading

  • Lyons, Donald (1994). Independent Visions: A Critical Introduction to Recent Independent American Film. Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-38249-8. 
  • Vachon, Christine (1996). A Killer Life: How an Independent Film Producer Survives Deals and Disasters in Hollywood and Beyond. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-5630-1. 
  • Redding, Judith; Brownworth, Victoria (1997). Film Fatales: Independent Women Directors. Seal Press. ISBN 1-878067-97-4. 
  • Levy, Emanuel (1999). Cinema of Outsiders: The Rise of American Independent Film. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-5123-7. 
  • Merritt, Greg (2000). Celluloid Mavericks: The History of American Independent Film. Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN 1-56025-232-4. 
  • Biskind, Peter (2004). Down and Dirty Pictures: Miramax, Sundance, and the Rise of Independent Film. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-86259-X. 
  • Pierson, John (2004). Spike Mike Reloaded. Miramax Books. ISBN 1-4013-5950-7. 
  • Levy, Emanuel (2001). Cinema of Outsiders: The Rise of American Independent Film. NYU Press. ISBN-13 978-0814751244. 

See also

A low budget film is a very cheaply produced film. ... Template:Unrefenced A no budget film is an extremeley cheaply produced film using very little or no money to the cost of the picture. ... This is a list of major film festivals. ... A film festival is a mostly annual festival showcasing films, usually of a recent date, sometimes with a focus on a specific genre (e. ... Andrei Tarkovskys The Mirror Le Fantôme de la liberté, one of the last films by Luis Bunuel (1974), which depicts seemingly random events, disrupting the conventions of storytelling in film. ... Grindhouse redirects here. ... The major movie studios, often simply known as the majors, are movie studios (mostly United States-based) that produce many multiple films per year. ... Experimental film, or experimental cinema, is a term that describes a range of filmmaking styles that are generally quite different from, and often opposed to, the practices of mainstream commercial and documentary filmmaking. ... The following is a list of video-related topics 3-D 4:3 601 16:9 A-C Academy Awards Adobe Premier -- real time editing [1] Advanced Authoring Format AAF alpha channel Animation Avid Xpress Pro -- real time editing Avid video editing family B-movie bluescreen/chroma key Bollywood Camcorder... For other uses, see Video (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... Origins of motion picture arts and sciences Any overview of the history of cinema would be remiss to fail to at least mention a long history of literature, storytelling, narrative drama, art, mythology, puppetry, shadow play, cave paintings and perhaps even dreams. ... This page indexes the individual year in film pages. ... A silent film is a film which has no accompanying soundtrack. ... 1902 poster advertising Gaumonts sound films, depicting an optimistically vast auditorium A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film. ... Founded in 1984, the Independent Spirit Awards were originally known as the FINDIE (Friends of Independents) Awards and presented winners with Plexiglas pyramids containing suspended shoestrings representing the paltry budgets of independent films. ...

References

  1. ^ "La-La Land: The Origins" Peter Edidin. New York Times. New York, N.Y.: Aug 21, 2005. pg. 4.2. "Los Angeles's distance from New York was also comforting to independent film producers, making it easier for them to avoid being harassed or sued by the Motion Picture Patents Company, a k a the Trust, which Thomas Edison helped create in 1909."
  2. ^ Siklos, Richard (March 4, 2007). Mission Improbable: Tom Cruise as Mogul. New York Times
  3. ^ History
  4. ^ Lauren David Peden (December 2005). Sundance Subdued. Freedom Orange County Information (coastmagazine.com). Retrieved on 2007-11-11.
  5. ^ MPAA data from January to March 2005
  6. ^ a b Sharing Pix is Risky Business variety.com. Retrieved June 23, 2007.
  7. ^ HD DVD Digest: Indie Terwilliger Jumps Into HD DVD with 'Romance of Flying'. October 4, 2006
  8. ^ HighDef Magazine: 34 to 24 on AJA KONA. Page 34, Jan/Feb 2007
  9. ^ One Six Right ..1st indie film on HD-DVD. anybody seen this yet?. AVS.com user forum, March 9, 2007

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... MPAA redirects here. ...

External links

The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... indieWIRE is an online resource and community for independent filmmakers, founded in July 1996. ... Indie, an abbreviation of independent, is a term regarding a trend seen in music, film, business and subculture originating in the late 20th century. ... For the publisher Alternative Comics, see Alternative Comics (publisher). ... A fanzine (see also: zine) is a nonprofessional publication produced by fans of a particular cultural phenomenon (such as a literary or musical genre) for the pleasure of others who share their interest. ... An Amateur Press Association or APA is a group of people who produce individual pages or magazines that are sent to a Central Mailer for collation and distribution to all members of the group. ... The Dun Emer Press in 1903 with Elizabeth Yeats working the hand press Small press is a term often used to describe publishers who typically specialize in genre fiction, or limited edition books or magazines. ... A minicomic is a small, creator-published comic book, often photocopied and stapled or with a handmade binding. ... Minicomics Co-Ops: The United Fanzine Organization, or UFO, is a co-op of minicomic creators that has existed since about 1968. ... In popular music, independent music, often abbreviated as indie, is a term used to describe genres, scenes, subcultures, styles and other cultural attributes in music, characterized by their independence from major commercial record labels and their autonomous, do-it-yourself approach to recording and publishing. ... An independent record label is variously described as a record label operating without the funding (or outside the organizations) of the major record labels, and/or a label that subscribes to indie philosophies such as DIY and anti-corporate art. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub ... An independent film, or indie film, is a film that is produced outside of the studio system. ... Home Movies is a dialogue-driven animated series about 8-year-old Brendon Small (voiced by the creator, head writer, and lead musician of Home Movies Brendon Small), who makes films with his friends, Melissa and Jason, in his spare time. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... An independent station is a television station that is not affiliated with any network. ... Grindhouse redirects here. ... The double feature, also known as a double bill, was a motion picture industry phenomenon in which theatre managers would exhibit two films for the price of one, supplanting an earlier format in which one feature film and various short subject reels would be shown. ... The King of the Bs, Roger Corman, produced and directed The Raven (1963) for American International Pictures. ... This is a history of the early decades of the B movie, from its roots in the silent era through Hollywoods Golden Age of the 1930s and 1940s. ... This is a history of B movies in the 1950s. ... This is a history of B movies in the 1960s and 1970s. ... This is a history of B movies from the 1980s to the present. ... Z-movie (or Grade-Z movie) is a term applied to films with an extremely low budget and a miserable quality. ... A classic midnight movie in every sense of the term, Tod Brownings Freaks (1932) is the sort of (then) obscure horror film shown on late-night TV beginning in the 1950s; in the 1970s and early 1980s it was a staple of midnight screenings at theaters around the U... Software cracking is the modification of software to remove protection methods: copy prevention, trial/demo version, serial number, hardware key, CD check or software annoyances like nag screens and adware. ... The Scene is a term used by people belonging to various communities like the Demoscene, Artscene, Software cracker community, Reverse engineering community as well as the wider warez community, to describe the greater community they collectively belong to. ... Homebrew is a term frequently applied only to video games that are produced by consumers on proprietary game platforms; in other words, game platforms that are not typically user-programmable, or use proprietary hardware for storage. ... An amateur adventure game is a freeware computer game belonging to the adventure genre. ... An indie role-playing game is a role-playing game published outside of traditional, mainstream means. ... -1... Independent soda is soft drink generally made by smaller privately run businesses or smaller corporations who use alternative marketing strategies to promote their product. ... For other meanings, see Homebrew. ... The indie design movement is made up of independent designers, artists and craftspeople who design and make a wide array of products without being part of large, industrialized businesses. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Independent Film Distributors - Join Film Baby (1295 words)
We'll list your film in the genre categories that you stipulate in the registration process, and we'll link your film to others that we consider to be of similar interest to customers.
If you have a trailer/clip for your film that you would prefer us to use (and it is not on the dvd), feel free to enclose a dvd with your submissions.
Film Baby does not accept material that is extremely pornographic in nature due to federal laws and insurance restrictions.
The Independent Film Producer's Survival Guide (1702 words)
A disgruntled "co-producer" of that film tried, at the last moment, to block the opening of the film because she had not received a "Co-Producer" credit.
The most important difference between an independent producer and a producer who works on a studio picture is that the independent producer is responsible for handling an entire additional set of legal, business and financial roles that are customarily handled by studios on pictures produced, financed and released by the majors.
Additionally, after you deliver your film, you still must monitor the statements from the distributors, and manage the remaining assets which are not being managed by the distributor.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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