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Encyclopedia > Independent State of Croatia
Nezavisna Država Hrvatska
Independent State of Croatia
Puppet state of Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany

1941 – 1945
Flag
Flag Coat of arms
Location of Croatia
Capital Zagreb
Language(s) Croatian
Religion Roman Catholicism
Political structure Puppet-state
King
 - 1941-1943 Tomislav II
Poglavnik
 - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić
Legislature None
Historical era World War II
 - Established April 10, 1941
 - Disestablished May 8, 1945
Population
 - 1941 est. 6,300,000 
Currency Croatian kuna

The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska; NDH) was a puppet state of Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany during World War II.[1][2] It was established in April 1941, after the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was split up by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Geographically, it encompassed most of modern-day Croatia, as well as all of Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of Slovenia and Serbia. A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throuout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia_Ustasa. ... Image File history File links Ndh-coa. ... National flag. ... The Croatian coat of arms consists of one main coat of arms and five smaller ones that crown the main one. ... Image File history File links Europe_WWII_1942_locator_map_-_Croatia. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country Croatia RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - City 641. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For the government in parliamentary systems, see Executive (government). ... A puppet state is a country that is nominally independent, but in reality, under the control of another power. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Prince Aimone Roberto Margherita Maria Giuseppe Torino, 4th Duke of Aosta, was born on 9 March 1900 in Turin. ... This is the history of Croatia. ... Ante Pavelić (July 14, 1889 – December 28, 1959) was the leader (Poglavnik) and founding member of the Croatian national socialist/fascist UstaÅ¡e movement in the 1930s and later the leader of the Independent State of Croatia, a puppet state[1] [2] of Nazi Germany during World War II. // Paveli... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... “HRK” redirects here. ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to...


The NDH was ruled by Ante Pavelić and his Ustaša; a racist, terrorist and saboteur organization that included supporters of the Pure Party of Rights, which was founded by Ante Starčević at the end of 19th century.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9] The NDH had a program, formulated by Mile Budak, to purge Croatia of Serbs, by “killing one third, expelling the other third and assimilating the remaining third”. The first part of this program began during WWII with a planned genocide in Jasenovac and other locations in the NDH.[10] Ante Pavelić (July 14, 1889 – December 28, 1959) was the leader (Poglavnik) and founding member of the Croatian national socialist/fascist UstaÅ¡e movement in the 1930s and later the leader of the Independent State of Croatia, a puppet state[1] [2] of Nazi Germany during World War II. // Paveli... The UstaÅ¡e (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular UstaÅ¡a or Ustasha) was a Croatian far-right organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ... The Croatian Party of Rights (Croatian Hrvatska Stranka Prava, HSP) is a right-wing political party in Croatia, the oldest in the country. ... Ante Starčević (born 1823 in Žitnik- died 1896 in Zagreb) was a Croatian politician in the times of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Mile Budak (1889 - 1945) is Croatian writer and politician, best known as one of the chief ideologists of Ustasha movement. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction of an ethnic or national group. ... Jasenovac is a municipality in Central Croatia, in the southern part of the Sisak-Moslavina county at the confluence of the river Una into Sava. ...

Contents

Geography

Upon its formation, the Independent State of Croatia encompassed most of present-day Croatia. Parts of Croatia that were not in NDH were occupied by other nations, such as Italy, who gained by Treaty of Saint-Germain Istria, Zadar and some Dalmatian islands like Krk and Lastovo. Rijeka was incorporated into Italy after Treaty of Rapallo, and was also not in the Independent State of Croatia. As well, Međimurje and southern Baranja were annexed by Hungary. The Treaty of Saint-Germain, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new republic of Austria on the other. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... For other uses, see Zadar (disambiguation). ... Location of Krk in Croatia Krk (Italian Veglia, Latin Curicta) is a Croatian island in the northern Adriatic Sea, located near Rijeka in the Bay of Kvarner and part of the Primorje-Gorski Kotar county. ... Map showing the location of Lastovo in Croatia Lastovo (Italian: Lagosta, Latin: Augusta Insula, Greek: Ladestanos, Illyrian: Ladest) is an island, town and municipality in the Dubrovnik-Neretva county in Croatia. ... Rijeka (in local Croatian dialects Rika and Reka; Fiume in Italian and Hungarian. ... The Treaty of Rapallo was a treaty between Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes by which the latter was forced to give up parts of its Slovenian and Croatian territory. ... MeÄ‘imurje (MeÄ‘imurska županija, Muraköz in Hungarian) is a triangle-shaped county in the northernmost part of Croatia. ... Baranya (Hungarian, in Croatian and Serbian: Baranja) is the name of an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in present Hungary, and also in the former Kingdom of Hungary. ...


The NDH also encompassed the whole of Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as some 20 km² of Slovenia (villages Slovenska vas near Bregana, Nova vas near Mokrice, Jesenice in Dolenjsko, Obrežje and Čedem), and the whole of Syrmia (part of which was previously in Danube Banovina). Map of the Syrmia region Syrmia (Serbian: Srem (Cyrillic: Срем), Croatian: Srijem) is a fertile region of the Pannonian plain in Europe, between the Danube and Sava rivers. ... Dunavska banovina map The Danube Banovina (or Danube Banate; Serbian and Croatian: Дунавска бановина Dunavska banovina) was a province (banate) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. ...


The situation changed significantly after the signing of the Roma contract on 19 May 1941. NDH ceded to Italy almost the whole of Dalmatia: the Zadar area, the Šibenik area and the Split area, a number of islands including Rab, Krk, Vis, Lastovo, Korčula, Mljet and many smaller ones, such as Boka Kotorska and parts of Hrvatsko primorje and Gorski kotar. NDH regained de jure control of this areas after the capitulation of Italy on 8 September 1943, but by then most of it was controlled by partisans. is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... For other uses, see Zadar (disambiguation). ... Å ibenik Å ibenik (German: Sibenning, Italian: Sebenico) is an historic town in Croatia, population 51,553 (2001). ... For other uses, see Split (disambiguation). ... Rab (Croatia) Coat of arms The historic town center of Rab For other uses, see Rab (disambiguation). ... Location of Krk in Croatia Krk (Italian Veglia, Latin Curicta) is a Croatian island in the northern Adriatic Sea, located near Rijeka in the Bay of Kvarner and part of the Primorje-Gorski Kotar county. ... Vis is a Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea, the furthest one from the coast that is also inhabited. ... Map showing the location of Lastovo in Croatia Lastovo (Italian: Lagosta, Latin: Augusta Insula, Greek: Ladestanos, Illyrian: Ladest) is an island, town and municipality in the Dubrovnik-Neretva county in Croatia. ... County Dubrovnik–Neretva Area 279 km² (entire island) Location Mayor Mirko Duhović (SDP) Population 3,232 (town); 16,138 (island) Korčula (Italian Curzola, Latin Corcyra Nigra, Greek Korkyra Melaina, Old-Slavic: Krkar) is an island in the Adriatic Sea, in the Dubrovnik-Neretva county of Croatia. ... Mljet (Latin Melita, Italian Meleda) is the most southerly and easterly of the larger Adriatic islands of the Dalmatia region of Croatia. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Yugoslav Partisans were one of the two main resistance movements engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II, alongside rival Chetniks, the Yugoslav Peoples Liberation War. ...

A map of NDH
A map of NDH

Image File history File links Map_of_ndh. ... Image File history File links Map_of_ndh. ...

History

Establishment of NDH

Following the attack of the Axis powers on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1941, and the quick defeat of the Yugoslav army (Jugoslovenska vojska), the whole country was occupied by Axis forces. Hitler and Mussolini installed the Croatian Ustaše, who had long sought Croatian independence, forming the Independent State of Croatia (NDH - Nezavisna Država Hrvatska). Area under Axis control over the course of the war shown in black The Axis powers, also interpreted as Axis alliance, Axis nations, Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those countries opposed to the Allies during the Second World War. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ...


The establishment of NDH was proclaimed on April 10, 1941 by Slavko Kvaternik, deputy leader of the Ustaše. Ante Pavelić came to power as leader (Poglavnik) of the Croatian puppet state. Pavelić took power with Mussolini and Hitler's blessing. The crown of this puppet state was handed to Aymon, Duke of Spoleto, of the house of Savoy. The Duke never set foot in Zagreb nor was really interested in his "kingdom". [11] is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Slavko Kvaternik (1878 - June 7, 1947) was the deputy leader and founding member of the Croatian UstaÅ¡a movement in the 1930s and later one of the leaders of the Independent State of Croatia. ... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... Ante Pavelić (July 14, 1889 – December 28, 1959) was the leader (Poglavnik) and founding member of the Croatian national socialist/fascist UstaÅ¡e movement in the 1930s and later the leader of the Independent State of Croatia, a puppet state[1] [2] of Nazi Germany during World War II. // Paveli... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ...

An Ustaše guard pose among the bodies of Serbs in concentration camp Jasenovac
An Ustaše guard pose among the bodies of Serbs in concentration camp Jasenovac

From a strategic perspective, the establishment of the new puppet state was an obvious attempt by Hitler to pacify the now conquered Yugoslav peoples for the purpose of reducing the necessary occupation force to a minimum (in light of his plans for the upcoming Operation Barbarossa). The name of the new state was, thus, an obvious attempt at capitalizing on the Croat people's desire for independence, which had been unfulfilled since 1102. Vladko Maček the head of the Croatian Peasant Party, the strongest elected party in Croatia at the time, refused an offer from Germans to head the government but called on people to obey to and cooperate with the new government the same day Kvaternik made the proclamation. Ante Pavelić arrived on April 20th to become the poglavnik (Leader, correlated with führer- better to translate as a "Head-man"). The Roman Catholic Church's official stance was also openly positive in this period. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 570 pixelsFull resolution (1607 × 1144 pixel, file size: 585 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: An UstaÅ¡e guard stands among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 570 pixelsFull resolution (1607 × 1144 pixel, file size: 585 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: An UstaÅ¡e guard stands among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp. ... Jasenovac is a municipality in Central Croatia, in the southern part of the Sisak-Moslavina county at the confluence of the river Una into Sava. ... Combatants Germany, Romania, Finland, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Maresal Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Gariboldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Events Valencia is captured by the Almoravids. ... Vladko Maček (June 20, 1879 – May 15, 1964) was a Croatian politician from the first half of the 20th century. ... The Croatian Peasant Party (Croatian: Hrvatska seljačka stranka, HSS) was formed in 1905 by Stjepan Radić, a leading Croatian politician. ... Nazi propaganda poster. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic...


According to Maček the new state was greeted with a "wave of enthusiasm" in Zagreb, often by people "blinded and intoxicated" by the fact that the Germans had "gift-wrapped their occupation under the euphemistic title of Independent State of Croatia". But in the villages, he wrote, the peasantry believed that "their struggle over the past 30 years to become masters of their homes and their country had suffered a tremendous setback". [12]


On 19 May 1941 Pavelić and Mussolini, in accordance with the contract signed in Rapallo at the end of WWI between Serbs Kingdom of Jugoslavia and Italy, signed Roma operating contract by which NDH had to cede to Italy (in accordance with Rapallos Contract) almost all of Dalmatia and parts of Hrvatsko primorje and Gorski kotar. NDH was also forbidden to have a navy. is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ...

This article is part of the series on the
History of Croatia Image File history File links Croatia,_Historic_Coat_of_Arms. ... This is the history of Croatia. ...

Painting by Oton Iveković: Crowning of King Tomislav
Early History
Before the Croats
Origins of the Croats
Medieval History
Medieval Croatian state
Kingdom of Croatia
Union with Hungary
Habsburg rule
20th century Croatia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Independent State of Croatia
Part of SFR Yugoslavia
Contemporary Croatia
War of independence
Republic of Croatia
This box: view  talk  edit

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1098x682, 294 KB) Summary Oton Ivekovic, Krunidba kralja Tomislava. ... The area known as Croatia today has been inhabited throughout the prehistoric period, ever since the Stone Age. ... The origin of the Croatian tribe before the great migration of the Slavs is uncertain. ... The Croatian people trace their origins to Slavic peoples which moved into the territory of the former Roman provinces Pannonia and Dalmatia between the 7th and 8th centuries, and formed dukedoms. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Medieval Croatian state. ... The official entering of Croatia into personal union with Hungary, becoming part of the Kingdom of Hungary, had several important consequences. ... Following the Battle of Mohács, in 1527 some of the Croatian (and Hungarian) nobles supported Ivan Zapolja, while some preferred suzerainty to the Austrian king Ferdinand of Habsburg. ... Shortly before the end of the Great War, on October 29, 1918, the Croatian Parliament severed relations with Austria-Hungary as the Allied armies defeated those of the Habsburgs. ... Meeting after the liberation of Zagreb, May 1945. ... Combatants Croatian Army Paramilitary organisations Republic of Serb Krajina Army Yugoslav Peoples Army Bosnian Serb Army Republic of Serbia Paramilitary organisations Commanders Franjo TuÄ‘man (President of Croatia) Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Janko Bobetko (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1992-1995) Atif...

Initial period

The Ustaše initially did not have a capable army or administration necessary to control all of this territory. The movement had fewer than 12,000 members when the war broke out. Therefore, the territory was controlled by the Germans and the Italians. The northeastern half of NDH territory was in the so-called German zone of influence, with the Wehrmacht making its presence. The southwestern half was controlled by the Italian fascist army. After the capitulation of Italy in 1943, NDH acquired northern Dalmatia (Split and Šibenik). Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Split (disambiguation). ... Å ibenik Å ibenik (German: Sibenning, Italian: Sebenico) is an historic town in Croatia, population 51,553 (2001). ...


NDH eventually built up its own army, divided into two main groups. Ustaše proper constituted the elite militia (Croatian Ustaška vojnica) and Home Guard or Domobrani was the much larger regular army. Together they mustered about 110,000 troops by the end of 1942, and about 130,000 in 1943. They were initially equipped mainly with captured Royal Yugoslav Army weapons and equipment, as well as some ex-Italian and ex-Polish light armoured vehicles. The NDH had no navy, due to the terms of the Rome Agreement with Italy. The air force initially consisted of captured Royal Yugoslav aircraft (seven operational fighters and 20 bombers, as well some 150 auxiliary and training aircraft), and was supplemented by German, Italian and French fighters and bombers right up until March 1945. An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... Croatian Home Guard (Croatian: Hrvatsko domobranstvo, often abbr. ...


Uprising

The state of permanent terror, mass killing, raping women and looting of the properties of their victims in the Independent State of Croatia led Serbs to rebel. According to the Glaise von Horstenau reports, Hitler was angry with Pavelić, whose policy inflamed the rebellion in Croatia, which caused Hitler to lose the ability to engage the Independent State of Croatia forces on the Eastern Front.[13] Moreover, Hitler was forced to engage his forces in quelling the rebellion. For that reason, Hitler summoned Pavelić to his war headquarters in Vinica (Ukraine) on September 23, 1942. Consequently, Pavelić replaced his minister of the Armed Forces, Slavko Kvaternik, with the less zealous Jure Francetić. Before meeting Hitler, to appease the public, Pavelić published the "Important Government's Announcement" (»Važna obavijest Vlade«), in which he threatened those who were spreading the news "about non-existent threats of disarmament of the Ustashe units by representatives of one foreign power, about the Croatian Army replacement by a foreign army, about the possibility that a foreign power would seize the power in Croatia ..."[14]


Hans Helm, the appointed head of the Gestapo in the Independent State of Croatia, wrote in his confidential January 14, 1943 report (titled "Basis of the partisan danger") sent to General Kasche):

Most of the partisan ranks are coming from the Serbs - due to the fact that they are the most villainous way persecuted ... the new regime in Croatia started the programs of annihilation and destruction of the Serbs, which (the programs) are publicly supported by the highest ranks of the Croatian government, and (the programs) adopted as the main government goal. The fact that a different talk was coming from the official Ustashe side - under the rebellion pressure and due to the course of events - even a reconciliation was mentioned - leaves no possibility to compensate the harm caused by, for example, Dr. Mile Budak, the actual (Croatian) minister in Berlin ...[13]

Appointed general Horstenau wrote in his report: "Ustashe movement is, due to the mistakes and atrocities they have made, and the corruption, so compromised that the government executive branch (the home guard and the police) shall be separated from the government - even for the price of breaking any possible connection with the government ..."


End of the war

In August 1944, there was an attempt by foreign Minister in NDH government Mladen Lorković and Minister of War Ante Vokić to execute a coup d'etat against Ante Pavelić. The coup (called Lorković-Vokić coup) failed and its conspirators were executed. 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who heads a government ministry or department (e. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Lorković-Vokić coup was a failed attempt plotted by Mladen Lorković and Ante Vokić to take over the power in Independent State of Croatia ( NDH) in August of 1944. ...


The NDH army withdrew towards Zagreb with German and Cossak troops by early 1945, and continued fighting for a week after the German surrender on May 9th, 1945. They were soon overpowered and the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) effectively ceased to exist in May 1945, near the end of the war. The advance of Tito's partisan forces, joined by the Soviet Red Army, caused mass retreat of the Ustaše towards Austria. is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... Soviet redirects here. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


In May 1945, a large column composed of anti-communists, Ustaša followers, NDH Army troops and civilians retreated from the partisan forces, heading northwest towards Italy and Austria. Ante Pavelić detached from the group and fled to Austria, Italy and finally Argentina. The rest of the group, consisting of over 150,000 soldiers (including Cossak troops) and civilians negotiated passage with the British forces on the Austrian side of the Austrian-Slovenian border. The British Army then turned over a number of them to the partisan forces. Some of them were court-martialed and executed on spot. Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ...


The end of the war resulted in the establishment of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, with the constitution of 1946 officially making Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina one of six constituent republics in the new state. Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throuout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ...


Population

According to the data presented by former Austro-Hungarian officer Hefner, the population of the Independent State of Croatia numbered 6,042,000 people (data from 1941-04-23), including: For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

According to another source, the Independent State of Croatia had a population of 6,300,000 and was ethnically diverse - the relative majority was held by Croats, but as Bosnian Muslims were counted as Croats, Croats held absolute majority according to Ustashe ideology, while over 33% (2,100,000) of the populace were Serbs (of whom most were Orthodox Christian); around 50% of the population were Catholics (Germans and Hungarians, aside from Croats). 750,000 inhabitants of the independent state of Croatia were Muslims. There was a significant minority of 30,000 Jews living mostly in Sarajevo, Zagreb and Osijek. Authorities soon disbanded the Serbian Orthodox Church on their territory and established Croatian Orthodox Church whose patriarch was Germogen, an exiled Russian. Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Languages Serbo-Croat(Serbian, Bosnian, Croatian) Macedonian Religions Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups South Slavs Muslims by nationality (Muslimani, Муслимани) was a term used in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to describe mainly native Slavic Muslims. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Bosnia and Herzegovina Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country Croatia RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - City 641. ... Osijek (pronounced: []) is the fourth largest city in Croatia with a population of 114,616 in 2001. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Displacement of people

A large number of people were displaced due to internal fighting within the republic. The NDH also had to accept more than 200,000 Slovenian refugees which were forcefully evicted from their homes as part of the German plan of annexing parts of the Slovenian territories. As part of this deal, the Ustaše were to deport 200,000 Serbs from Croatia military; however, only 182,000 were deported due to the German high commander Bader stopping this mass transport of people because of the Chetniks and partisan uprising in Serbia[citation needed]. Because of this, 25,000 Slovenian refugees ended in Serbia. Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to...


Political and civilian life

The previously important civic factors, the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) and the Catholic Church, were reasonably uninvolved in the creation and maintenance of the Independent State of Croatia. All who opposed and/or threatened the Ustaše were eventually outlawed. The Ustaše government tried to convene a Croatian Parliament (as Hrvatski državni Sabor NDH) in 1942, with a manually selected list of deputies, but after three short sessions, parliament ceased operation by the end of the same year. The parliament of Croatia is called Hrvatski Sabor in Croatian - the word sabor means an assembly, a gathering, a congress. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Croatian Peasant Party was banned on June 11, 1941 in an attempt of the Ustaše to take their place as the primary representative of the Croatian peasantry. Vladko Maček was sent to Jasenovac concentration camp, but later released to serve a house arrest sentence due to his popularity among the people. Maček was later again called upon by the foreigners to take a stand and counteract the Pavelić government, but he refused. The Catholic Church participated in religious conversions at first, but eventually the main branches of the Church stopped doing so, as it became obvious that these conversions were merely a lesser form of punishment for the undesirable population. Nevertheless, a number of priests joined the Ustaše ranks. The Croatian Peasant Party (Croatian: Hrvatska seljačka stranka, HSS) was formed in 1905 by Stjepan Radić, a leading Croatian politician. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vladko Maček (June 20, 1879 – May 15, 1964) was a Croatian politician from the first half of the 20th century. ... “Jasenovac” redirects here. ... In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ... During World War II a number of Croatian Catholic priests, and some of the then bishops in the territory, cooperated with the UstaÅ¡a regime, who ran a Nazi puppet state that pursued a genocidal policy against the Serbs (who were Eastern Orthodox Christians), Jews and Roma. ...


Aftermath

Far right movements in Croatia inspired by the former NDH reemerged during the Croatian War of Independence. The current Constitution of Croatia does not recognize the Independent State of Croatia as the historical or legitimate predecessor state of the current Croatian republic.[15] Some modern Ustaše supporters continue to impart far-right beliefs to their children; here they are dressed in uniforms of notorious Black legion. ... Combatants Croatian Army Paramilitary organisations Republic of Serb Krajina Army Yugoslav Peoples Army Bosnian Serb Army Republic of Serbia Paramilitary organisations Commanders Franjo Tuđman (President of Croatia) Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Janko Bobetko (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1992-1995) Atif... Current Constitution of the Republic of Croatia was adopted by the Parliament of the Republic of Croatia on December 22, 1990. ... A predecessor state is an established state in international law that is succeeded by a new state or states. ...


Endnotes

  1. ^ "International Law Reports" by Lauterpacht, C. J. Greenwood, Cambridge University Press 1957 Page 69
    Croatia is defined by contemporary writers as a 'puppet-state' or 'puppet-government', terms which appear to be of comparatively recent adoption in the field of international law.
  2. ^ "International Law in Historical Perspective" by Jan Hendrik Willem Verzijl, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 1974 Page 313
    CROATIA A very special case is that of the puppet State of Croatia, called into being with the help of Fascist Italy in April 1941
  3. ^ "Political Parties of Europe" by Skowronski, Sharon, Vincent E. McHale Greenwood Press 1983 Page 1046
    USTASHE. The Ustashe was a Croatian terrorist organization formed on January 8 1929 by Ante Pavelic, secretary of Party of Rights merged into and provided the political core of the Ustashe ...
  4. ^ "Croatia: between Europe and the Balkans" by William Bartlett, Routledge 2003 Page 18 <blr>Croatian Party of Right, had established a terrorist organization known as the Ustashe Croatian Revolutionary Organization
  5. ^ "Organizing for Total War" by American Academy of Political and Social Science, Francis James Brown, American Academy of Political and Social Science 1942 Page 225
    As an interesting detail for the American public it may be reported that the terrorist organization Ustashe, paid by the Italians, was sending money to the ...
  6. ^ "Ethnic Cleansing in the Balkans Nationalism and the Destruction of Tradition" by Cathie Carmichael, Routledge 2003 Page 53
    The anti-Serb sentiment of the Ustasa was of relatively recent historical vintage, having been initiated by the ninetheenth-century Croat writer Starcevic, founder of the Croatian Party of Rights (Hrvatska Stranka Prava HSP)
  7. ^ "All Or Nothing: The Axis and the Holocaust, 1941-1943" by Jonathan Steinberg Routledge 2002 pages 29-30
    By 28 June (1941) Glaise von Horstenau reported that 'according to reliable reports from countless German military and civil observers during the last few weeks the Ustasi have gone raging mad" Serbian and Jewish men, women were literary hacked to death. Whole villages were razed to the ground and the people driven into barns to which the Ustasi set fire.
  8. ^ Hitler's Renegades: Foreign Nationals in the Service of the Third Reich" by Christopher J Ailsby, Brassey's 2004 Page 156
    One of the Horstenau's reports stated: " We saw no sign of guerillas but there were plenty of ownerless horses and cattle, not to mention innumerable geese. At Crkveni Bok, an unhappy place where, under the leadership of Ustase lieutenant-colonel, some 500 country folk from 15 to 20 years had met their end, all murdered, the women raped then tortured, the chidren killed. I saw in the River Sava a woman's corpse with the eyes gouged out and a stick showed into the sexual parts. The woman was at most 20 years old when she fell into the hands of these monsters. Anywhere in a corner, the pigs are gorging themselves on an unburied human being. All the houses were looted. The 'lucky' inhabitants were consigned to one of the fearsome boxcar trains; many of these involuntary 'passengers' cut their veins on the journey"
  9. ^ Blood And Homeland": Eugenics And Racial Nationalism in Central And Southeast Europe, 1900-1940 edited by Marius Turda, Paul Weindling Published 2006 Central European University Press Rory Yeomans article: Of "Yugoslav Barbarians" and Croatian Gentlemen Scholars: Nationalist Ideology and Racial Anthropology in Interwar Yugoslavia
  10. ^ http://www.usna.edu/Users/history/tucker/hh367/OgnyanovaArticle.pdf. "In fact, the roots of the Ustasha ideology can be found in the Croatian nationalism of the nineteenth century. The Ustasha ideological system was just a replica of the traditional pure Croatian nationalism of Ante Starcevic. His ideology contained all important elements of those of the extreme Croatian nationalism in the twentieth century. Starcevic’s writings reveal an attitude similar to that of the contemporary Croatian nationalists: Frankovci at the beginning of the twentieth century and Ustashas in the 1930s."
  11. ^ The Marshall Cavendish Illustrated Encyclopedia of World War II, New York - London, 1980, Pages 394-395
  12. ^ Vladko Maček, In the Struggle for Freedom (New York: Robert Speller & Sons, 1957) pp. 220-231.
  13. ^ a b Hebrang, by Zvonko Ivanković - Vonta, Scientia Yugoslavica 1988 Pages 169-170
  14. ^ Hrvatski narod, September 3rd, 1942
  15. ^ The Constitution of Croatia, in English.

References

  • Hermann Neubacher: Sonderauftrag Suedost 1940-1945, Bericht eines fliegendes Diplomaten, 2. durchgesehene Auflage, Goettingen 1956
  • Ladislaus Hory and Martin Broszat: Der Kroatische Ustascha-Staat, 1941-1945 Stuttgart, 1964
  • Encyclopedia Britannica, 1943 - Book of the year, page 215, Entry: Croatia
  • Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, Europe, edition 1995, page 91, entry: Croatia
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica, Edition 1991, Macropedia, Vol. 29, page 1111.
  • Helen Fein: Accounting for Genocide - Victims and Survivors of the Holocaust, The Free Press, New York, Edition 1979, pages 102, 103.
  • Alfio Russo: Revoluzione in Jugoslavia, Roma 1944.
  • Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, Vol. 2, Independent State of Croatia entry.
  • Vladko Maček: In the Struggle for Freedom, Robert Speller & Sons, New York,1957

See also

This is the list of Croatian Righteous Among the Nations. ... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... Combatants Germany Italy Bulgaria Albania Greece United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Yugoslavia Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Henry Maitland Wilson The Balkans Campaign was the Italian and German invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia during World War II. It began with Italys annexation of Albania in April... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... This is a list of people who led the military and politics of the Independent State of Croatia. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian, German Government Value specified for government_type does not comply Leader Milan Nedić Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia April 1, 1941  - Military defeat May, 1944 Currency Serbian Dinar Nedićs Serbia (Serbian Cyrillic: Недићева Србија, Latin: Nedićeva Srbija) is a popular name of the... Combatants Nazi Germany Fascist Italy Ustase regime Bulgaria Chetniks YNLA Commanders Alexander Löhr Rudolf Lüters Josip Broz Tito Strength 127,000 men 300+ airplanes 18,000 men Casualties Unknown 6,391 The Sutjeska offensive from 15 May to 16 June 1943 was a joint attack of the Axis... State Anti-Fascist Council of Peoples Liberation of Croatia (in Croatian: Zemaljsko antifaÅ¡ističko vijeće narodnog osloboÄ‘enja Hrvatske, abbr. ...

External links

Coordinates: 45°30′N 17°24′E / 45.5, 17.4 Avro Manhattan (1914-1990) was one of the worlds foremost authorities on Roman Catholicism in politics and was the author of several works relating to the Vaticans role in world politics and world affairs. ... The Usta&#353;e (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Usta&#353;a or Ustasha) was a Croatian far-right organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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