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Encyclopedia > Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany
Germany

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Politics and government of
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Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Germany. ... Politics of Germany takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Federal Chancellor is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...



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For the "Independent Social Democratic Party" of Romania, see Romanian Social Democratic Party (defunct).
USPD election poster, 1919
USPD election poster, 1919

The Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, or USPD) was a short-lived political party in Germany during the Second Reich and the Weimar Republic. The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Federal States (Länder) of Germany at the federal level. ... The Bundestag (Federal Diet) is the parliament of Germany. ... The Federal Convention (Bundesversammlung) is a special body in the institutional system of Germany, convoked only for the purpose of selecting the Bundespräsident every five years. ... The Bundesverfassungsgericht The Federal Constitutional Court (in German: Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) is a special court established by the German constitutional document, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... The Bundesgerichtshof or BGH (German for federal court) is the highest Germany for civil and criminal lawsuits. ... The President of Germany (German: Bundespräsident) is Germanys head of state. ... Horst Köhler ( â–¶(?), born 22 February 1943) is the current President of Germany. ... The head of government of Germany has been known as the Chancellor (German: Kanzler) ever since the creation of the post. ... (pronounced //) (born in Hamburg, Germany on July 17, 1954) is the current Chancellor of Germany. ... The Cabinet of Germany (German: Bundeskabinett, Bundesregierung) is the chief executive body of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... There are 439 German districts (Kreise), administrative units in Germany. ... Elections in Germany gives information on election and election results in Germany, including elections to the Federal Diet (the lower house of the federal parliament), the Landtage of the various states, and local elections. ... This is a list of political parties in Germany. ... Germany is seen to be one of the democratic nations in Europe. ... The Federal Republic of Germany is a Central European country and member of the European Union, Group of 8 and NATO (among others). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links European_flag. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... The Romanian Social Democratic Party (Romanian: Partidul Social Democrat Român, or Partidul Social Democrat, PSD) was a social-democratic political party in Romania. ... USPD election poster (1919) This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... USPD election poster (1919) This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A political party is an organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... Anthem: Das Lied der Deutschen The Länder of Germany during the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen) as the largest   Capital Berlin Government Semi-presitential Republic  - Reichspräsidenten Friedrich Ebert (1919-1925) Paul von Hindenburg (1925-1934)  - First Chancellor Philipp Scheidemann (1919)  - Last Chancellor...


The history of the USPD began on December 21, 1915, when 20 members of the SPD fraction in the Reichstag, the German parliament, voted against the authorization of further credits to finance World War I, an incident that emphasized existing tensions between the party's leadership and the left-wing pacifists surrounding Hugo Haase and ultimately led to the expulsion of the group from the SPD fraction on March 24, 1916. December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with SPD (disambiguation). ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... Combatants Allied Powers: France Italy Russia Serbia United Kingdom United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg Reinhard... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... Hugo Haase (September 29, 1863 - November 7, 1919) was a German politician, jurist, and pacifist. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in leap years). ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


To be able to continue their parliamentary work, the group formed the Sozialdemokratische Arbeitsgemeinschaft (SAG, "Social Democratic Working Group"); concerns from the SPD leadership and Friedrich Ebert that the SAG was intent on dividing the SPD then led to the expulsion of the SAG members from the SPD on January 18, 1917. Three months later, on April 6, 1917, the USPD was founded at a conference in Gotha, with Hugo Haase as the party's first chairman; the Spartakusbund also merged into the newly-founded party, but retained relative autonomy. To avoid confusion, the existing SPD was typically called MSPD (Mehrheits-SPD, "majority-SPD") from then on. Friedrich Ebert (February 4, 1871–February 28, 1925) was a German politician (SPD), who served as the 9th Chancellor of Germany and its first president during the Weimar period. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Map of Germany showing Gotha Gotha is a town in the Land of Bundesland of Thuringia, in Germany. ... Hugo Haase (September 29, 1863 - November 7, 1919) was a German politician, jurist, and pacifist. ... This article is about the Spartacist League which existed in post-First World War Germany. ...


Following the Januarstreik in January 1918, a strike demanding an end to the war and better food provisioning that was organized by revolutionaries affiliated with the USPD and officially supported by the party, the USPD quickly rose to about 120,000 members; despite harsh criticism of the SPD for becoming part of the government of the newly-formed German republic during the Oktoberreform, the USPD reached a settlement with the SPD as the Novemberrevolution began, and even became part of the government in the form of the Rat der Volksbeauftragten ("council of people's deputies"), which was formed on November 10, 1918 and mutually led by Friedrich Ebert and Hugo Haase following the German Revolution. 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... This article describes the November 1918 revolution in Germany. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Friedrich Ebert (February 4, 1871–February 28, 1925) was a German politician (SPD), who served as the 9th Chancellor of Germany and its first president during the Weimar period. ... Hugo Haase (September 29, 1863 - November 7, 1919) was a German politician, jurist, and pacifist. ... This article describes the November 1918 revolution in Germany. ...


The agreement did not last long, though, for on December 29, 1918, Haase, Wilhelm Dittmann and Emil Barth left the council again to protest the SPD's actions during the soldier mutiny in Berlin on November 23, 1918. At the same time, the Spartakusbund, led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, separated from the USPD again as well to merge with other left wing groups and form the KPD (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, "Communist Party of Germany"). December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Berlin is the capital city and a state of Germany. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... This article is about the Spartacist League which existed in post-First World War Germany. ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Polish-born German Jewish Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... ▶ (help· info) (August 13, 1871 - January 15, 1919) was a German socialist and a co-founder of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ...


During the elections for the national assembly on January 19, 1919, from which the SPD emerged as the strongest party with 37,9 % of the votes, the USPD only managed to attract 7,6 %; nevertheless, the party's strong support for the introduction of a system of councils (Räterepublik) instead of a parliamentary democracy attracted many former SPD members, and in spring 1920, the USPD had grown to more than 750,000 members, managing to increase their share of votes to 17,9 % during the parliamentary elections on June 6, 1920 and becoming one of the largest fractions in the new Reichstag, second only to the SPD (21,7 %). January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ...


However, at the same time, a controversial debate over joining the Komintern broke out in the USPD; many members felt that the necessary requirements for joining would lead to a loss of the party's independence and a perceived "dictate from Moscow", while others, especially younger members such as Ernst Thälmann, argued that only the joining of the Komintern would allow the party to implement its socialist ideals. The first edition of Communist International, journal of the Comintern published in Moscow and Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg) in May 1919. ... Ernst Thälmann memorial in Weimar. ...


Ultimately, the proposition to join the Komintern was approved at a party convention in Halle in October 1920, but the USPD split up in the process, with both groups seeing themselves as the rightful USPD and the other one as being outcast. On December 4, 1920, the left wing of the USPD, with about 400,000 members, merged into the KPD, forming the VKPD (Vereinigte Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, "United Communist Party of Germany"), while the other half of the party, with about 340,000 members and including three quarters of the 81 Reichstag members, continued under the name USPD; led by Georg Ledebour and Arthur Crispien, they advocated a parliamentary democracy. The USPD was instrumental in the creation of the 2½ International in 1921. Halle (also called Halle an der Saale in order to distinguish from Halle in North Rhine-Westphalia) is the largest town in the German Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... The International Working Union of Socialist Parties (also known as 2½ International or the Vienna International) was a political international for the co-operation of socialists. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Over time, the political differences between SPD and USPD dwindled, and following the assassination of foreign minister Walther Rathenau by right wing extremists in June 1922, the two parties' fractions in the Reichstag formed a common working group on July 14, 1922; two months later, on September 24, the parties officially merged again after a joint party convention in Nürnberg, adopting the name Vereinigte Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (VSPD, "United Social Democratic Party of Germany"), which was shortened again to SPD in 1924. Walter Rathenau Walther Rathenau (September 29, 1867–June 24, 1922) was a German industrialist and politician who served as Foreign Minister of Germany. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years). ... Nuremberg coat of arms Location of Nuremberg Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ...


The USPD was continued as an independent party by Georg Ledebour and Theodor Liebknecht, who refused to work with the SPD, but it never attained any significance again and merged into the Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschland (SAPD, Socialist Workers' Party of Germany) in 1931. Theodor Liebknecht (1870 - 1948) was a German socialist politician. ... The Socialist Workers Party of Germany, in German Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, SAP / SAPD, has been the name of two political parties in Germany. ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ...


Notable USPD members


  Results from FactBites:
 
Communist Party of Germany - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1348 words)
The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period.
Germany was seen as being of central importance to the struggle for socialism, and the failure of the German revolution was a major setback.
In East Germany, the KPD (led by Walter Ulbricht) absorbed some elements of the eastern SPD and was renamed the Socialist Unity Party (SED), which became the ruling party in East Germany until 1990.
Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (361 words)
The Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, or USPD) was a short-lived political party in Germany during the Second Reich and the Weimar Republic.
To be able to continue their parliamentary work, the group formed the Sozialdemokratische Arbeitsgemeinschaft (SAG, "Social Democratic Working Group"); concerns from the SPD leadership and Friedrich Ebert that the SAG was intent on dividing the SPD then led to the expulsion of the SAG members from the SPD on January 18, 1917.
Ultimately, the proposition to join the Komintern was approved at a party convention in Halle in October 1920, but the USPD split up in the process, with both groups seeing themselves as the rightful USPD and the other one as being outcast.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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